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^ 



THE 



FAMILY TOPOGRAPHER: 



A COMPENDIOUS ACCOUNT 



ANTIENT AND PRESENT STATE 



COUNTIES OF ENGLAND. 




By SAMUEL TYMMS,<r^ ^> \ , 1 1 ] j> 7^ 



iJ>:\v:YO^ 



VOL. v.— MIDLAND CIRCUIT. 



LONDON: 

J. B. NICHOLS AND SOX, 

25, Parliament Street. 

1835. 



"-^ : ..: .: -..V. B. Nichols and Son, «5, Parliament-street. 



A COMPENDIOUS ACCOUNT 



ANTIENT AND PRESENT STATE 



MIDLAND CIRCUIT. 



By SAMUEL TYMMS. 



LONDON: 

J. B. NICHOLS AND SON, 25, Parliament Street. 
1835. 



GEORGE ORMEROD, Esct. LL.D. 

F.R.S., F.S.A., &c. &c. 

(author of the history of the county of CHESTER) 

THIS VOLUME IS INSCRIBED 

(with permission) 

AS A HUMBLE AND RESPECTFUL TRIBUTE 
OP ESTEEM POR HIS TALENTS ; 

AND OP GRATITUDE 
POR MUCH KINDNESS AND ASSISTANCE; 
BT HIS OBLIGED SERVANT, 

THE AUTHOR. 



THE 



MIDLAND CIRCUIT: 



DERBYSHIRE 

LEICESTERSHIRE 

LINCOLNSHIRE 

NORTHAMPTONSHIRE 

NOTTINGHAMSHIRE 

RUTLANDSHIRE 

WARWICKSHIRE. 



DEKBYSHIKE. 







,;;^5''T^- ^^ 







i^Uulied 1835,tT JJi.Nicliols & Sozi.,23.BirIiamenr St ^ 



DERBYSHIRE. 



SITUATION AND EXTENT. 

Bintndaries, North, Yorkshire: North- vest, Cheshire, 
from which it is separated by the rivers Etlietow and 
Goyie: East, Nottinghamshire: South, Leicestershire : 
i^utb-west and West, Staffordshire, separated by the Dove 
and Trent rivers. 

Greatest length, ^\ breadth, 33; ciVcwm/crcnce, 204; 
square, 972 miles ; statute acres, 663, 180. 

Province, Canterbury. Diocese, Lichfield and Coventry. 
There is an Archdeaconry of Derby, and Deaneries of 
Ashbomei, Gasdllar, Chesterfield, Derby, High Peak, and 
Repingdon. Bakewell, Hope, Tideswell, and their chapel- 
ries, Chapel-en*le-Frith, and Kniveton, are peculiars to the 
Deaa atid Chapter of Lichfield. Sawley and its chapelries 
is a peculiar to the Prebendary of Lichfield. Calke, Dale 
Abbey, and Hartington, with the chapelries of Sterndale 
and Peak Forest, are exempt from ecclesiastical jurisdic* 
tiont 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

British JnhalntanU, the Coritani. Encampments, Carles 
Work, Mill Stone Edge; Castle Ring, Hartle Moor. 
Earthwork, StadenLow. 

Druidical Remains^ Arbor Low, near Newhaven, cirde of 
stones, and about a mile from the circle is a rock bason ; 
Ashover, rocking stone, called Robin Hood's Mark, 26 
fbet in drcumference, and Mock Beggar*s Hall ; Birchover, 
the Router Rocks, an assemblage of huge grit stones ; 
Buxton, the " marvel stone,'" a rock 280 feet long, 80 broad, 
and 3 high, cut in channels, holes, ^. ; Hathersage Moor» 
rocking stones, rock basons, &c.; Matlock, the Hirst 
stones; Nether Moor, a heap of stones without mortar; 
Peak Forest, circle; Stainedge Cliff, rock basons; Stan- 
ton Moor, rocking stones, rock basons, circles, &c. 

Barrow^. Chelmerton, two, of very considerable size, the 
circumference of the largest being 80 yards, and both 
with basons at top ; Endlow, a large one near Newha- 
ven, where are many others ; Great Finn, in Monsal Dale ; 
Minington, near Brassington ; Stains Cliffs ; W^rdlow, 
examined in 1759, and found to contain 17 bodies, 

Roman province, Britannia Prima, afterwards Flavia Cae- 
sariensis. Stations, Ad Trivonam, Berry Farm ; Aque, 
Buxton ; Derventio, Little Chester; Lutudarum, Ches- 
terfieldi, Encampments, Brough Castle ; Buxton, called 
Combe Moss; Glossop, called Melandra Castle; Mam 
I'or ; Parwich^ at Lombard's Green ; Pentrich, square, 



ANTIBNT 8TATB AND REMAINS. 3 

with a double Tallum ; I^lsbury. Remains discovered 
at Alfreton, coins ; Belper, gold coin of Augustus Csesar ; 
Bradburn» coins of the Upper Empire ; Brougb, bust of 
Apollo, tiles, coins, pavement, bricks, &c. ; Burton Wood, 
nearAshboum, coins; Buxton, walls; Chester, Little, 
foundations of walls, vaults, coins in abundance, skele- 
tons, &c«; Crich, coins ; Crilland Park, coins ; Crom- 
ford Moor, inscribed pig of lead in 1777 > Gilthwaite- 
- Common, spurs, battle axes, pavement, urn of coins; 
Haddon Hall, Bakewell, altar ; Hopton, urn of bones, 
&e.; Matlock Moor, pigs of lead in 1783 and 1787; 
Middleton, fibula in 1821, and brass trident in 1822; 
Pieasley, coins ; Ripley, urn of coins of Gallienus ; Ris« 
ley Park, silver salver in 1729; Wirksworth, coins. 
Roads, Bathom Gate, from Brough, near Hope, to Bux- 
ton; High Street, from Manchester to the Bathom Gate 
leading to Buxton; one from Little Chester to Chester- 
field ; Long Lane, from Chesterton, near Newcastle, to 
another road on the Derwent, leading from the Ashboum 
road; Rykneld Street, enters from Staffordshire at Monks- 
bridge. 

Saxon Octarchy, Mercia. Encampment, Trincop, at Ash- 
ford, circular. 

Danish Earthwork, Bolsover. 

Abbeys. Beauchief, founded by Robert Fitz-Ranulph, lord 
of Alfreton, about 1 180, some ruins mark its former gran- 
deur; Dale, by Serlo de Grendon, lord of Badeley, 
temp» Henry IL re-founded at Stanley Park, by William 
. Fitz Rauf, Seneschal of Normandy, and his son-in-law, 
1204; Darley, near Derby, by Albinus Abbot bf St. 
Helenas ; Derby, by Robert de Ferrariis, second Earl of 
Derby,, between 1134 and 1153. 



4 COUNTT HISTORY — DBRBT8BIBB. 

Priories, Breadsall, converted from a friary ; Galke, by 
Maud, widow of Ranulph 2d Earl of Chester, about 1161, 
cell to Repton; Derby, founded by Widtheof, a Saxoti 
nobleman, ante 1140, cell to Bennondsey in Surrey; 
Gresley, by William son of Nigel de Gresley, or by Nigel 
himself, temp. Henry I. ; Repton. 

JVunneries* King's Mead near Derby, about 1160, by an 
Abbot of Derby; Repton, ante 660, re-founded by Ma- 
tilda, widow of Ranulph second Earl of Chester, about 
1172. 

Friaries. Breadsall, friers hermits, founded in the time of 
Henry III. by the Dethicks, afterwards a priory. Derby, 
Black, established about 1292. 

Preceptories* Lockay, of the order of St. Lazarus at Jeru- 
salem; Waingrif near Ripley, by Ralph Fitz Stephen in 
1147; Yeaveley, originally a hermitage, by Ralf le Fun, 
temp. Richard I. 

Colleges. Bakewell ; Derby, All Saints. 

Hospitals. Bakewell, St. John, founded by Sir John Man-^ 
ners, and his brother Roger ; Bentley, ante 1474 ; Ches- 
terfield, for lepers, ante 1195; Derby, St< Leonard, and 
a Maison Dieu, temp. Henry IL ; High Peak, ante 12 
Edward III. ; Longford. 

Churches. AshfOrd, Keddleston, and Swarkston have south 
doors with bas-reliefs within circular arches ; Alsop-in- 
the-Dale, Bolsover, Boulton, Brailsford, Brassington, 
Clown, Darley, Heath, Halt Hucknall, Killamarsh, Kirk 
Ireton, Longford, Ockbrook, Parwich, Sandiacre, Stan- 
ton, Tissington, Thorp, Willington, Winster, and Youl- 



AKTIBNT ST^TB AND REMAINS. 9 

grave, hare remains of Notman arehitecture ; Allestree, 
Nonnau porch, and a sqaare totrer; Aston, round co- 
lumns; Bakew«ll, richly ornamented semicircular arch 
at the west end, and pointed ftrdies of the 13th century ; 
Bradbourn, Norman tower; Brampton, erected 1253; 
Breadsall, very handsome edifice of the 13th century; 
Chesterfield, twisted spire 1230 feet high ; Doveridge, 13th 
century; Marstoh-upon-Dovse, 1 3th century; Melbourne, 
11th century; Morfey, partly built about 1380, steeple 
about 1400; ftepton crypt supported by two rows of 
round wreathed pillars ; Spondon, handsome specimen of 
the 14th century; Stretley, enriched Norman; Tides- 
well, 14th century, of large dimensions ; Whitwell, Nor- 
man tower. 

CAapeiss l>crby, St, Mary's, part of the bridge, a few slight 
remains ; Hognaston, has a semicircular arch whh a bas- 
relief; Lea, founded temp. John, by Robert Alveley, re- 
built 1478, and subsequently used as a barn; Monyash, 
about 1200, by Robert de Salocia and Matthew de Eston. 

Fonts, Ashover, Saxon, of lead, surrounded with twenty 
figures in niches ; Bakewell, pointed style, large ; Kirk 
Hallam, circular, ornamented with interlaced semicircular 
arches; Melbourne, like a bason on four legs ; Mellor, 
rudely sculptured ; Osmaston, circular, with foliage ; 
Winster, rudely sculptured. 

(kfstlps. Ashford; Bolsover, built by William Pfeverel, 
ante Stephen; Bretby, belonged to Thomas de Brother- 
ton, Earl of Norfolk ; Castleton, or Peak Castle, built 
by William Peverel, natural son of William I.; Codnor; 
Duffield; Gresley; Hartington; Horston, belonged to 
Ralph de Burun; Mackworth; Melbourne, ante Ed« 
ward III. 



6 COUNTY HISTORY — BBRBYSHIBB* 

Mansions, Barlborough Hall, built by Jiutioe Francis 
Aodes, temp. Elizabeth, a good specimen of the time; 
Beauchief Hall, built temp. Charles 11. by Edirard Fq^ge, 
esq*; Boirden Hall, now a farm-house ; Breadsall Old 
Hidl, now a public-house ; Haddon Hall, the chapel and 
hall built by Sir Richard Vernon, who died in 1452, and 
the lower court by Sir Henry in the I6th century ; Hard- 
wicke Hall, erected by Elizabeth Countess of Shrewsbury, 
finished about 1597; South Winfield, built by Ralph 
Lord Cromwell, in the time of Henry VI., a ruin ; Sut- 
ton HalL 

Crosses. Bakewell, in the churchyard, 8 feet high, with 
sculptured scriptural representations; Blackwell, in the 
churchyard ; Eyam, in the churchyard ; Ludworth, on 
the common there were formerly two, of one there are 
some remains; Mellor, the shaft of one in the church- 
yard ; Repton, near the church ; Taddington. . 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 

Rivers. Amber, from Northedge to the Derwent near 
Crich chase ; Askop ; Barbrook, rises on the east moors, 
falls into the Berwent to the north of Chatsworth Park ; 
Bootle, flows into the Derwent near Little Eaton ; Brad- 
ford, rises near Elton ; Burbadge, rises on the moors above 
Hathersage, joins the Derwent between Over and Nether 
Padley; Crawley; DEawBNt, rises in the High Peak 
district, prindpally at' a place called the Trough, almost 
divides the county, passes Derby, and joins the Trent near 
Wilne; Dove, rises between the Great and Little Axe 
Edge Hills, near Buxton, and, running parallel between 
Staffordshire and Derbyshire, unites with the Trent at 
Burton ; Ecclesburn, rises south of Wirksworth, and falls 
into the Derwent near Duffield; Erewash, rises near 
Alfreton, and falls into the Trent near its junction 
with the Derwent ; Ethrow ; Goyte, rises to the west 
of Buxton, and joins the Ethrow near Marple Bridge ; 
Gunno ; Headford ; Henmore ; Ibber, falls into the 
Rother at Chesterfield; Idle; Lathkill, rises near Mo- 
nyash, falls into the Wye near Rowsley ; Martinbrook ; 
Mease, rises on Smisby Common, joins the Trent at Croxall ; 
Mersey; Morledge, rises near Mansell Park, and joins the 
Derwent at Derby; Now; Rother, formed by several 
small rivulets south of Chesterfield, and goes into Yorkshire ; 
Schoo; Trent, enters at Catton, and, dividing the 
county from Leicester and Nottingham, quits at Barton ; 
Wye, descends from the heights near Buxton, and ^alls 
into the Derwent near Bakewell. 

Inland Navigation. Ashby-de-la-Zouch Canal, begun 1 794, 
finished 1805. Chesterfield Canal, begun in 1771, by 
Brindley, and completed 1774 by Henshall, his brother- 
in-law, from Killamarsh to Chesterfield. Cromford Ca- 



9 COUNTY HISTORY — DERBYSHIRE. 

nal, begun 1789 and completed in 1793, by the Jessops, 
from Langley Mill, where it joins the Erewash Canal, to 
Cromford ; in its course, at Butterley is a tunnel 2978 
yards long ; over the Amber is an aqueduct bridge of 200 
yards long, and 50 feet high, and another of the same 
length, and 30 feet high, over the Derwent. Derby Ca- 
nal, from the Trent and Mersey at Swarkston, to the 
Erevrash Canal near Sandiacre, formed in 1793. Der- 
went River, from Wilden Ferry to Derby. Erewash 
Canal, begun in 1777, from the Trent Navigation to 
Langley Mill, engineer Jessop. Nutbrook Canal, made 
about 1793, from Erewash Canal to the Shipley Wharf. 
Peak Forest Canal, begun 1794, from Marple Bridge to 
Bugsworth, completed in 1803, by Outram and Brown : 
on its course is an inclined plane of 512 yards, and an 
aqueduct bridge over the Mersey, 100 feet high, having 
three arches, each of 60 feet span. Trent River. 
Trent and Mersey, or Grand Trunk Canal, from Burton 
to Wilden Ferry, begun 1766 by Brindley, completed in 
1777» by Smeaton and Rennie. 

Eminences and Views, Alport Heights, 980 feet high: 
Arbor Low, commands an extensive view : Axe Edge, 
1875 feet above the sea: Blakelow Stones: Brassing- 
ton Moor: Bunster Dale: a most beautiful view of 
Castleton Vale from the Windyatcs, and the "The Lord*s 
Seat'' is 1751 feet high: Charlesworth Nick: Chats- 
worth, many very beautiful views: Chee Tor, near 
Wormhill, a stupendous mass of rocks: Codnor Breach, 
very fine views.: Doyedalb, of which it is impossible 
to speak too highly, is a rocky chasm through which the 
river Dove winds with great beauty: Edale, pleasant 
and sequestered valley : Eyam Dale : Glossop : Har* 
borough Hall, Brassington, very extensive prospects : 
High Peak, a region of bleak barren heights, long-extended 
moors, interspersed with deep vallies, through which 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 9 

small storms take their course: Keddleston, ddlghtfully 
raried and picturesque : Kinder Sc<nit» or Hohne Moss, 
1859 feet high: Lose Hill : Lover's Leap, near Staden 
Low, a romantic and beautiful dale hounded bj elevated 
rocks: Low Peak, abounds with eminences of various 
heig^hts and extent: Mam Tor, or the Shivering Moun- 
tain, 800 feet above the valley : Matlock, the scraery un- 
paralleled for grandeur and vacriety, the High T6r is 350 
feet high, and Manson Hill, of gvea4«r ascent: Middle- 
ton Dale: Monsal Dale, picturesque in an enchanting 
degree : Pike, a rock in Dovedale, noticed by Cotton in 
the " Complete Angler :'' Robin Hood's Chair, WinHiil: 
Swallow Tor, forms a fine scene : Thorp Cloud, a vast 
hill in the form of a truncated cone, rising to a great 
height: Wolfscote Hill. 

Natural Curiosities. The springs of Derbyshire are emi- 
nently medicinal. There are Tepid waters at Buxton, 80^ ; 
Matlock 68<>; Stony Middleton, 63«; Bakewell, 60%- 
Brough near Hope; Cromford; and Stoke. Sui^hvfreous, 
at Agnes and Mudge Meadows, Bakewell ; Bradwell ; 
Brassington; Cowley near Dronfield; Keddleston, the 
most in repute ; Kniveton ; Millington Green near Kirk 
Ireton ; Shottle in Duffield; Shuttlewood near Bolsover; 
West Hallam; Whittington ; and near Wirksworth. CAa^ 
bfbeate, at Ashover; Birley in £ckington; Bradley; 
Buxton; Cbesterfield; Duffield, two; Eccleston in Youl- 
grave ; Heage ; Hope ; near Keddleston ; Matlock; Mor- 
leyPark; Quamdon, the most celebrated ; Shottle; Stan- 
ley ; Tibshelf ; and Whittington. Saline^ at Donisthorpe ; 
and between Hope and Bradwell. Ebbing tmd flwoingf 
at Barmoor ; and^ between Chapel-in-le-Frith and Tides- 
well, hence its name. Fitrioiic, at Heage, between Crich 
and Belper, the only one in the county. At Wirksworth 
are hot and cold springs so near to each other that a per- 
son may put his hands into both at the same time.— At 



lO COUNTV HtSTORT— HBRBT8HIRB. 

Bretby, the Earl of Chesterfield's, is a cedar of Lebanon, 
nearly 14 feet in circumference, planted in 1676-7> and 
is probably the oldest tree of its kind in this kingdom, the 
Enfield cedar being planted nearly at the same time, sind 
tho^ in the physic garden at Chelsea in 1683. — ^At Otct- 
ton are two gooseberry trees, of the smooth red or War- 
Hngton sort, remarkably good bearers, the extreme length 
of one, measured in 1816, was 54 feet 7 inches ; the other, 
which was planted in 1794, measured in 1808, 41 feet 
5 inches. 

PubHc Edifices. Ashborne, school, founded 1585. Bux- 
ton, baths. Cavendish bridge, near Wilne, built by the 
Cavendish family about 1750. Chesterfield, assembly-rooma; 
town hall, built by the Duke of Portland in 1790, architect 
Carr ; free school, founded by Qu. Elisabeth, rebuilt 1710 ; 
house of correction; workhouse. DsrbY^ almshouses, 
built by Elizabeth Countess of Shrewsbury, 1599 ; bridge 
over the Derwent; county hall, or court of Justice, erected 
in 1659 ; county prison, built 1823, architect Goodwin ; 
guildhall, built 1731; theatre, erected 1773; assembly 
rooms, built 1774 ; Nun*s Green hospital, founded 1716, 
by Edward Large; ordnance depdt, Wyatt architect, com- 
pleted 1805; infirmary, William Strutt, esq. architect, 
cost £30,000, opened ISIO; schools; town hall, of free- 
stone, built 1730. Dufiield, bHdge. Etwall, hospital, 
founded by Sir John Porte in 1556. Harrington bridge, 
at Sawley, begun 1786, finished 1790. Matlock, baths ; 
bridge over the Derwent, of stone, neat. Measham, town- 
hall. Ravenstone, hospital, founded by Rebecca Wilkins, 
1712. Repton, free school. Swarkston, bridge over the 
Trent, one of the longest in Europe, span over the river 
138 yards, but its whole length over the low grounds is 
1304 yards, supposed the longest in Europe. Wirks- 
worth, free grammar school; moot hall; town hall, 
erected 1773. 



8£AT8« 11 

Seats. Chatsworth and Hardvicke Hall, DukeofDe<» 

vonshire. Lord Lieutenant of the County, 
Allestree Hall, William Erans, esq. M.P. 
AldenrasW Hall, near Belper, Francis Hurt, esq« 
Alfireton Hall, Williai^ Palmer Morewood, esq. 
Alvaston Hall, the late Joseph Whaldon, esq. 
Ashbourne Hall, Sir William Boothbj, Bart. 

Green HaU, Mrs. De Burgh. 

Grove, John Silvester, esq. 

Ashford Hall, William Asliby Ashbj, esq. 
Aston, Joseph Higginbottom, esq. 

Hall, Edward Anthony Holden, esq. 

Bank Hall, Chaddesden, John Frith, esq. 
Barlborough Hall, Rev. €. H. Reaston Rodes, esq. 
Barrow HaU, John Beaumont, esq. 
Barton Hall, Francis Bradshaw, esq. 
Beaucbief Hall, Broughton Steade, esq. 
Beighton Fields, John Bruno Bowdon, esq. 
Bolsover Castle, Duke of Portland. 
Bowbridge, near Derby, Colonel Newton. . 
Bradley Hall, Godfrey Meynell, esq. 
Brailsford, E. S. Cox, esq. 
Brampton Hall, John Dixon, esq. 
Brassington Hall, William Charlton, esq. 
Bretby, William Martin, esq. 

Park, Earl of Chesterfield. 

Bridge Hill House, near Belper, George Benson Strutt, esq. 

Brocudield Hall, James Hoi worthy, esq. 

Brookhill Hall, D'Ewes Coke, esq- 

Broomhead Hall, James Rimminfton, esq. 

Bumaston House, Ashton Nicholas Every Moseley, es^ 

Burre House, Bakewell, John Barker, esq. 

Butt House, Shirley, esq. 

Butterley Hall, William Jessmp, esq. 

Caldwell Hall, Miss Rebecca Evans. 

C^ke Abbey, Sir Geoi^e Crewe, Bart. 

Calwicb Hall, Rev. John Granville. 

Castleton Hall, Joseph Hall, esq. 

Camfield Hall, Joseph Wilson, esq. 

Catton Hall, Countess of Farnham. 

Chaddesden Hall, Henry Sacheverell Wilmot, esq. 

Chesterfield, Gilbert Crompton, esq. 

Chilcote, Francis Robertson, esq. 

Cutthorpe Hall, Captain Wright. 

Darley Hall, near Matlock, Christopher Bower Potter, esq. 



12 COUNTY HISTORT-^ERBTSHIRE. 

Darley Abbej, Walter Erans, esq. 
Derby, William Strutt, esq. 
Doveridge Hall, Lord Waterpark. 
Drakelow Hall, Sir Roger Oreisley, Bart. 
Dronfield, Samuel Oockajne, es^. 
Dufiield Bank, Rev. John Harrison. 

Hall, Sir Charles CoMle. 

House, John fialguy, esq. 

Dunnington Park, Marquis of Hastings. 

Eccles House, Chapel-in-le-Frith, Thomas Goodman, esq. 

Eckington Hall, Sir Henry Every, Bart. 

Ednaston Lodge, Joseph Bowden, esq. 

Elvaston, John Beresford, esq. 

^-^ Hall, Earl of Harrington. 

Faniah Hall, Hon. Nathaniel Curzon. 

Ford Hall, Chaddesden, Rev. William Bagshaw. 

House, Higham, Mrs. Holland. 

Foremark Hall, Sir Francis Burdett, Bart. 

Foston Hall, George Wahnesley, esq. 

Glapwell Hall, near Chesterfield, Thomas Hallows, esq. 

GlosRop Hall, Thomas Ellison, esq. 

Green Hill House, Belper, Jedediah Strutt, esq. 

Haddon Hall, Duke of Rutland. 

Hanbury, Rev. Hugh Bailey. 

Hartshorn, Thomas Hassall, esq. 

Hasland Hall, Bernard Lucas, e«q. 

Hassop Hall, Earl of Newburffh. 

Hathersage Hall, the late A. A. Shuttleworth, esq. 

Hazlewood Hall, Beighton, esq. 

Highfield Hall, Vincent Eyre, esq. 

Highfields, W. B. Thomas, esq. 

Hilcot Hall, John Wilkinson, esq. 

Holbrook Hall, F. Bradshaw, esq. 

Holme Hall, Robert Birch, esq. 

Holnesfield, Robert Pennistone, esq. 

Hopton Hall, Philip Gell, esq. 

Hopwell Hall, Ockbrook, John Pares, esq. 

Horridge House, Chapel-in-le-Frith, Walter Gisborne, esq. 

Kedleston Hall, Lord Scarsdale. 

Kilbum Hall, Charles Vickers Hunter, esq. 

King's Newton Hall, William Jenny, esq. 

Langley Hall, Robert Cheney, esq. 

Leam House, M. M. Middleton, esq. 

Lees Hall, Joseph Hadfield, esq. 



8S.1T»« 13 

Lejiands, William Leaper Newton, esq. 
Little Eaton Priory, Mrs. Darwin. 
Locke Park, W. D. Lowe, esq. 
Longford Hall, Edward Coke, esq. 
Longstone Hall, Major Carleil. 
Mackworth, the late Edward Darwin, esq. 
Makeney, Anthony Strutt, esq. 
Mansfield Woodhouse, John Coke, esq. 
Markeaton Hall, near Deirby, Francis Mundy, esq. 
Mayfield Hall, Dr. Greaye^* 
Measham Hall, Edward Abney, esq. 
Melbourne Park, Lord Viscount Melbourne. 
Meynell Langley Park, Godfrey Meynell, esq. 
Middleton Hall, William Bateman, esq. 
Milford, Hon. Edward Gore* 
Mosbrou^h Hall, John Smith, esq. 
Newton Mount, Thomas AJUopp, esq. 
Newton Solney Hall, Abraham Hoskihs, esq. 
North Lees House, James Halworthy, esq. 
Norton Hall, Samuel Shore, esq. 
Oaks, William John Bagshaw, esq. 
Okeover Park, Sir Mfttthew Blakiston, Bart. 
Osliston Hall, John Radford, esq. 
Osmaston, Samuel Fox, esq. 

Hall, Sir Robert Wilmot, Bart. 

Overton Hall, John Briffht, M.D. 

Oyston Hall, Hicham, William Turbutt, esq. 

Pasture House Little Over, B* Heathcote, esq. 

Park Hall, John White, esq. 

Pleasley Hill, William Siddon, esq. 

Radbome Hall, £. S. C# Pole, esq. 

Ravenstone, Robert Creswell, esq. 

Renishaw Hall, Sir George Sitwell, Bart. 

Repton Priory, Rev. Dr. William Boultbee Slcath. 

Riddings Hall, James Oake^, esq. 

Risley Hall, Rev. John Hancock Hall. 

Rock House, near Wirksworth, Peter Arkwright, esq. 

Romeley, Mrs. Hill. 

Sandybrook Hall, 

Shardlow Hall, the late Leonard Fosbrook, esq. 
Shipley Hall, Edward Miller Mundy, esq. 
Smalley, John Radford, esq. 
Snelston Hall, John Harrison, esq. 
Somersall, Henry Vernon, esq. 
Southgate House, Henry Bowdon* esq. 



!4 COUNTY HISTORY— DERBYSHIRE. 

Spondon, Bryan Thomn Balguy, esq. 
— - Hall, the late William Osborne, esq. 
Stanesby Hall, Edward Sitwell, esq. 
Stanton Hall, the late Bache Thornhill, esq. 
Stayeley House, Henry Bulkeley, esq. 
Stoddard House, John Bennett, eso. 
Stoke Hall, near Calver, Robert Arkwright, esq. 
Stony Middleton Hall, Lord Denman. 
Stretton Hall, Sir ITilliam Cave, Bart. 
Stubbing Court, the Hon. James Abercromby. 

Edge, William Milnes, esq. 

House, Charles Dakeyne Oladwin, esq. 

Sudbury Hall, Lord Vernon. 
Sutton Hall, Richard Arkwright, esq. 
Swanwick Grange, John Cressey Hall, esq. 

Hall, John Wood, esq. 

Sydnope Hall, Sir Francis Darwin, M.D. 

Tapton Grove, John Meynell, esq. 

«-*— House, Isaac Wilkinson, esq. 

Taxall Lodge, George Williams Newton, esq. 

Thornbridge, W. Morewood, esq. 

Throsby Park, Charles Legh Hoskins Master, esq. 

Thurlston Hall, W. B. Darwin, esq. 

Tibshelf Hall, Benjamin Chambers, esq. 

Tissington Hall, Sir Henry Fitzherbert, Bart. 

Walton Hall, Joshua Jebb, esa. 

Wardwick, William Jeffry Loctcett, esq. 

Whittington Lodge, Henry Dixon, esq. 

Willersley Castle, Richard Arkwright, esq. 

Willeslcy Park, Sir Charles Abney Hastings, Bart. 

Wingerwortb Hall, Sir John Henry Hunloke, Bart. 

Wingfield Manor, Colonel Hatton. 

Wirksworth, Charles Hurt, esq. 

Wood End, Wirksworth, James Milnes, esq. 

Yieldersley House, Colonel W. L. Clowes. 

Caves. Eldon Hole, near Castleton, << a horrid fathomless 
cavern/' but ascertdnedby John Lloyd to be a shaft of 62 
yards deep, at the bottom of which are two other caver us: 
Harborough Hall, Brassington, capable of containing 300 
people : Kinder Low, explored 1830, of great extent and 
internal beauty : Matlock, two, called Cumberland and 



PRB8BNT 6TAT£. I& 

Smedlej caverns; Pbak Caveni, at Castleton* magnifi- 
oeqt, the Asrx J[>iaboH in the Peak, 150 yards long, and 
207 deep: Poole's Hole, near Buxton, 560 yards in 
length, the dropping waters of which congeal into large 
{Hilars and masses on the floor : Reynard's Hall or Hole, 
in Dovedale, a magnificent natural arch: Stanton 
Moor* 

Produce* Lead, the longest adit is at Youlgrave, call ed 
Hilcar Lough, and is four miles long ; a singular kind of 
lead ore, called slickenside, which explodes in mining; 
ironstone, in abundance ; calamine, at Castleton, Crom- 
ford, Bonsall, and Wirksworth ; marble, in various parts, 
and of different colours, a very beautiful black.at Bake<- 
well; limestone, abundant; fluor spar, or **blue John;'' 
gypsum, or alabaster ; freestone ; mill-stones at Hather- 
sage and Wirksworth ; slate ; lapis calaminaris ; rotten- 
stone ; black wad ; ' grindstones ; whetstones ; manganese ; } 
crystals, called Buxton diamonds ; copper, in small quan- 
tities; a peculiar substance, called elastic bitumen, found 
exclusively at Castleton. Few counties produce a greater 
number or variety of extraneous fossils than Derbyshire. 
Wheat ; barley, particularly at Oresley and Reptpn ; ca- 
momile, vast quantities; valerian; elecampane. Trout, 
.grayling, &c. on the Wye. 

J^anufactures. Alfreton, calicos, stockings, and brown 
earthenware. Ashb«)me, lace, cotton, and iron. Ash- 
>ford, marble ornaments. Bakewell, marble, established 
by Mr. Henry Watson, who first formed into ornaments 
the fluor spa, or .<* blue John" of this county, and the first 
vase made of it ^in 1743) is preserved in the museum of 
Mr. Wliite Watson of Bakewell Belper, cotton yam, 
silk, pottery, and nails* Bolsover, tobacco pipes. Cha- 
pel-in-le-Frithv paper of very large size. Chesterfield, 
silk, cotton, carpets, stockings, pottery. DERjar, porce- 



16 COUNTY HISTOar — ^DBBBYSHIRB. 

laiii, introduced about 1750 by Mr. W. Duesbury; naik, 
agricultural tools* and articles of iron ; shots; 8ilk» esta- 
blished by John Lombe in 1717f the mill, the first and 
largest of the kind ever erected in England, cost £30,900 ; 
worsted4 calicoes, tiie first successful manafiu^re of in 
this kingdom was made in this town by Mr. Jedediah 
Strutt, Mr. (afterwards Sir Richard) Arkwright, and Mr. 
Samuel Needham, in 1774; ribbed stockings, the machine 
for making which was invented by Mr. Jedediah Strutt 
about 1755; marble; leather; lace; hats; ale. Dronfield, 
edge-tools, and chemicals. Glossop, cotton. Hathersage, 
needles. Hajrfield, cotton, silk, and woollens. Hartshorn, 
screws. Ilkeston, lace, and malt. Measham, cotton, and 
pottery. Melbourn, silk flowered shawls and handker- 
chiefs ; woollens* Wirksworth, calicoes ; ginghams ; 
hats ; lead ; &c« 

Peerage. Chesterfield, earldom (1628) to Stanhope; Der- 
by, earldom (1485) to Stanley; Dovedale, Denman of, 
barony (1834) to Denman; Elvaston, Stanhope of, ba- 
rony (1717) to Earl Stanhope; Haddon, Mannersof, 
barony (1679) to Duke of Rutland ; Scarsdale, barony 
(1761) to Curzon. 

Baronetage, Broadlow Ash, Boothby, 1660; Caulk Ab- 
bey, Crew late Harpur, 1626; Chaddesden, Wilmot, 
1759; Drakelow, Gresley, 1611; Egginton, Every, 
1641 ; Hartington Hall, Scott late Bateman, 1806 ; Os- 
maston, Wilmot, 1772; Ranshaw, Sitwell, 1808 ; Tis- 
sington, Fitzherbert, 1784; Willesley, Abney*Hasting8, 
1806; Wingerworth, Hunloke, 1642-3. 

Representatives returned to Parliament y for the Northern 
Division of the County, 2 ; Southern Division, 2; Derby, 
2.-^The Reform Act added two to the County Repre«- 
8entation«. 



17 
POPULATION IN 1831. 
^M^rei^r 6; Borougk, 1; Market Toums, 10; Pa^ 
mAe*, 136; ParU of Parishes, 7. 
\^ ^^*****^ 46,098; Bmlding, 357; Uninhabited, 

MjMUmU, Males. 117,740; Females, 119,430; total. 

^^S^^ Employed in agriculture, 13,324; in trade, 

20,788; in neither, 14,208; total, 48,320. 
^^T*^^^^' Males, 3,306; Females, 3,154; totel, 

ti,460. Jmtuai average o/1821 to 1830, 6,546» 
Marriages, 1,720; annual average, l,f55. 
BuHaU. Males, 2,108; Females, 2,027; total, 4,135. 

Amnual average, 4,010. 

PUices haviug not less than 1,000 Inhabitants, 

1>BIIBT 

Belper 

Chesterfield 

Alfretoa 

IlltestoD 

Wirksworth 

Eckington 

Bmnpton aod Cat< 

thorae 
Matlock 
DaffiekJ 
Heeaor 
AshoTer 
Stareley 
Melbum 
Whittle 
Ashbome 
Crich 
Melior 
Glossop 
Rtpley 
Bakewell 
Heage 
Bradshai 
Repton 
Norton 
Ludqrorth and 

ChidwortU 
Whit^eld 
Dronfield 
Ockbruok 



Houses. 
4,842 
1,482 
1,906 
1,047 

858 

8tfl 

786 



Edge 



roo 

67S 
540 
499 
518 
471 
480 
415 
473 
436 
S67 
368 
349 
385 
344 
337 
346 
332 

312 
265 
340 
808 



Inh«b. 
23,627 
7,890 
5,776 
5^691 
4,446 
4,082 
8,948 

8,594 
3,262 
2,725 
2,672 
2,504 
2,345 
2,301 
2,266 
2,246 
2,115 
2,059 
2,012 
1,997 
1,898 
1,845 
1,786 
1,758 
1,747 

1,734 
1,734 
1,653 
1^634 



Houses. 
Tideswell 324 

Measham 296 

Spondoa 285 

Codoor & Losoow 267 
Bolsover 293 

BoDsall 278 

Cromfbrd 233 

TickaaU 270 

Denby 240 

Hadfield & Dinting 225 
Darley Dale 250 

Buxtun 2 1 1 

Charlesworth 203 

Hartshorn 225 

Stanton & Newhall 24 1 
Darlej Abbey 172 

South Normanton 222 
Bradwell 
Newbold and 

Dunstan 
Padfield 
Great Hamlet 
South Winfield 
Wiln & Shardlow 



252 

240 
173 
188 
218 
216 



DraycottSc Wilne 210 

Bowden's £dge 209 
Middleton by 

Wirksworth 189 

Sawley 2*5 

WliitweU 200 



Inhak. 
1,553 
1,535 
1,476 
1,439 
1,330 
J,315 
1,291 
1,278 
1,272 
1,270 
1,266 
1,211 
1,206 
1,204 
1,182 
1,170 
1,154 
1,163 

1,140 
1,102 
1,09« 
1,091 
1,091 
1,074 
1,067 

1,014 
1,009 
1,007 



18 



HISTORY. 

A-D- 

873. Repton was the head winter quarters of the Danes. 

874. Derby occupied by the forces of Halfden, a Danish 
chief. 

918. Derby stormed, and taken from the Danes, by Queen 

Ethelfleda. 
924. Edward the Elder marched to Bakewell from Not- 

tingham, and ordered a castle to be built and garrisoned. 
942 or 944. Derby (which with the towns of Leicester, 

Lincoln, Stamford, and Nottingham, had been restored 

to the Danes, thence denominated *<Fif Burghers*') taken 

by King Edmund. 
1215. Bolsover and Peak Castles taken from the Barons in 

arms against King John by William de Ferrars, Earl of 

Derby. 
1217. King John visited Derby. 
1261. At Chesterfield, Robert de Ferrars, the last Earl of 

Derby, defeated by Henry son of the King of the Romans. 

The Earl was taken prisoner, and most of his troops 

killed. 
1323. Edward IL with his army halted at Caldwell when 
, in pursuit of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, who with his ad- 
herents was at Burton-on-Trent. 
141 5. John Duke of Bourbon after the battle of Aginoourt 

imprisoned for many years in Melbourne Castle. 
1556. Joan Waste, a blind woman, martyred for religion at 

Derby. 
1569. The Shrievalty of this County disjoined from that of 

Nottinghamshire. 



HISTORY. 19 

A. D- 

1568 to 1584. Mary Queen of Scots confined, under the 
custody of the Earl of Shrewsbury, at Wing^eld, Chats- 
worth, Buxton, and Hardwicke. 

1585* Mary Queen of Scots, January 13, lodged one night 
at Derby, on her road to Tutbury. The house stood in 
Babington Lane, but has been pulled down. 

1608. The witches of Bakewell were executed. 

1624. King James and Prince Charles staid two nights at 
Derby in August. 

1633. The Duke of Newcastle, then Lord Cavendish, enter- 
tained Charles I. with great .magnificence at Bolsover. 
The dinner cost £4,000. The poetry and speeches on 
the occasion were written by Ben Jonson. In the follow* 
ing year, their Majesties were again entertained at Bolso- 
ver, at an expense of £15,000. 

1635. Charles I., on his return from a treaty with the Scots 
at Repton in Yorkshire, accompanied by the Elector Pa- 
latine, visited Derby. 

1642. August, Charles J. marched to Derby, af^er rusing 
his standard at Nottingham against the Parliamentarians. 
— October, Sir John Gell at Chesterfield and Derby, 
which he garrisoned for the Parliament. — November, the 
Royalists driven from Wirksworth and the Peak by Sir 
John Gell, who shortly afterwards took Bretby House, 
which had been fortified by its owner, the Earl of Ches- 
terfield, for the King. 

1643. January, at Swarkston Bridge, the Royalists under 
Colonel Hastings driven from their intrenchments, and 

. Swarkston House, Sir John Harpur's, taken by Sir John 
Gell. — Sir Thomas Fairfax was at Derby in the spring, 
and so was King Charles, who borrowed £300.— April, 
Sutton House, defended by its owner Lord Deincourt for 
the King, taken by Colonel Thomas Gell, brother of Sir 

. John. — May, near Chesterfield, the Parliamentarians were 
defeated by the Earl of Newcastle. — ^December, South 



20 COUNTY HI8T0BT — ^DBEBTSHIRB. 

A. D. 

infield manor house garrisoned by theParliamentaiianSf 
afler three days siege, stormed by the Earl (afterwards 
Duke) of Newcastle, who then made himself master of 
Chatsworth. — Hassop Hall garrisoned for the King by 
Colonel Eyre. Colonel Fltzherhert garrisoned Tissington 
for the King, but left it in the February following. Win- 
gerworth Hall taken possession of for the Parliamenta* 
rians. 

1644. February, near Ashborne, the Royalists defeated, 
and 170 taken prisoners by the Parliamentarians. — ^Marcb^ 
on Egginton Heath, the Royalists defeated by a detach- 
ment from Sir John Gell's army, commanded by Major 
Molanus and Captain Rodes. — August 20, South Winfield 
Manor House, after a siege of above a month, by the Par- 
liamentarians, under the Earl of Denbigh, Lord Grey of 
Oroby, and Sir John Gell (during which the Royalist 
Governor, Colonel Dalby, was slain, and Colonel Hastings 
repulsed in an effort to relieve it) surrendered by Sir John 
Fitzherbert to Sir John Gell.— August, Staveley House 
and Bokover Cattle taken by the Parliamentarians under 
Major^General Crawford* 

1645. In August, at Sudbury and at Ashborne, Sir John 
Gell defeated in skirmishes with Charles L— In September 
and October, Chatsworth under its Royalist Governor, 
Colonel Shalcross, successively defended against Colonel 
Molanus and the Parliamentarians. 

1646. A skirmish between the Parliamentary garrison of 
Burton Hall and the Royalist one of Tutbury. 

1659. At Derby, an insurrection against Richard Crom* 
well. 

1688. At Whittington, the Duke of Devonshire, the Earl 
of Danby (afterwards Duke of Leeds), Sir John D'Arcy, 
and others, met and concerted the Revolution ; solemnly 
commemorated in 1788, and a sermon preached by the 
venerable Dr. PeggCt — November 21, the Earl of Devon^^ 



HI8T0RT. 21 

A.D. 

shire, with a retinue of 500 men, read at Derby the decla- 
ration of the Prince of Orange. 

1745. December 4, Prince Charles Edward Stuart marched 
through Ashbourn, and with his army, about 7100 men, 
entered Derby, their nearest approach to London ; halted 
on the 5th ; and commenced their retreat towards Scot- 
land on the 6th. 

1768* Christian VII. of Denmark slept at the George Inn 
Derby, September 3. He was entertained with great 
gt>lendour at Chatsworth. 

1816. The present Emperor of Russia, then Archduke Ni* 
cholas, magnificently entertained by the Duke of Devon- 
shire at Chatsworth, in December ; and the Grand Duke 
Michael of Russia in 1818. 

1817* At South Winfield, June 9, commenced a miserable 
insurrection to overthrow the constitution. The insur* 
gents proceeded towards Nottingham, but near that to^ 
were speedily dispersed by the military, and three of the 
ringleaders, Jeremiah Brandreth, William Turner, and 
Isaac Ludlam, were executed at Derby, Nov. 7* 



22 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

Abney, Sir Thomas, Lord Mayor of London, one of th^ 
founders of the Bank of England, Willesler, 1639 (died 
1722). 

Agard, Arthur, antiquary of gpreat learninfip and research, 
Toston, 1.540 (died 1615). 

AUestry, Charles, divine and author, Derby, 1604. 

William, Recorder of Derby, Derby, 1598 (ob. 1655). 

Alleyne, Sir John, Lord Mayor of London, Gresley (died 
1635). 

Appleby, Sir Edward, warrior, Appleby, 20 Edward III. 

Arkwrioht, Sir Richard, mechanic (died 1792^. 

Arnold, Joshua, pious quaker, Whittington, 16^ (died 
1712). 

Ashbrid^e, John, divine, Heath, 1788 (died 1820). 

Ashe, Francis, goldsmith in London, benefactor, Derby, 
1664 

John, dissenting divine, biographer of Bagshaw, Mal- 

calf, 1671 (died 1735). 

Ashburne, Thomas, opponent of Wickliffe, Ashboum (flou- 
rished 1382). 

Ash ton, Dr. Charles, Master of Jesus COlle^, Cambridc;e, 
divine and critical scholar, Bradway in Pforton, 1^3 
(died 1752). 

Babinfton, Anthony, conspirator against Elizabeth, De- 
thick (executed 1586). 

Bage, Robert, novelist, Darley, 1728 (died 1801). 

Bagshaw, William, •* Apostle of the Peak,'' nonconformist 
divine, and author, Litton, 1628 (died 1702). 

Bancroft, Thomas, satiric and epigrammatic poet, Swark- 
ston (died 16 . . ). 

Barker, Robert, divine and author, Darley, 1741 Tob. 1822). 

Robert, divine and antiquary, Bakewell, 1736 (died 

1796). 



EMINENT NATIVES. 23 

Barnsley, John, centenarian, born in the Peak In 1686, and 

died in 1787. 
Barrett, Joseph, pious merchant, Sandiacre, 1665 (ob.l698). 
Baasano, Francis, herald painter, and antiquary, Derby, 

1675 (died 1746). 
Bateman, Robert, benefactor, Harting^n, 1561 (ob. 1644). 

Sir Hugh, political writer, Derby, 1756 (died 1824). 

Bee, Anthonff Bishop of Durham, Pleasley, 1340. 
Bennet, William, dissenting divine and polemic, Cbinley, 

1752 (died 1821). 
Beresford, James, divine* and benefactor to Cambridge Uni- 

vcrsitv, Fenny Bentley (died 1520). 
Billinjg^sley, John, presbyterian divine, author on Popery 

and Schism, Chesterfield, 1657 (died 1722). 
Blackball, Anthony, divine, schoolmaster, Kirk Ireton, 1674 

(died 1730). 
Blore, Thomas, topog^pher, Ashboum, 1764 (died 1818-19). 

Mrs. Dorothy, poetess, Chesterfield, 1758 (died 1808). 

Blount, Sir Walter, standard bearer to Henry IV. Barton 

Blount (slain at Shrewsbury 1403). 
Walter, Lord Mountjoy, K.G. High Treasurer to Ed- 
ward IV. Barton Blount (died 1474). 
William, Lord Mountjoy, statesman, Barton Blount 

(died 1535). 
Kythe, Geoffry, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, Norton 

(died 1534). 

John, Bishop of Salisbury, Norton (died 1500). 

Booth, Abraham, dissenting divine and author, Blackwell, 

1734 (died 1806). 
Boothby^ Miss Hill, correspondent of Dr. Johnson, Ash- 
bourn, 1708 (died 1756). 
Sir Brook, poet and political writer, Ashboum, 1747 

(died 1824). 
Bothe, John, Bishop of Durham ,Sawley (died 1496). 

Lawrence, Archbishop of York, Sawlev (died 1480). 

Bott, William, topogn^her of Buxton, Cfhelmorton, 1735 

(died 1804). 

Thomas, divine and author, Derby, 1688 fdied 1754). 

Bourne, Samuel, dissenting divine and author, Derby, 1647 

(died 1719). 
Brindley, James, canal engineer, and mechanic, Thomsett 

near Wormhai, 1716 (ob. 1772). 



24 COUNTY HI8TORT — ^DBRBTSHIRB. 

Brocklehurst, William, benefactor, Cbelmorton, 1733 (died 
1792). 

Burton, Dn Nicholas, President of St John's College, Cam* 
bridge (died 1759). 

Butler, William, physician, 1726, 

Buxton, Jedediah, daj-labourer, extraordinary calculator, 
vho when taken to see Richard 111. at Drury Lane found 
his only entertainment in counting how many words Gar- 
rick uttered, and the steps of the dancers, Mmeton, 1707 
(died 1777). 

Carson, William, poetical woolcomber, Youlgrave, 1744 (died 
1822). 

Cavendish, William, Duke of Newcastle, loyal hero, 
author on horsemanship, Bolsover, 1593 (died 1676). 

Cockain, Sir Aston, poet, Ashbourn, 1608 (died 1683). 

Sir John, Chief Baron of the Exchequer to Henry IV. 

Ashbourn (died 1403). 

Sir Thomas, author on Hunting, Ashbourn, (died 

1592). 

Coke, George, Bishop of Hereford, Trusley (died 1646). 
Sir John, Secretary of State, Trusley, 1560(died 1644). 

Sir William, Justice of Ceylon, South Normanton, 

1775 (died 1818). 

Congreve, William, centenarian, Bolsover, 1643 (died 1754)« 
Cotes, Jonathan, mineralogical editor. South Normanton 

(died 1826). 
Cotton, John, puritanical divine and author, Derby, 1584 

(died 1652). 
Croshawe, Richard, benefactor, Markeaton or Derby, 1561 

(died 1631). 
Curson, Roger, cardinal, Pope's legate, Croxball, temp. 

Henry HI. 
Dakeyne, Daniel, poet, Darley, 1763 (died 1806). 
Denman, Joseph, physician and author, Bakewell, 1731 

(died 1812). 
-*—— Dr. Thomas, physician and accoucheur, and author, 

Bakewell, 1733 (died 1815). 
'Dethick, Sir Gilbert, Garter King at Arms to Edward VI. 

Derby, 1500 (died 1584). 
Sir William, Garter King at Arms to Elizabeth, Derby, 

15^ (died 1612). 
Drinkwater, John, divine and poet, Ashford, 1789 (died 

1824). 



BMINBNT NATIVES. 25 

Evans, T^liiam, dissenting divine, Roston, 1797 (died 1823). 
Eyre, George, " the Derbyshire Hudibras," mathematician, 

astronomer, and musician, Castleton (died 1787, aged 83). 
Fanshawe, Henry, founder of Grammar school, Dronfieui 

(died about 1576). 
Fameworth, Ellis, divine and translator, Bonteshall, about 

1710 (died 1763). 
FiTZHBRBBRT, SiR Anthony, judge, author of "De Na- 

tura Brevium," Norbury, about 1^0 (died 1538). 

— Nicholas, biographer of Cardinal AUen, Norbury, 1550 
(drovrned 1612). 

- ■ ■ Thomas, Jesuit, polemic writer, Norbury (died 1640). 
Sir William, first baronet, author on Revenue Laws, 

Tissington, 1748 (died 1791). 
Flamstbbd, John, astronomer-royal, Derby, 1646 (died 

1719). 
Fox, John, centenarian, Castleton, 1723 (died 1825). 
Frescheville, Lord John, loyalist, Staveley, 1606 (died in 

1682). 
Frost, Isaac, schoolmaster and arithmetician, Bakewell (died 

17..). • 
OeU, Anthony, founder of school and almshouse, Wirks- 

worth (died 1583). 

John, admiral, Hopton (died 1806). 

Sir John, parliamentarian general, Wirks worth, 1593 

(died 1671). 

Thomas, parliamentarian officer, Wirksworth, 1524 

(died 1656). 

Gould, Nathaniel, philanthropist, Bakewell, 1756 (died 1820). 

Gratton, John, poetical and suffering quaker, Tideswell, 
1642 (died 1712). 

Gray, William, Bishop of Ely, Lord Treasurer, Codnor 
(died 1478). 

Greatorex, Thomas, organist to Westminster Abbey, musi- 
cal composer (died 1831). 

Hsdifax, Samuel, Bishop of St. Asaph, Professor of Arabic 
and Civil Law at Cambridge, erudite prelate, Mansfield, 
1733 (died 1790). 

Hallam, John, eccentric character, Brailsford (died 1828). 

Hardwick, Elizabbth, Countess of Shrewsbury, one of 
the most extraordinary women that ever lived, foundress 
of Chatsworth and Hardwick, Hardwick, 1520 (died 1607 
<* immensely rich and without a friend''). 



26 COUNTY HI8TOBT — DBBBT8HIBB. 

Harrison, Anne, centenarian, Great Longstone, 1703 (died 
1826). 

' Ralph, dissenter, aathor of "Sacred Harmony,*' Chin- 
ley. 1748 (died 1810). 

Hattersley, Margaret, centenarian, born at Hathemee in 
1549, and died in 1650. 

Heathcute, Gilbert, physician, qnaker, andauliior, Gutthorpe 
(died 17 . . )• 

Hieron, John, nonconformist divine and author, Stapenhill, 

1608 (died 1682). 

Samuel, nonconformist, Stapenhill (died 1687)* 

Hooson, William, mineralogical writer, Youlgrave (died 

17 . . ) 
Home, Thomas, schoolmaster and author, WestHallam, 

1609 (died 1654). 

Hutchinson, Francis, Bishop of Doim and Connor, Car- 

sinfcton, 1659 (died 1739). 
HuTTON, W1LLIA.M, bookseller, antiquarian tourist, self- 
educated writer, and benevolent but eccentric man. Derby, 

1723 (died 1815). 
Ince, Thomas, poet, Chesterfield, 1768 (died 1825). 
Johnson, Christopher, physician, Kiddersley (died 1597). 
— : — Michael, bookseller, father of Dr. Samuel Johnson, 

Cubley, 1656 (died 1731). 
Kent, Thomas Wickham, sculptor and mnaician, Bradwell, 

1744 (died 1817). 
Keys, John, flower-painter, Derby, 1798 (died 1825). 
Kinder, Philip, poet and antiquary (died 16 . . ). 
Kniveton, Samtfoe, antiquary, Kniveton (died 17th century). 
Leacroft, Edward Beecher, poet, Wirksworth, 1737 (died. 

1805). 
Lowe, John, antiquary and historian, Winster (died 1825). 
Lucas, Bernard, mathematician, Chesterfield, 1744 (died 

1810). 
Mander, James, mineralogical writer, Bakewell, 1758 (died 

1829). 
Manlove, Edward, poet (died 17th century). 
Timothy, divine and physician, Ashboum, 1663 (died 

1699). 
Mawe, John, mineralogical writer, Derby, 1766 (ob. 1829). 
Meverell, Sir Sampson, warrior in France, Tideswell, 1388 

(died 1462). 



EMINENT NATIVES. 27 

Middleton, Thomaft Famfaawe, Bishop of Calcutta, Kedles- 
ton. 1769 (died 1822). 

Milward, Robert, warrior, Bradley, 1596 (died 1632). 

Moor, Ann, pretended fasting female, Boston in Norburj 
(tiring in 1812). 

Moorhouse, W. V. poet, Repton (died 1830). 

Mundj, Francis Noel Clarke^ poet of " Needwood Forest,*' 
Markeaton, 1738 (died 1815). 

Neirton, William, carpenter and poet, Wardlow, 1755. 

Oldfield, John, nonconformist dirine and author Jiear Ches- 
terfield, 1627 (died 1682). 

— — Joshua, presbjterian dirine and author, Carsington, 
1656 (died 1729). 

Thomas, historian, 1755 (^ed 182^). 

Outram, Benjamin, ciril engineer, Alfreion (died 1805). 

William, dirine and scholar, author on Sacrifices, 1625 

(died 1679). 

PeoOb, Dr. Samuel, dirine, and erudite and industrious 
antiquarr, Chesterfield, 1704 (died 1796). 

Pole, Ralph, Justice of the Kind's Bench, Radboum (died 
1452). 

Port, Sir John, founder of Repton school, Etwall (ob. 1557). 

Pursglove, Robert, suffragan Bishop of Hull, and founder 
of a grammar school there, Tideswell (died 1579). 

Repindon, Philip de, cardinal, Repton (died 15th century). 

Reynolds, John, topographer and antiquary, Plaistow, 
1724 (died 1780). 

Richardson, Samuel, printer, novelist, author of "Pa- 
mela," ««Clari88a," &c. 1689 (died 1761). 

Robinson, Benjamin, presbyterian divine, author on the 
Trinity, Derby, 1666 rdied 1724). 

Rodes, Francis, judge, Staveley or Woodthorpe (flor. 1585). 

Sanders, Thomas, parliamentarian colonel, Ireton or Cald- 
well, 1610 (died 1695). 

Dr. Nicholas, polemic dirine, Ireton (died 1580). 

Samuel, topographer, Ireton or Caldwell, 1641 (died 

1688). 

Seward, Anna, poetess and anecdotist, Eyam, 1747 (died 
1809). 

Shaw, Samuel, nonconformist divine and author, Repton, 
1635 (died 1695-6). 

Shelmerdine, Daniel, nonconformist dirine, Crich, 1636 
(died 1699). 



28 COUNTY HMTORT'^DBBBYSHIRB. 

Shirley, Sir Hugh, warrior, Shirley (slain at the battle of 

Shrewsbury id 1403). 

Sir Ralph, warrior at Arincourt, Shirley, 1391. 

Smith, John Raphael, artbt, Derby (died 1812). 
Stanhope, George, Dean of Canterbury, theologian. Harts* 

horn, 1660 (died 1728). 
Stathom, John, author of an abridgment of the laws, temp. 

Henry VI. 
Strutt, Jedediah, mechanic, Normanton, 1726 (died 1797). 
Sturges, Samuel, divine and polemisl^ Sudbury, 1657*8 

(died 1736). 
^wetman, Thomas, nonconformist divine and author, Derby. 
Tallents, Francis, divine, author of ** Chronological Tables,'' 

Pelsley, 1619 (died 1708). 
Taylor, Charles, surgeon, mineralogist, and botanist, Stan«- 

ton, 1762 (died 1818;). 

Dr. John, theologian, Ashbourn (died 1788). 

Martha, fasting aamsel, Over Haddon, 1651 (ob. 1684). 

Thomhill, Bache, poet, Stanton, 1747 (died 1830). 
Vernon, Sir George, hospitable and munificent '* King of 

the Peak,'' Haddon (died 1565). 
Sir Henry, governor to Prince Arthur, Haddon (died 

Sir Richard, Speaker to the Parliament at Leicester 

in 1^25, Haddon (died 1452). 
Sir Richard, the last pierson who held the high ^fiioe 

of Constable of England for life, Haddon, 1467. 
IVainwright, George, centenarian, Bamforth, 1714 (died 

1821). 
Ward, William, missionary, Derby, 1769 (died 1823). 
Waste, Joan, blind woman, martyr, Derby (burnt 1555). 
Watson, Henry, the first manufacturer of ornaments of fiuor 

spar, Hakewell or Heanor, 1714 (died 1786). 
Samuel, sculptor at Chatsworth, Heanor, 1663 (died 

1715). 
^ — Samuel, sculptor and mechanic, Heanor, 1715 (died 

1778). 
Whateley, Thomas, surgeon and author, Derby (1821). 
WiLLOUGHBY, SiR HuGH, naval discoverer, Risley (died 

1554). 
Wilmot, Sir Edward, physician to George II. and III. first 

baronet, Chaddesden, 1693 (died 1786). 



SHINENT NATIVES. 29 

Wilmot, Sir John Eardley, Chief Justice of the Common 

Pleas, OsmastOD, 1709 (died 1792). 
John Bardie J, son of preceding^, lawyer and author, 

Derhy, 1748 (died 1815). 
Wolley, Adam, topographer, Matlock, 1751 (died 1827)* 
Wood, John, nonconformist divine and author, Chesterfield 

(died 1690). 
Woodward, Dr. John, physician and naturalist, Wirksworth, 

1665 (died 1723). 
Wriffht, John, mineralog-ist and poet, Wirksworth (died 

1828;. 
-*— Joseph, landscape painter, Derhy, 1734 (died 1797). 



30 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

The lead mines of this County were worked by the Ro- 
mans. 

In Ash BOURN Church, besides the beautiful monument 
by Banks, for Penelope, daughter of Sir Brooke Boothby, 
1791, are many memorials of the antient family of Cockayne, 
and the tomb of Dean Langton, who was killed by his horse 
falling over a precipice at Dovedale in 1761. — In this town 
resided and died in 1788, Dr. John' Taylor, the friend of Dr. 
Johnson. — ^Here died in 1773, aged 118, Ellen Hitchcock; 
and in 1778, John Cooper, aged 100. 

In AsHFORD Chapel is a tablet to the memory of Henry 
Watson, who first formed into ornaments the fluor spa of 
this county, and died in 1786. 

In AsHOVBR parish register is this remarkable entry: 
<< 1660. Dorothy Matly, supposed wife to John Flint of this 
parish, forswore herself, whereupon the ground opened, and 
she sunk overhead, March 23, and being found dead, she was 
buried March 25th." 

In Bakewbll Church is a curious antient monument of 
Sir Godfrey Foljambe 1376, and Avena his wife 1383, with 
several memorials of the Vemons and Manners, and the 
tomb of Sir Thomas Windesley, mortally wounded at the 
battle of Shrewsbury, fighting for Henry IV. 

Belper Unitarian Meeting-house was under the ministry 
of D. P. Davies, one of the historians of this County. 

In BoLSOVER Church, among several memorials of the 



1II8GBLLANSOU8 OBSERVATIONS. 31 

Cavendishes, are the monuments of Sir Charles Cavendish, 
who founded Bolsover Castle in 1613, 1617; Huntingdon 
Smithson, the architect of the castle, 1648 ; and the cosUj 
tomb of Henrj 2d Duke of Newcastle, 1691. 

Bradshaw Hall was the residence of the Regicide Presi. 
dent Bradshaw, who died in 1659. 

Breads ALL was the vicarage of the nonconformist John 
Hierom, biblical critic, abridger of Poole's Synopsis, who 
died at Loscoe, and was buried at Heanor, 1682. In the 
Church is the monument of Erasmus Darwin, physician, 
philosopher, and poet, who resided at Breadsali Priory, and 
,4lied there in 1802. 

Bretbt, in 1639, on Twelfth-day, was performed before 
Philip first Earl of Chesterfield and his second Countess, a 
masque written for the occasion by Sir Aston Cockayne. 

The crescent at Buxton was built by the Duke of De- 
vonshire in 1785 and 1786; the stables form a circular area 
of sixty yards internal diameter, with coach houses for sixty 
carriages. 

Carsinoton was the Rectory of the nonconformist John 
Oldfield, author on the Righteousness of the Scribes and 
Pharisees; and of Ellis Fameworth, translator of the work^ 
of Davila and Machiavel, 

In Chaddesden Chapel is a cenotaph for its native Sir 
Edward Wilmot, physician to George U. and George III^ 
who died in 1786. 

Chats WORTH was begun April 12, 1687> WUliam Tal- 
man architect. The Library, which contains a very valuable 
collection of books, is 92 feet; and the Picture gallery nearly 
100 feet long. The altar-piece (the Incredulity of St. Tho? 
mas) is considered by Lord Orford to be Verrio's master- 
piece. The exquisite carvings, generally believed to have 
been executed by Grinling Gibbons, appear principally to 
have been done by Samuel Watson, a native artist. The 
old gardens, laid out by George London, were began in 



32 COUNTY H18TORT— DBRBTSUIRB. 

1638. The Waterworks, constructed by Monneur GQillet^a 
Frenchman, in 1690, exhibit an almost unique specimen of 
what was o^ice considered a necessary appendage to every 
noble mansion. The great fountain throws the water 90 
•feet high. Another waterwork in the shape of a tree, com- 
posed of copper, has been much noticed. — ^"lliomas Hobbcs, 
philosopher, passed a great portion of his life here under the 
patronage of the Dukes of Devonshire. — Marslial Tallard, 
who was taken prisoner at Blenheim in 1704, and remained 
seven years in this kingdom, having been nobly entertained 
by the Duke of Devonshire at this place, on taking his 
leave said, "My Lord Duke, when I come hereafter to com* 
pute the time of my captivity in England, 1 shall leave out 
the days of my visit at Chalsworth.'' — At the old house the 
unfortunate Mary Queen of Scots resided for thirteen years. 
From here she wrote her second letter to Pope Pius, dated 
October 15, 1570. 

Chester FIB LD was the vicarage of the nonconformist 
John Billingsby, writer against the quakers, whose son of 
the same name, author on Popery and Schism, was minister 
of the Presbyterian meeting in thb town. — Samuel Jebb, 
learned physician, editor of Justin, died here in 1772. 

At CoMPTON resided and died Thomas Bedford, nonjuror, 
editor of Simeon Dunelmeosis, and author of '< The Histori- 
cal Catechism.** He was buried at Ashbourn in 1773. — 
Here died in 1782, aged 108, Francis Miles. 

At Derbt, in All Saints Church, excepting the first Earl, 
all the Earls and Dukes of Devonshire of the Cavendish fa- 
mily, with most of the junior branches, were interred. The 
most remarkable monuments are those of Elizabeth Coun- 
tess of Shrewsbury, builder of Chatsworth, Hardwicke, and 
Oldcotes, 1608; William second Earl of Devonshire (by 
Marshall), 1628; with Christian, his Countess, patroness of 
learned men^ and whose life was written by Pomfrct 1675; 



MI8CBLLAN£OU8 OB8BRVATI0N8. 33 

Caroline Countess of Besborough, daughter of William 
Duke of Devonshire, by Rysbrach, 1760; and her husband 
William Earl of Besborough, by Nollekins, 1763. In the 
vault lie the remains of the brave and loyal Compton Earl of 
Northampton, slain at Hopton Heath near Stafford, 1643; 
Colonel Charles Cavendish, slain at Gainsborough in the 
same cause, 1643 ; and Henry Cavendish, chemist and pneu* 
matic philosopher, 1810. In this Church are also the monu- 
ments of Richard Croshaw, a native, who left £4,000 for 
charitable uses, and died of the plague, taken whilst adminis- 
tering to the relief of the sick poor, 1625 ; Thomas Cham- 
ber, merchant, 1726, by Roubiliac; and Dr. Michael Hut- 
chinson, the curate, who obtained £3,249 subscription for 
rebuilding the church, 1730. So industrious and successful 
was the Dr. in procuring this money that, when the Waites 
fiddled at his door for a Christmas-box, he invited them in, 
treated them with a tankard of ale, and persuaded them out 
of a guinea! Here too was interred Mr. John Lombe, who 
established the first silk mill in England, in this town, and 
died here in 1722.— In St. Alkmunds was buried St. Alk- 
mund, son of Alured King of Northumberland ; and, in 
1592, Thomas Ball, aged 110. Its first Vicar was Henry 
Cantrell, author on the Baptism of Charles I.—George 
Fox, founder of the Society of Friends, was imprisoned for 
nearly a year in this town, and here in 1650, according to 
his journal, they first obtained the appellation by which they 
are now generally known. ** Justice Bennet of Derby," 
says he, ^* was the first that called us Quakers, because I bid 
him tremble at the Word of the Lord.'' — Ferdinando Shaw, 
author of the Life of his Wife, was minister of the presby- 
terian meeting-house; and, after the congregation became 
Unitarians, James Pilkington, the historian of Derbyshire, 
was one of their ministers. — Thomas Parker, first Earl of 
Macclesfield, Lord Chancellor, practised for many years as 



34 COUNTY HISTORY^DBRBTSHIRE. 

an attoraey at Derby. — John Whitehurst, F.R.S. the mechanic 
and philosopher, lived here 40 years, as a watch and clock 
and philosophical instrument maker. — Wrig^ht, the painter, 
was born, lived, and died here, a victim to his unwearied 
attention to a profession, alike honourable and profitable, 
1797* — Dr. Erasmus Darwin spent the last 21 years of his 
life, and composed the major part of his works in this 
town. Here also resided William Chappel, Bishop of Cork, 
who died here 1649; Sir Simon Deg^ge, editor of*' Erdes- 
M'ick's Staffordshire;" Anthony Blackwali, author of '* Sa- 
cred Classics,'' who was master of the g'rammar school; 
William Butler, M.D., author on Puerperal Fevers; and 
Benjamin Parker, author on the Longitude, and of '^ Philo- 
sophical Meditation.'' — In Exeter House, the Pretender held 
the council of war which determined the abandonment of his 
project in 1745. 

In Edensor Church are the monuments of John Beton, 
confidential servant to Mary Queen of Scots, 1570 ; and 
William Cavendish, first Earl of Devonshire of his family, 
1625. 

In Elmton Church-yard was buried its native Jedediah 
Buxton, calculator, 1772. (See p, 24.) 

In Ely ASTON Church is the monument of Sir John Stan^ 
hope, father of th^^rst Earl of Chesterfield, 1610. 

At Eyam, in 1665, the plague was introduced by some 
patterns of tailor's cloth, and in little more than a year there 
were 260 burials, but, owing to the influence and precautions 
of its most exemplary rector Mr. Mompesson, who remained 
during the whole time constantly visiting and praying by 
the sick, the distemper was confined exclusively to this vil- 
lage. His amiable wife, who would not leave her husband, 
died of the disease in her twenty-seventh year. — Eyam was 
also the Rectory of Thomas Seward, editor of Beaumont 
and Fletcher, and father if the poetess of Lichfield. 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 35 

I 

In Fenny Bentley Church is the monument of Thomas 
Beresford, esq. 1473. He must have lived to a great age, 
for it appears by his epitaph that he had a command at the 
victory of Agincourt : 

** Militii excellens, strenuus dux, fortis et audat, 
Francia testatur, curia testis Agen«" 

At Finderne were buried in one grave, Jan. 14, 1747.. 
John Woollet, aged 92, and Sarah Woollet, aged 93, who 
had lived together, husband and wife, for 60 years. Here 
was also interred in 1754, Dr. Ebenezer La^am, scholar, 
who presided over a dissenting academy in this town, and 
among whose pupils were Ferdinando Warner, historian of 
Ireland, and John Taylor, author of Hebrew Concordance. 

Glossop was the Vicarage of the nonconformist William 
Bagshaw, **the Apostle of the Peak," who died at Great 
Hucklow in Hope parish, 1702. — In the Church is the monu- 
ment of Joseph Hogue, benefactor to Glossop, and founder 
of Whitfield School (bust by Bacon), 1786.— Here the prac- 
tice of rush-bearing still prevails. 

In Hardwicke Hall are many interesting portraits, and 
some needle-work, said to have been done by Mary Queen 
of Scots. Here died, whilst residing in the family of his pu- 
pil the Earl of Devonshire, and was buried at Halt Hucknall, 
1679, the metaphysician Thomas Hobbes. 

At Hartshorn was buried its Rector Stebbing Shaw, 
historian of Staffordshire, 1803. 

At Hathersage is an instance of a human body turning 
to flint. Here is the grave of ** Little John," the coadjutor 
of Robin Hood. 

The moors of Hope parish afford an extraordinary in- 
stance of the preservation of human bodies interred in them, 
in the persons of Mr. Barber and his maid servant, who were 
buried in 1674, and were found nearly perfect in 1716. 

At Idbridoe Hay died in 1779, James Simpson, aged 
114. 



36 COUNTY HISTORY — DBRBY6HIRB. 

At Ilkeston, the tradespeople hold their freedom from 
toll in the towns of Derby and Nottingham, bj the tenure 
of keeping a gallows standing at the entrance of the town. 

Kedleston House was built from the designs of Adam 
about 1765. In the entrance hall, 67 feet bj 42, are twenty 
Corinthian columns of veined alabaster, 25 feet high, brought 
from Lord Curzon's quarries at Red Hill in Nottingham* 
shire. The saloon is one of the most beautiful apartments 
of its kind in Europe. The house contains a fine collection 
of paintings, amongst which is a landscape by Tuyp ; a Cain 
and Abel by de Lutti; and Daniel's interpretation of Ne- * 
buchadnezzar's Dream by Rembrandt ; all particularly ad- 
mired. In the Church, among numerous monuments of the 
Curzons, is one, by Rysbrach, of Sir Nathaniel Curzon, Bt. 
1758. George, who died in March 1652, aged 104, was 
buried here. 

At KiLLAMARSH died May 4, 1797, John Wright, aged 
103. 

At Mapleton, in 1751, died Mary How, widow, aged 
1 12. Her death, as recorded in the obituary of the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, " was occasioned by pulling a codling off a 
tree, the bough of which fell on her arm and broke it. 
About two years before, she cut a new set of teeth, and her 
hair turned from grey to a beautful white, and she had a 
Aery florid colour." 

At Allen Hill, in Matlock, died Mr. Adam Wolley, 1657, 
aged 99, and his wife Grace, 1669, aged 110. They lived 
together in marriage 76 years. 

At Mellor died in 1797, Mary wife of Robert Beard, 
aged 101. 

At Melbourne was a palace of the Bishops of Carlisle. 

At Mick LEO VCR died in 1795, aged 109, Mrs. White- 
house. 

At OcKBROOK is a considerable establishment of Mora,^ 
vians or " United Brethren," which was formed in 1750. 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 37 

At OsMASTON 18 a fine painting bj Cignarotti, 9 feet in 
length, and 7 in height, of the meeting of Hector and Andro- 
mache at the Scsean Gate. There is also Prince Maurice by 
Vandyck, a work of high excellence. 

At Overton Hall resided the late eminent naturalist and 
traveller Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society, 
who died in 1820. 

In many of the parishes of the Peak the custom of hang- 
ing up in the churches garlands of roses with a pair of 
gloves cut out of white paper, which had been carried before 
the corpse of young unmarried women at their funerals, still 
prevails. 

At Repton School were educated Samuel Shaw, noncon- 
formist divine, author of "Immanuel; " Stebbing Shaw, 
historian of Staffordshire; F. N. C. Mundy, poet of "Need- 
wood Forest ; Jonathan Scott, translator of the '^Arabian 
Nights;** and W. L. Lewis, translator of Statins. The 
learned divine and librarian John Lightfoot was its first 
usher. — Repton was the burial place of the Mercian Kings 
Merewald and Ethelbald. 

Of the Willoughbys of Risley was the celebrated navi- 
gator Sir Hugh, whose melancholy fate, seeking for a north- 
east passage in the frozen ocean, temp. Elizabeth, is delin- 
eated with much feeling in the Winter of Thomson's Seasons. 

At Roston, in the parish of Norbury, was bom the 
famous fasting impostor of Tutbury in Staffordshire, Ann 
Moor. 

Snelston, in Norbury parish, was the residence of the 
Rev. Thomas Langley, historian of Desborough Hundred In 
the county of Bucks, who here composed his "Serious 
Address to the Head and Heart of every unbiassed Chris- 
tian.'' He died in 1S04. 

South Winpield Manor-house was built by Ralph Lord 
Cromwell, Lord High Treasurer to Henry VI. It was after- 
wards the seat of the Earls of Shrewsbury, of whom George 



38 COUNTY HISTORY — DERBYSHIRE. 

the fourth Earl died here 1541. — In the Church was buried 
Immanuel Halton, mathematician and philosopher, 1699. 

In Sudbury Church are many monuments of the Mont- 
gomerys and Vernons; among the latter, George Venablcs, 
first Lord Vernon, 1780 ; Hon. Catherine Venables Vernon 
(poetical epitaph by William Whitehead, poet Jaureat), 1775; 
Hon. Martha Venables Vernon, 1808, poetical epitaph by 
her sister Elizabeth Countess of Harcourt ; and George Ve- 
nables, late Lord Vernon, 1813, with epitaph by his brother 
the Archbishop of York. 

In Taddington Church-yard is this inscription: "Here 
lies the body of William Hewed, who departed this life 
Nov. 19, 1718, aged 218.'' In 1791 here died, aged 101, 
Mary Gratton; and in 1813, aged 107. Alice Buckley, 
whose mother lived to be 108. 

In TiDESWELL Church are the monuments of Sir Samp- 
son Meverel, warrior under the Duke of Bedford, Regent of 
France, 1462; and of its native Robert Pursglove, Suffra- 
gan Bishop of Hull, 1579. 

At Tissinoton, in Mr. Fitzherbert's family, the Rev. 
Richard Graves resided three years, and laid some of the 
scenes of his ''Spiritual Quixote'' in this neighbourhood. — 
Here, on Holy Thursday, they decorate the wells and 
springs with devices and inscriptions, with great pomp and 
ceremony. 

In West Hall am Church is the monument of William 
Derbyshire, physician and divine, 1674. 

In Whittinoton Church is the monument of the anti- 
quary Dr. Samuel Pegge, who was its resident Rector for 
45 years, and died there in 1796, aged 91. He was a fre- 
quent and most valuable contributor to the Gentleman's 
Magazine, his earlier papers being generally signed "Paul 
Gemsege," the anagram of Samuel Pegge ; and the latter of 
"T. Row," the initials of The jRector Of J^hittington. 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 39 

He was also Vicar of Heath, and Perpetual Curate of Win- 
gerworth in this County. 

At WiLLERSLET, in Cromford, died in August 1792> aged 
59, Sir Richard Arkwright, who, after practising as a bar- 
ber, and travelling as a buyer of human hair, invented and 
carried into operation some of the most important improve- 
ments in the machinery for cotton spinning, became High 
Sheriff of the County, and died with opulence and honour. 
He planted on this estate 50,000 young trees annually, on 
an average of seven years. The house stands on the site of 
a large rock, the removal of which cost Sir Richard £3,000. 
Here are many paintings by Wright of Derby. The most 
celebrated are a portrait of Sir Richard Arkwright; and a 
View of the Head of Ullswater, which was purchased for 
300 guineas, and is ranked at the head of Wright's landscape 
productions. 

At WiNOERWORTH died in 1789, aged 104, Anne Ash. 

In WiRKSwoRTH Church, among the many monuments 
of their family, are the tombs of Anthony Gell, who founded 
the school and almshouses, 1583; and Sir John Gell, Par- 
liamentarian General, 1671. — Sir Richard Arkwright here 
practised as a barber. — In the Wapentake of Wirksworth, 
the wakes on the saints' days of the churches, are very gene- 
rally observed. They last several days, and plays are per- 
formed in the evenings. 

At WooTON Hall the historian Hume procured a retreat 
for the French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau, who 
lived here from March 1766 to April 1767> when, ungrate- 
fully and insanely imagining the pamphlet written by Ho- 
race Walpole, "in the person of the King of Prussia," in 
ridicule of him, to have been penned by his English bene- 
factor, acted very extravagantly towards Mr. Hume, and 
retired to the French provinces. 



40 



List of fforks consulted. 

1 . The HUtory and Gazetteer of the County of Derhy. By Stephen 

Glover and Thomas Noble [Tbii work ii now in the course of 

publication. The first part uf vols. i. and ii. have been delivered.] 

9. Beauties of England and Wales.— vol. iii. pp. 291-552. 

9. A view of the present state of Derbyshire. By James Filking- 
too. — 9 vols. 8vo, 1769. 

4. The History of Derby. By William Hotton, F.A.S.— 8vo, 1817. 

5. A picturesque Tour in Yorkshire and Derbyshire. By the late 
Edward Dayes.—6vo, 1895. 

6. A new historical and descriptive view of Derbyshire. By the 
Rev. D. P. Dsvies.— 8vo, 1811. 

7. An History of the Manor and Manor-house of South Winfield. 
By Thomas Blore, F.S.A.— 4to, 1793. 

8. A short description of Castleton. By J. M. Hedinger.-— 19mo. 
9 Sketch of a Tour Into Derbyshire and Yorkshire} &c. By Wil- 
liam Bray, F.S.A.— 8vo, 1783. 

10. An historical account of Beauchief Abbey. By the late Rev. 
Samuel Pegge, LL.D.— 4to, 1801. 



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SITUATION AND EXTENT. 

Boundaries, North-east, Notting^liamshire, separated bj 
the Soar : North-west, Derbyshire : East, Lincolnshire 
and Rutlandshire: South-east, Northamptonshire, sepa- 
rated by the rivers Avon a"nd Welland : South-west, War- 
wickshire, separated by the Ankre. 

Greatest length, 45: greatest breadth, 2>b'. circumfer* 
ence, 150: square, S06 miles: statute acres, 515,840. 

Circuit, Midland. 

Province, Canterbury. Diocese, Lincoln. There is an 
Archdeaconry of Leicester, with the Deaneries of Ackley, 
Framland, Gartree, Goscote, Guthlaxton, Leicester or 
Christianity, and Sparkenhoe. 

ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

British Inhabitants, Coritani, whose capital was at Leices- 
ter. Earthwork, Radcliffe on the Wreke. 

Roman Province, Flavia Csesariensis. Stations, Benonse 
or VcnonsB, High Cross; Raga or Ratse, Leicester; 
Tripontium, Dowbridge ; Vernometum, near Willoughby, 



2 COUNTY HISTORY — LEICEBTBR8HIRR. 

or Burrow Hill. EncampmenU, Billesdon, inclosing 
eighteen acres; Burrow, called Casar's Camp, nearly 
square, of sixteen acres ; Hincklej, called Hugh's Castle* 
Husband's Bosworth; Kibworth Harcourt; Laund; 
Lubbenham ; Market Harborough ; Ratby, a parallel- 
ogram of 900 feet long and 480 broad. Earthworks, 
Barkby, tumulus ; Radykes or Rawdykes, near Lieicester ; 
Segshill, on the Foss Road. Temples, Billesdon ; Leices- 
ter, dedicated to Janus. Roads, the Fosse, from Wil- 
loughby to the Watling Street at High Cross, on which 
road the town of Leicester stands ; Via Devaua, enters 
across the Welland, near Bringhurst, and goes to Burton- 
upon-Trent in Staffordshire; Salt Way, enters near 
Croxton Kyriel, intersects the Foss Road at Segs Hill, 
and goes into Charnwood Forest; the Watling Street, 
enters at Dovebridge, and goes into Nottinghamshire. 
Remains discovered at Belvoir ; Bottcsford; Higham, 
coins; Hinckley, bath; Kibworth, inscribed stone; 
Little Wigston, or High Cross, coins ; Market Harbo- 
rough, urns, &c. ; Medbourne, tessellated pavement, coins, 
and medals ; Leicester, many tessellated pavements, coins, 
and urns, and a milliary was found in 1771; Rothley, 
pavement, urns, and coins ; Shawell, bricks and tiles ; 
Wanlip, foundations, pavement, coins, and urns. 

Saxon Octarchy, Mercia. Entampment, Hallaton, Castle 
Hill. 

Danish Encampment^ Tilton, called Robin a Tiptoe. 

Abbeys. Croxton, founded about II 50, by Wm. Earl of Mor* 
taigne and by Parcarius de Linus ; Garendon, by Robert 
Bossu, Earl of Leicester, 1133; Leicester, by Robert 
Bossu, Earl of Leicester, 1143; Owston, by Robert 
Grimbald, 1170. 



ANTIENT 8TATB AND REMAINS. O 

Priories. Alderman s Haw, cell to Bermondsey ; Belvoir, 
by Robert de Todeni, about 1076; Bradley, by Robert 
de Bundy, about 1200 ; Bredon, by Robert de Ferrariis, 
Earl of Nottingham and Derby, 1144; Hinckley, by 
Hugo de Grentemaisnell, about 1090*, cell to the abbey 
of Lira in Normandy; Kirkby-Beler, by Alice Beler, 
1359; Laund, by Richard and Maud Bassett, about 
1125; Melton Mowbray ; Ulvescroft, by Earl Robert 
Bossu, 1130, considerable ruins. 

JVunnerits, Gracedieu, founded by Roesia de Verdun, be- 
tween 1236 and 1242, considerable ruins ; Langley, by 
Wlliam Pantulph, about 1100. 

Friaries. Charley, Eremite Augustins, by Robert Blanch- 
maines. Earl of Leicester, temp. Henry II., some walls 
remain; Leicester, Eremites, ante 1304; Black, about 
1251, by Simon de Montfort, second Earl of Leicester ; 
Grey, by Simon de Montfbrt, Earl of Lancaster ; de Peni- 
tentia Jesu Cbristi, ante 1283; White. 

(Jotteges. Kirkby-Beler, founded by Roger Beler, 1319. 
Leicester, St. Mary de Castro, ante William I. rebuilt by 
R. de Bellomont, Earl of Leicester, 1107; St. Mary the 
Great, by Henry Earl, afterwards Duke, of Lancaster, 
1353 ; Newark, by Henry Earl of Lancaster, son of the 
preceding, in 1355. Noseley, in 1273, by Anketil de 
Martival. Sapcote. 

Hospitals. Burton Lazars, by Roger de Mowbray, about 
1140. Castle Donington, by John Baron. Leicester, St. 
lieonard, built by William Leprosas, son of Robert 

^ Nichols's History of Leicestershire ; but Dagdale has Robert de 
Bossu, and Tanner, Robert Blanchmaines. 



4 COUNTY HISTORY — LBICE8TBR8HIRB. 

Blanchmaines, Earl of Leicester, for the relief of lepers ; 
Spital, founded by the same ; St. John the Bapdst and 
St. John the Evangelist; Newark, by Henry Earl of 
Lancaster; St. Ursula, by William Wigston, the younger, 
about 1510; Trinity, in 1330, by Henry Earl of Lancas- 
ter ; Wigston's, by William Wigston, Mayor of Leicester, 
1499. Lutterworth, by Roesia de Verdun, and Nicholas 
her son, about 1200. Stokerston, by John de Boynle, 
1465-6. 

Preceptories, Dalby-on-the- Wolds ; Heather ; Rothley. 

Churches, Aston Flamrile; Drystoke, pointed arches 
and round pillars ; Eaton, semicircular arches ; Elms- 
thorpe, in ruins ; Godeby ; Hallaton, north porch has 
an antient sculpture of St Michael slaying a dragon ; 
Higham; Hinckley, of the I3th century; Horninghold, 
south door sculptured representation emblematic of the 
enmity of Satan against the Church ; Leicester, All 
Saints, St. Mary de Castro, and St. Nicholas ; South 
Kibworth ; Stoney Stanton, Norman door south side ; 
West Langton ; Witherley, built by John last Lord Se- 
grave, temp. Edward III. 

Chapels. Dadlington ; Drayton, now a bake-house ; Kil- 
by, semicircular arches remain : Lindley, now used as a 
cow-house. 

Fonts. Belgrave, very singular; Braunston; Burrow, 
vei'y handsome ; Catthorpe, exceedingly rude ; Foxton, 
Saxon, very large ; Garendon ; Godeby ; Hallaton ; 
Harby; Horninghold; Houghton-on-the-Hill ; Knos- 
sington ; Leicester, St. Mary de Castro, and All Saints ; 
Noseley ; Pickwell ; Rothley ; Sapcote, Norman, sin- 
gularly curious, having the lotus ornament of classic ar- 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. D 

chitecture ; Somerby ; South Kilworth, in shape of a 
capital of a column; Stonesbj; Swinford; Thorpe 
Arnold, rude representation of St. Michael and the great 
dragon; Twyford, square with ornamented angles; 
Waltham-on-the-Wolds^ rich. 

Castles. Ashby-de-la-Zouch, built by Sir William Has- 
tings, K.G. about 14S0, a grand and highly interesting 
mass of ruins ; BeWoir, by Robert de Todeni, standard 
bearer to William I.; Castle Donington, by Eustace 
Baron of Halton ; Earl's Shilton, by the Earls of Leicester ; 
Groby, by Hugo de Grentemaisnell, in the time of 
William I. ; Hinckley, by the same, not a vestige left ; 
Kirby Muxloe, some remains; Leicester, built by the 
Earls of Mercia, rebuilt by Hugo de Grentemaisnell, temp. 
William I., re-edified by Simon de Montfort ; Marston 
Trussell ; Melton, by Roger Lord Mowbray ; Mount- 
sorrel, by Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, 1174; Raunston, 
by Geosfrid Hanselm ; Sapcote ; Sauvey, by Lord Bassett 
of Weldon; Thorpe, by Emald de Bois; Whitwick, by 
the Earls of Leicester. 

Mansions. Bradgate, interesting ruins of one belonging 
to the Lords Grey of Groby, formerly magnificent and 
spacious ; Carieton Curlieu Hall, near Kibworth, built 
in the time of Elizabeth or James ; Husband's Bosworth 
Hall ; Lubbenham ; Newbold Verdun, moated, occupied 
as a farm-house : Quenby Hall, an admirable structure, 
temp. Elizabeth; Stapleford Hall, erected by Thomas 
Sherrard, esq. 1500, repaired 1633. 

Crosses. Bottesford ; Frisby and Frisby Hags ; Harby; 
Mount Sorrel, removed 1793; Rakedale; Rothley, 
shaft remains ; Saltby; Scraptoft; Shepeshead. 



PRESENT SI ATE AND APPEARANCE. 

Rivers, Anker, rises at Hinckley, and goes into Warwick- 
shire ; Avon, rises near Husband's Bosworth, and goes 
to Dowbridge ; Blackbrook ; Deven, rises at Eastwell 
and Croxton Park, the streams uniting at Knipton, leaves 
the county near Blackberry Hill, enters again at Muston, 
and leaves to join the Trent in Nottinghamshire; Eye, 
rises at Pickwell, joins the Wreke near Melton, receives 
three native streams : the Southern Eye, rises near Til- 
ton, joins the Welland at Easton ; Mease, rises in Ash- 
by-de-la Zouch, and leaves the county near Nether Scale ; 
Scalford ; Sence, rises from two branches near Snibston 
and Ravenstone, which unite at Kelham Bridge, and goes 
into Warwickshire ; Smyte, rises at Nether Broughton 
and Long Clawson, and passes into Nottinghamshire; 
Soar, rises in the south-west part of the county, about 5 
miles from Lutterworth, joins the Trent at Radcliffe, on 
the borders of Nottinghamshire ; Swift, rises at Kim- 
cote, and goes into Warwickshire ; Trent, enters at the 
park of Castle Donington, bounds the county for eight 
miles, meets the Soar at Hemington, and goes into York- 
shire; Welland, rises near Theddingworth. and leaves 
near Easton : Wreke, rises at Abkettleby, and joins the 
Soar at Cossington. 

Inland Navigation, Ashby-de-la-Zouch Canal, from the 
Coventry Canal, through a tunnel at Snarestone, to Ashby 
Woulds, a distance of 30 miles. Grand Union Canal. 
Leicester Canal, from the basin of the Loughborough Ca- 
nal to the river Soar at Quorndon. Leicester and Melton 
Mowbray Canal, from the Leicester Canal near Syston 
to Melton, a distance of eleven miles. Leicestershire 
Union, from the Soar near Leicester into Northampton- 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. / 

shire ; Loughborough Canal, from Market Harborough 
to Loughborough, passing Leicester. Canal from Lough- 
borough to the lime works at Barrow Hill near Worthing- 
ton, with a tunnel at Saddington 880 yards in length.. 
Oakham Canal, from Melton, by Wymondham, Market 
Overton, &c. to Oakham, a distance of fifteen mles, having 
a rise of 126 feet. Soar River. 

hakes, Groby Pool, extends over 80 acres ; Gumley. 

Eminences and Views, Bardon Hill, 853 feet high, the 
highest in the county, commands a greater extent of 
surface than any other point of view in the island, Lincoln 
Cathedral at a distance of sixty miles being a prominent 
object, and the whole range of vision embraces upwards 
of one twelfth of the whole kingdom of England; 
Barrow Hill ; Beacon Hill ; Beaumanor Park, pictur- 
esque beauty combined with serenity and sublimity of 
character; Bel voir Castle, view for 30 miles ; Bredon, 
commands very extensive and delightful views ; Bradgate 
Park; Billesdon Coplow; Carlton Spinney; Castle 
Donington Hill, very beautiful views, and the Park is ce- 
lebrated for its picturesque beauty ; Charnwood Hills, 
a range of mountainous heights ; Church Langton, fine 
prospect on every side ; Cole Orton, the country about com- 
mands very extensive views ; Croft Hill, a most delight- 
ful view ; Donington Cliff, a scene admired for its wild 
and romantic features ; Dunton Basset Church ; Ender- 
by Hall, wild and romantic scenery; Hinckley b said to 
be built on the highest ground in England, and more than 
50 churches can be seen from the extreme eminence; 
Holt, extensive views of richly cultivated country ; Knap- 
toft, abounds with extensive views; Knipton Hills; 
Markfield Knoll ; Quenby, abounds with rich scenery; 
Rakedale Hall, commands extensive and diversified views : 



8 COUNTY HISTORY— LBICB8TBR8HIRB. 

Robin a Tiptoe ; Stathern Point, 490 feet high ; Ullcs- 
thorpe, exceedingly pleasing and delightful. 

JVaturai Curiosities. Ashby-de-la-Zoucb waters ; Brunting- 
thorpe, chalybeate spring: Burton Lazars waters ; Dalby- 
on-the- Wolds, chalybeate waters ; Gumley, mineral spring ; 
Hinckley, mineral waters at Cogg's Wells, Christophers 
Spa, and the Priest Hills ; Holt, mineral spring, disco- 
^ vepedl728; Knaptoft, three springs proceed to three 
rivers, Soar, Swift, and Welland, and enter themselves 
into the sea at three different parts of the kingdom; 
Laund, petrifying spring; Leicester, mineral spring, 
discovered in 1787 ; Sadington, mineral spring; Saltby, 
chalybeate water ; Shearsby, salt spring ; Thurnby, pe- 
trifying well. 

Public Edifices. Appleby Parva, free school, founded by 
Sir John Moore, kt, 1697. Ashby-de-la-Zouch, bridge : 
Ivanhoe baths, large, commodious, and elegant: theatre. 
Hinckley, bridewell, erected 1768; town hall, built in 
1802-3. Kegworth, the Cavendish bridge, elegant, of 
stone, built at the sole expense of the Duke of Devon- 
shire. Leicester, asylum for lunatics ; bridewells; county 
gaol, erected in 1791 ; new county gax)l, erected 1825-8 : 
exchange, built in 1747 ; infirmary, erected 1771 ; free 
grammar school ; theatre ; town hall, which before the 
Reformation was the Corpus Christi guild ; town gaol ; 
Wi<^8ton's hospital. Loughborough, market-house, built 
in 1742, in the place of an old cross ; court chamber, a 
very old building. Market Bosworth, free school, 
founded in 1586, by Sir Wolstan Dixie, Lord Mayor of 
London. Market Harborough, handsome bridge; town 
hall. Mountsorrel, market house, built 1793, by Sir John 
Danvers, Bart. Raunston, hospital, founded by John 
Willdns, 1712. Sapcote, house of industry, built 1805-6. 
Wigston, lunatic asylum. 



6JEATS, 



Seats, Belyoir Castle, and Eashrell Hall, Duke of Rut- 
land, Lord Lieutenant of the Ckmn4y, 
AUexton Hall, John Eagleton, esq. 
Appleby Hall, George Moore, esq. 
Ashby-de-la-Zouch Manor House, Marquess of Hastings. 
Bagffrave Hall, Edwyn Bumaby, esq. 
Bardon Hall, Robert Jacomb Hood, esq. 
Barkby Hall, Mrs. Pochin. 
Beaumanor Park, William Herrick, esq. 
Birstall House, J. Mansfield, esq. 
Bitteswell Hall, Mrs Coleman: 
Bosworth Hall, Husband's Bosworth, F. F. Turvillc, esq. 

House, Market Bosworth, Sir W. Wolstau Dixie, Bt. 

Braunston Hall, near Leicester, Clement Winstanley, e^. 
Brooksby Hall, the late George Wyndham, esq. 
Buckminster Park, Lord Huntingtower. 
Burleigh Hall, Miss Tate. 

Fields, Colonel Clanchey. 

Burton Hall, Lord St. Maur. 

Carlton Curlieu Hall, Sir John Palmer, Bart. 

Catthorpe Hall, John Frewin Turner, esq. 

Claybrook Hall, Thomas Edward Dicey, esq. 

Cole Orton Hall, Sir George H. W. Beaumont, B^ 

Coston Hall, Edward Tufton Phelp, esq. 

Croft Hall, James Brookes, esq. 

Croxton Park, Duke of Rutland. 

Dalby Old Hall, Rev. N. G, Sawyer. 

Dingley Hall, H. H. Hungerford, esq. 

Donington Park, Marquis of Hastings. 

Edmondthorpe Hall, Hon. William Kdwardes. 

Elms (The), near Mkt. Harborough, W.de Capel Brooke, esq. 

Loughborough, Thomas Warner, esq. 

Enderby Hall, Cliarles Lorraine Smith, esq. 
Frith Hall, Thomas Pares, esq. 

House, Leicester, Mrs. Oldham. 

Frolesworth Hall, 

Gaddesby Hall, Colonel Cheney, C.B. 

Garendon Park, Charles March Phillipps, esq. M.P. 

Goadby Hall, Otho Manners, esq, 

Gopsal Hall, Earl Howe. 

Grange (The), Leicester Forest, W. Kenworthy Walker, esq. 

Grange Wood End House, Over Seal, Thos. Mowbray, esq. 

Great Glen, near Leicester, Rev. Sir George S. Robinson, Bt. 

Gumley Hall, William Henry Wilson, esq. 



10 COUNTY HISTORY — LBICBSTBRBHIRB. 

Hallaton H«11, Rev. C. J. Bewicke. 

Higham, Applethwaite, esq- 

Hinckley, Thomas Sansome, esq. 

Nicholas Hurst, esq. 

Holt, Charles Neville, esq. 

Humberstone, near Leicester, Edward Hobson, esq. 

Ibstock Grange, Samuel Weston, esq. 

Kirby Frith House, J. B. Robinson, esq. 

Kirkby Belers Park, Sir Francis Burdett, Bart. 

Kirkby Hall, John Russell, esq. 

Knighton Hall, Captain King. 

Langley Priory, Richard Cbehlrn, esq. 

Langton Hall, Rev. James Ora. 

Laund Abbey, Henry Dawson, esq. 

Leesthorpe Hall, Ayscough Smith, esq. 

Lindley Hall, Rev. Samuel Bainbridge Heming. 

Little Dalb^ Hall, Edward B. Hartopp, esq. 

Little Peathnff Hall, John Clarke, esq. 

Lockington Hall, John Balguy, esq. 

Lodington Hall, J. Humfrev, esq. 

Marston Hall, Edward Cradock Hartopp, esq. 

Melton Mowbray, Earl of Wilton. 

■ "■ R. Norman, esq. 

Misterton Hall, Jacob Henry Franks, esq. 
Nether Seal, Rev. William Ni^el Gresley. 
Newton Harcourt, Henry Haltord, esq. M.P. 
Normanton Hall, John Wilson, esq. 
Normanton-le-Heath, Valentine Green, esq. 
Noseley Hall, Sir Arthur George Hazelrigee, Bart. 
Oaks (The), Kirby Muxloe, Joshua Grundy, esq. 
Odstone Hall, Richard Sharpe Spencer, esq. 

Hill, Edward Green, esq. 

Orton-onthe-Hill, H. P. V. Perkins, esq. 

Osbaston Hall, Thomas Cope, esq. 

Over Seal, Lady Tamworth. 

Overton Hall, the late John Frewin Turner, esq. 

Papillon Hall, George Bosworth, esq. 

Park Hall, Gaddesby, George Williamson, esq. 

Pickleton, Thomas Wightman Jee, esq. 

Pool House, Groobv, Miss Mary Pares. 

Prestwould Hall, Cfharles James Packe, esq. 

Quenby Hall, William Ashby Ashby, esq. 

Queniborough Hall, Miss Kilby. 

Quomdon House, Edward Farnham, esq. 



8BAT8. 11 

Quorndoiu Frederick Angerstein, esq* 

HallT 

Rakedale Hall, Hilton Jolliffe, esq. 
Ratcliffe on Wreke, R, Mansell Oliver, ^, 
Ravenstone Hall, C. W: Packe, esq. 
RoUestone Hall, Henry Greene, esq. 
Rptherby Hall, Samud Seaman, esq. 
Rothlev Temple, Thomas Babington, esq. 
Rowcliffe, Sir William Heygate, Bart. 
Scraptoft Hall, Edward Hartopp, esq. 
Shenton Hall, Frederick William Woll&Bton, esq. 
Shepey Hall Honse, Mrs. Birt. 
Skeffington Hall, J. Briebt, esq. 
Snarestone Hall, Colonel Leslie. 

Lodge, Gedi^e Moore, esq. 

Somerby, Francis Forester, esq. 

Hall, Lord William Powlett 

Stapleford Hall, Earl of Harborough. 

Staunton Harold, Earl Ferrers. 

Stewards Hay, Groby, Earl of Stamford.. 

Stoaghton Grange^ Georee Anthony Legh Keck, esq. 

Stockerston, Thomas Walker, esq. 

Swithland Hall, John. Geo. Danvers Butlor Danvers, esq. 

Svsonby Lpdge, the late Earl of Plymouth. 

Tempe, Miss Bakewell. 

Thedingworth, — — ' 

Thorpe Hall, Mrs. Catharine Mills. 

Thorpe Satchville Hall, Edward Arthur Paget, esq. 

Thurmaston Lodge, William Heyrick, esq. 

Tooley Park,. Rev. John Lynes. 

Ullesthorpe House, John Goodacre, esq. 

Ulvescrort, Thomas Denning, esq. 

Wanlip Hall, Sir George Joseph Palmer, Bart. 

Wartnaby Hall, 

Westcotes, Thomas Freer, esq, 
Whatton House, Edward Dawson, esq, M.P. 
Wigston Hall, Joshua Grundy, esq. 
Wistow Hall, Sir Henry Halford, Bart. 
Withcote Hall, Rev. Henry Palmer. 
Witherley, Ralph Thompson, esq. 

Peerage. Ashby-de-la-Zouch, barony (1461) to Marquess 
of Hastings: Castle Donington, Granard of, barony 
C1806) to Forbes Earl of Granard. Groby, Grey of, ba- 



12 COUNTY HI8TORY^LBICB8TER8HIRB. 

rony (1603) to Earl of Stamford: Hamilton, Hamilton 
of, viscounty (1786) to Marquis of Abercom; Harbo- 
rough, barony (1714) and earldom (1719) to Sherard: 
Leicester County, earldom (1784) to Townshend Marquess 
Townshend: Staunton Wyville, Brudenell of, barony 
(1627) to Earl of Cardigan : Sysonby, Ponsonby of, ba- 
rony (1749) to Earl of Besborough. 

Baronetage. Preathby, Hartopp, 1796: Pulston Hall, 
Dixie, 1660: Oaulby, Milnes, 1801 : Lovesby, Fowke, 
1814: Melton Mowbray, Hudson, 1660: Netherseal, 
Hewett, 1813: Noseley Hall, Hazelrigge, 1622: Prest- 
would, Skipwitb, 1622 : Skeffington Hall, Skeffington, 
1786: Stoughton Grange, Beaumont, 1660: Wan% 
Palmer, late Hudson, 1791. 

Representatives Returned to Parliament, Northern Di- 
vision of the County, 2 ; Southern Division, 2 ; Lei- 
cester, 2 ; — total, 6. The Reform Act added two to the 
County representation. 

Produce. Lead ; coal ; slate, at Swithland ; ironstone ; 
freestone; redstone, at Caldwell, indestructible by fire; 
basalt, at Stony Stanton, an inexhaustible supply ; gyp- 
sum, as Syston ; limestone, that found at Barrow, is Ta- 
luable as forming an excellent cement in water, and was 
used in the building of the pier at Ramsgate, in Kent ; 
a reddish granite, at Mount Sorrel, which after exposure 
to the air resists all kinds of tools. Wheat; barley; peas ; 
oats; and beans. Large black cart horses; sheep and 
cattle, very fine. 

Manufactures, Cheese, the sort called Stilton, from having 
been first sold at an inn in that town, in Huntingdonshire, 
was originally made in the neighbourhood of Melton Mow- 
bray, and is still made there. Ashby-de-la-Zouch, hats ; 
firebricks. Castle Donington, paper, lace nets, stockings, 
baskets. Hinckley, stockings, next in extent to Leicester. 
Leicester, worsted stockings, employing above 8,000 per- 



PRESENT STATE. 13 

SODS, and all kinds of hosiery. Loughborough, cotton, 
worsted, and mohair ; bobbin net lace. Lutterworth, cotton . 
Quomdon, stockings ; warp and bobbin twist lace. Mar- 
ket Bosworth, hosiery. Market Harborough, carpets, and 
worsteds. Melton M«>wbray, net. Sapcote, Shepeshead, 
aod other larg« villages, stockings. 



POPULATION IN 183L 

Hundreds, 6 ; Borough, 1 ; Market Towns, 10 ; Pa- 
rishes, 196. 
Houses, Inhabited, 40,354; Building, 1^4; Uninhabited, 

1 d4i 

IfihiMUmts. Males, 97,556; Females, 99,447; total, 197,003. 
Families. Employed in agriculture, 12,352; in trade, 

22,984; in neither, 6,806; total, 42,142. 
Baptisms in 1830. Males, 2,523; Females, 2,433; total, 

4,956. Annual average o/1821 to 1830, 5,236. 
Marriages, 1,502; annual average, 1,588. 
Burials. Males, 1,764; Females, 1,697 j total, 3,461. 

Annual average, 3,401. 

Places having not less than 1,090 Inhabitants. 

Hoase% 

Leicester 8,348 

Longhborough 8,176 
Hinckley 1,981 

Ashb^-de-la-ZouchTSa 
Sheepebeed 783 

Melton Mowbray 674 
Castle DoniogtOQ 674 
MarketH«rborough435 
Lutterworth 485 

Wigston Magna 458 
Earl Shilton 406 

Quomdon £(77 

Kegworth 866 

Barrow-upoD-Soar 831 
Burhach&Sketchley386 
South Fields 848 

Mountsorrel 838 

Whitwick 818 

Sileby 805 

Syston 875 



Iiihab. 




Houses. 


lahab. 


88,904 


Bottesfurd, &e. 


877 


1,330 


10,969 


Hiithern 


867 


1,969 


6,491 


Wimeswould 


S56 


1,976 


4,400 


Thringstone 


858 


1,967 


3,714 


Barweil 


848 


1,945 


8,580 


W Of iri house 


831 


1,968 


8,189 


Nether & Over Seal 845 


1,838 


8,878 


WorthHif^ttm and 






8,868 


Newbold 


954 


1,911 


8,174 


EnHerhy 


831 


1,141 


8,017 


Bred on 


843 


1,103 


1>75« 


Markfield 


987 


1,088 


1,749 


Bowden Ma^na 


943 


1,0^ 


1,638 


Market Bosworth 


903 


1^049 


1,618 


Ibstock 


938 


1,044 


1,608 


Oadl>y 


915 


1,083 


1,608 


Cosby with Little- 






1,558 


thorpe 


197 


1,009 


1,491 


Blaby 


914 


1^001 


1,349 









14 
HISTORY. 

AD. 

886. Leicester auccessfiiUy attacked by the Danes. 

1016. Leicester, then in possession of Canute, plundered bj 
the army of Edmund Ironside. 

1173. Leicester, the chief refuge of the adherents of the 
young King Henry in his unnatural rebellion against 
his father Henry II. taken and destroyed by Richard Lucy, 
Chief Justiciary. 

1217. Mountsorrel Castle garrisoned by Saher de Quincy, 
Earl of Winchester, for Levris the Dauphin, invested by 
William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, and the forces of 
Henry III. but the siege was raised on the approach of the 
Count de Perche with an army of 20,000 men. The fol- 
lowing year it was razed to the ground. 

1324. At Huncote, Ralph Basset, and the King's thanes, 
held a council. 

1390. The Duke of Lancaster entertsdned his nephew Ric. 
II., the Queen, and the great nobles of the realm, at hi^ 
forests and parks about Leicester, to their great satisfaction. 

1414. At Leicester, April 30, assembled the Parliament 
which granted a subsidy of 300,000 marks to Henry V. 
to assert his title to the throne of France, and ordained 
death to the maintainers of the doctrines of Wickliffe, and 
to the readers of the Scriptures in English. 

1426. At Leicester, Feb. 18, assembled the Parliament at 
which the Duke of CKoucester and Beaufort Bishop of 
Winchester, afterwards Cardinal, were ostensibly recon- 
ciled, and the young King Henry VI. was knighted by hia 
uncle the Duke of Bedford, Regent of France. 

1450. A Parliament held at Leicester. 

1463. Edward IV. resided at Leicester Castle, and again ia 
June in the following year. 



HieTORT. 15 

A. D. 

1483. August 17, lUchard III. at Leicester, on a progress 
to York. 

1485. August 16, Richard III. in great regal state, his 
crown on his head, came with the army from Notting- 
ham to Leicester, which he qui tted on the following day. 
On the 18th he marched to Stapleton, where he pitched 
his camp on ground called the Bradshaws, and continued 
till the 2l8t, when both armies came in sight. In the 
evening he removed to Anbein Hill. On the 22d, in Sut- 
ton Fidd, near Bosworth, was fought the la&t of thirteen 
pitched battles between the Houses of York and Lancas- 
ter, when Richard III. after killing Sir William Brandon, 
and unhorsing Sir John Cheney, was slain, bravely fight- 
ing in the midst of his enemies, and the £arl of Richmond 
was crowned Henry VII. on the field. In this battle were 
slain of the Lancastrians about 100 men, and of the 
Yorkists about 1000, including John Duke of York, Wal- 
ter Lord Ferrers, Sir Richard Radcliffe, Sir William Con- 
yers. Sir Robert Brackenbury, the Lord Zouch, and Sir 
Gervase Clifton. Sir William Catesby was taken pri- 
soner, and shortly afterwards executed at Leicester. Ri- 
chard was buried at Leicester. 

1603. Anne, consort of James I. with her son Prince Henry, 
entertained at Ashby-de-la-Zouch, the noble mansion of 
George Earl of Huntingdon. They proceeded on June 
23 to licicester, and on the following day to Dingley. 

1612. Aug. 18, James I. and the Prince received at Leices- 
ter by the Mayor and Corporation. 

1614. James again at Leicester, August 18, and also in 
1616. 

16ir> James entertained at Asfaby-de-la-Zouch. 

1643. December 24, about 140 men of Belvoir defeated by 
Colonel Wayte with 60 meo, taking 46 prisoners and 60 
horses.— On the 16th of the March following. Colonel 



16 COUNTY HISTORY — LBICE8TER8HIRB. 

A. D. 

Wayte attacked another party at Bdvoir Caatle, where he 
made many prisoners. 

1644. 'July 1, in Satton Field, near Bosworth, on the spot 
where the grrat battle was foug^bt in 1485, a skirmish, in 
which six Royalists were killed, and 40 taken prisoners 
by Captain Babington, at the bead of a detachment of 
Lord Grey's forces. Augfust, the Newark and Belvoir 
forces, about 300, conunanded by Sir Robert Dallison, 
were repulsed by Captain Allen, with the loss of 5 killed, 
50 prisoners, and 80 horse.— August 5 and 6, the King 
slept at Belvoir Castle. On the 23d, the King, proceeding 
with his troops to Stamford, was attacked in the rear by 
some forces from Burleigh and Leicester, who took 80 
horse, 20 prisoners, 4 colours, and divers arms. — In Octo- 
ber, a skirmish between the King*s party and Sir Thomas 
Fairfax, in which the latter took 800 horse, and 400 pri- 
soners. 

1644-5. Near Melton Mowbray, Feb. 25, the Parliament- 
arians under Colonel Rossiter defeated, and 170 slain, by 
Sir Marmaduke Langdale. 

1645. Between Harborough and Leicester, the Parlia- 
mentarians defeated, 100 slain, and 250 taken prisoners, 
by Sir Marmaduke Langdale. — Leicester, under Colonel 
Thomas Orey, May 31, stormed by Charles 1. and Prince 
Rupert, When about 300 Parliamentarians were slain, and 
300 made prisoners.— June 4, the King from Leicester, 
lay at Wistow one night, at Sir Richard Halford's ; on 
the 5th, he removed to Lubbenham, and staid two nights 
at Mr. Collinses ; on the Tth went to Daventry ; and on 
the 13th remarched to Lubbenham. On the 14th, he pro- 
ceeded to Harborough, and thenoe to Naseby. 

1814. The Prince Regent visited the Duke of Rutland at 
Belvoir, January 2, and left on the 7th. 



17 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

Aikin, Dr. John, surgeon and misceHaneous author, Kib- 

worth, 1747 (died 1822). 
Appleby, Sir Edmund, warrior at Cressy, Great Appleby 

(flourished temp. Edward III.) 
Bainbridg^e, John, astronomer, metaphysician, and physi- 
cian, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, 1582 (died 1643). 
Bakewell, Robert, cattle-breeder, Dishley, 1726 (died 1795). 
Beaumont, Francis, fudge, Grace Dieu (died 1598). 
Francis, third son of Francis the Judge, poet and dra- 
matic writer, friend and coadjutor of Fletcher, Grace Dieu, 
1586 (died 1616). 

John, the first person honoured with the title of Vis- 
count, Beaumont Park (temp. Henry VI.) 

Sir John, Bart, elder brother of the poet Francis, poet, 

Grace Dieu, 1582 (died 1628). 

Belgrave, R. Author of "Theological Determinations,*' 
Belgrave (flourished 1220). 

Belknap, Sir Robert, Lord Chief Justice to Edward III. 

Beveric^e, William, Bishop of St. Asaph, orientalist, and 
voluminous writer on theological and philological subjects, 
Barrow-upon-Soar, 1638 (died ^1708). 

Brinsley, John, nonconformist divine and autiior, Ashby-de- 
la-Zouch, 1600. 

Brokesby, F. nonjuring divine, biographer of Dodwell, 
Stoke rdied 1718). 

Broxholme, Noel, physician, Buckminster* 

Burdet, Thomas, executed by Edward IV. in 1477> for an 
unguarded expression, Newton Burdet. 

Burton, Robert, divine, " Democritus junior," author of 
«< Anatomy of Melancholy,*' Lindley, 1576 (died 1639-40). 

William, historian of his native county, Lindley, 1.575. 

Bury, Richard de. Bishop of Durham, Lord Chancellor, 
WiUoughby Waterless (died 1345). 

Cateline, Sir Robert, Chief Justice to Elizabeth, Beby (died 
1574). 

Cave, John, royalist divine, Pickwell (died 1657). 

William, son of John, learned and ingenious writer, 



IS COUNTY HISTORY— LBICB8TBR8HIRB. 

and florid preacher, author of '* Hbtoria Lateraria/* Pick- 
well, 1637 (died 1713). 
Chambers, Sabine, Jesuit, author of '^ Oarden of the Virgin," 

(flourished in the time of Elizabeth). 
Cheselden, ll^iam, anatomist and lithotomist, and profes- 

sional author, Burrow-on-the-Hill, 1688 (died 1752). 
. Cleiveland, John, Judge Advocate to the troops at Newark, 

loyalist, and poet, Hinckley, 1613 (died 1659). 
CoTBs, Roger, mathematician and astronomer, at whose 

death Sir Isaac Newton exclaimed, '* If Cotes had lived, 

we had known something,'' Burbach, 1682 (died 1716). 
Cradock, Joseph, miscellaneous writer, and author of " Me- 
moirs,*' Leicester, 1741-2 (died 1826). 
Cranwell, Luke, nonconformist divine and author, Lough- 
borough (died 1683). 
Culie, Bartholomew, author of " De Oeneratione et Corrup- 

tione," Ratcliffe Culey (flourished temp. Edward III.). 
Dawes, Richard, author of ''Miscellanea Critica," Stapteton, 

1708 (died 1766). 
Duport, John, one of the translators of the Bible, Shepeshed 

(died 1617). 
Erick the Forester, opposed William the Conqueror. 
Estlin, John Prior, unitarian divine, Hinckley, 1747* 
Farmer, Dr. Richard, divine, elegant scholar, author on the 

Learning of Shakspeare, Leicester, 1735 (died 1797)- 
Faunt, Arthur, Roman Catholic divine, Foston (died 1591). 
Fielding, Geoffrey, Lord Mayor of London in 1452, and 

privy counsellor, Lutterworth (died 1517)- 
Folvile, William de, polemic divine, Ashby Folvile (died 

1384). 
Fortrey, William, rebuilder of Norton and Gaulby Churches, 

Norton, 16»7 (died 1783). 
Fox, Gboroe, founder of Quakerism, Fenny Dravton, 

1624 (died 1690). 
Grey, Lady Janb, a youn^ and accomplished victim to 

the unprincipled ambition of her relatives, Bradgate Park, 

1537 (executed Feb. 12, 1554). 
Lady Katharine, Countess of Hertford, Bradgate Park 

(died in the Tower 1567). 
Lady Mary, married Martin Kayes, esq. Bradgate Park 

(died 1578). 
Gulston, William, Bishop of Bristol, Wymondham (died 

1684). 



EMINENT NATIVES. 19 

Hall, Joseph, Bishop of Norwich, ''the Christian Seneca,'' 
Ashhy-de-la-Zouch, 1574 (died 1656). 

Robert, A.M. orator and dissenttoir divine, Amsby 

(died 1831). 
Harbj, Geoffrey de, Confessor to Edward III. provincial of 
Augustines, Harby (flourished 1450). 

Hardwick, John, led Richmond's army to Bosworth Field, 
Lindley (died 1511). 

Hastins's, Sir Francis, author against popery (died 1600). 

H. Lord Loughboroug^h, active royalist (died 1666). 

William, Lord Chamberlain to Edward IV. (executed 

1483). 

Hayne, Thomas, divine, schoolmaster, linguist, and critic, 
Thrussington, 1581 (died 1645). 

Heathcote, Ralph, divine, projector of the General Biogra- 
phical Dictionary, Barrow-upon-Soar, 1721 (died 1795). 

Henley, John, ** Orator Henley,"' talented but eccentric di- 
vine, Melton Mowbray, 1692 (died 1756). 

Herrick, Robert, Bishop of Chester, and Lichfield and Co- 
ventry, Stretton Magna (died 1389). 

Sir William, goldsmith to James I., Teller of the Ex- 
chequer, and M.P., Leicester, 1557 (died 1652-3). 

Howe, John, nonconformist divine and author, Loughbo- 
rough, 1630 (died 1705). 

Hudson, Robert, founder of hospital. Melton Mowbray, 1570. 

Jacomb, Thomas, nonconformist divine and author. Burton 
Lazars, 1622. 

Jervis, Elizabeth, wife of Dr. Samuel Johnson, Peatling 
(died 1753). 

Jennings, Dr. David, learned dissenting dirine and author, 
Kibworth, 1691 (died 1762). 

John, dissenting divine, schoolmaster and author, bro- 
ther of David, Kibworth (died 1723). 

Johnson, John, architect and benefactor, Leicester (died 
1814). 

Kilby, Richard, divine, Ratcliffe-on-the-Wreke (died 1620). 

Kirkby, John de. Bishop of Ely, Lord High Treasurer, 
Melton Mowbray (died 1290). 

Knighton, Henry de, historian, Knighton /flourished temp. 
Edward HI.) 

iiambert, Daniel, weighed, at his death in 1809, 7391b8. 
Leicester, 1770. 

Langton, l*homas, polemic divine. West Langton (flourished 
1400). 



20 COUNTY HISTORY — LBICE8TBB8HIRB. 

Lans^tOD, Walter de, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, Lord 
High Treasurer, West Lang^ton (died 1321). 

Latimer, Hugh, Bishop of Worcester, martyr, Thurcas- 
ton, 1470 (hurnt at Oxford 1555). 

Leicester, Robert de, franciscan, chronoloirer, Leicester 
(died 1348). 

William de, divine, Leicester (flourished 1210). 

Leigh, Sir Edward, member of Parliament, moderate parli- 
amentarian, learned writer on history and divinity, He- 
brew lexicographer, Shawell, 1602. 

Lilly, William, astrologer, the "Sydrophel" of Butler's Hu- 
dibras, Diseworth, 1602 (died 1681). 

Lodge, Thomas, physician and poet (died 1625^. 

Lubbenham, William de, philosopher and divine, LubbeD*^ 
ham (died 1.361). 

Marshall, Thomas, loyalist. Dean of Gloucester, Gothic and 
Saxon scholar, Barkby (about 1621). 

Martival, Robert de. Bishop of Salisbury, Noseley (died in 

Mawbey, Sir Joseph, Bart. M.P. politician, Ravenstone 

(died 1798). 
Melton, William de, Archbishop of York, Chancellor to 

Edward III. Melton Mowbray (died 1340). 
Moore, John, Bishop of Ely, book-collector. Market Har- 
bor ough, 1646. 
■ ■ Sir John, founder of Appleby school. Lord Mayor of 

London in 1681, Appleby. 
Ozell, John, translator of Moliere, Corneille, Racine, &c. 

(died 1743). 
Packe, Christopher, Lord Mayor of London, republican, 

Prestwould (died 1682). 
Papillon, David, author on Fortification, Papillon Hall in 

Lubbenham. 
Paul, William, divine, executed 1716 for adherence to the 

Stuarts, Little Ashby, 1678. 
Phillips, Ambrose, pastoral poet and dramatist, 1671 (died 

Pulteney, Sir John, four times Lord Mayor of London, 
benefactor, Misterton (died 1349). 

Dr. Richard, eminent physician, conchologist, and bo- 
tanist, Loughborouffh. 1730 (died 1801). 

Ratcliffe, Thomas, divine, Ratcliffe-on-the- Wreke (flou- 
rished 1360). 



EMINENT NATIVES. 21 

Ratcliffe, Thomas, Bp. of Dromore, Ratcliffe-on-the-Wrekc 
(died about 1488). 

Roby, Thomas, gentleman sewer to queen Henrietta Maria, 
Castle Donington, 1598. 

Seaman, Lazarus, nonconformist divine and author, Leices- 
ter (died 1675). 

Seagrave, Gilbert, Bishop of London, Seagrave (died 1317). 

Sherard, William, patron of botany, founder of botanical 
lecture at Oxford by bequest of £3,000, Bushby, 1658 
(died 1728). 

Simpson, John, dissenter, biblical critic, Leicester, 1746. 

Thomas, F.R.S. tsulor, astrologer, and mathematician. 

Market Bosworth, 1710 (died 1761). 

Skeffington, Thomas, Bishop of Bangor, Skeffington (died 

Sir William, Lord Deputy of Ireland, Skeffington 

(died 1534). 
Smith, Henry, ** Silver-tongued Smith,'* divine, Withcote, 

looU. 
Robert, benefactor to his native town. Market Harbo- 

rough (died 1618). 
Sir John, judere, founder of almshouses, Frolesworth, 

1656. ^ ^ 

Stanley, William, divine and author, Hinckley, 1647. 
Staveley, Thomas, lawyer,authorof "History of Churches," 

East Langton, 1626 (died 1683). 
Stokes, Edward, blind divine and huntsman, Blaby near 

Leicester, 1706 (died 1799). 
Stretton, Richard, nonconformist divine and author. Clay- 
brook, 1632. 
Thirlhy, Styan. critic, editor of Justin Martvr, Leicester, 

1692 (died 1753). 
Thomson, John, mathematician, Witherly, 1721. 
Throsby, John, parish clerk, tourist of Leicestershire, and 

historian of his native town, Leicester, 1746 (died 1803). 
Turpin, Richard, chronicler, Knaptoft, 1.541. 
ViLLiERs, George, first Duke of Buckingham, statesman, 

favourite of James 1. and Charles I. Brooksby, 1592 

(stabbed by Felton at Portsmouth 1628). 
Vines, Richard, preacher to the Parliament, Blaston (died 

1655). 
Weston, Hugh, Dean of Westminster, benefactor, Burton 

Overy (died 1558). 



22 COUNTT HI8T0RT — LBICB8TBR8HIRB. 

Whiston, William, learned and ingenious but variable 
divine, and clever matbematidan, Norton-juxta-TVvcro88, 
1667 (died 1752). 

Wyrley, William, herald and antiquary, Netber Seal (died 
1618). 

Woodford, William, opponent of Wickliffe (died 1397). 

Wortbington, Hugb, eloquent dissenting divine, Leicester, 

Wrighte, Sir Natban, Liord Keeper, Barwell (died 1721). 
WyWle, Robert, Bishop of Salisbury, Staunton Wynle 
(died 1375). 



23 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

This County recaUs to recollection some of the finest 
scenes and passages in Shakspeare: ''King* Lear/' according 
to the fabulous Geoffrey of Monmouth, was the founder of 
Leicester, 844 years before Christ, and was buried there ; 
the battle of Bosworth Field in *< Richard III.;'' and the 
exquisite description of the death of Cardinal Wolsey in 
" Henry VHI." 

In AsHBY-DB-LA-ZoucH Castlc was confined, Mary 
Queen of Scots, under, the custody of. the Earl of Hunting- 
don. — In the Church is the fjUnily vault of. the Earls of 
Huntingdon, in which-^ure deposited the remains of Selina 
(relict of Theophilus ninth earl) the foundress of numerous 
chapels for Calvinistic Dissenters. She is said to have given 
£100,000 to pious uses, and died in 1791 » aged 84. In this 
church is preserved a finger pillory, consisting of two up- 
right posts supporting an horizontal beam in two parts, the 
lower of which is provided with hoi^js of every size for the 
fingers of the delinquents. This rare curiosity is engraved 
in Nichols's History, iii. pi. 76, ^^, xi. — Of the Granmiar 
School Joseph Hall, Bishop of 'Norwich, was first a scholar 
and then Master. 

Aston Flamvile and Burbach Rectories were enjoyed, 
by the learned Dr. Duport, Dean of Peterborough. 

Beaumanor Park Hall was honoured with a royal visit 
by King Richard II. ; and was for some years the residence 
of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, and his third wife, 
Mary Queen of France, daughter of King Henry VII, 
Here is a curious chair, cut out of one solid oak tree, which 
measured 34 feet in circumference. 

Bblvoir Castle partly destroyed by fire in 1816 ; the loss 



24 COUNTY HI8T0BT — LEICB8TER8HIRB. 

estimated at £120,000. In the Regent's Gallery is some 
beautiful tapestry of scenes in Don Quixote. 

At BiLLESDON was educated George Villiers the first Duke 
of Buckingham. 

BLABY.was the Rectory of Edward Stokes, who, although 
deprived of his sight when only nine years old, by the dis- 
charge of a pistol supposed to have been unloaded, used 
frequently to hunt, and regularly performed the service of 
the church, with the exception of the Lessons, which were 
read by another person. He died in 1799, at the age of 93, 
having been incumbent 50 years. 

Of BosvvoRTH Free School, Anthony Blackwall, author 
of an *^ Introduction to the Classics,'' was head master, and 
died there in 1730, and for a short time the great and good 
Dr. Samuel Johnson was his usher. The Rectory was 
enjoyed by Dr. Taylor, of Ashbourn, for whom Johnson 
composed some sermons, which were published after Dr. 
Taylor's decease. 

In BoTTESFORD Church are beautiful monuments for 
eight Earls of Rutland ; but there are no memorials for either 
of the four Dukes, or for the brave Marquis of Granby, all 
of whom were buried there. 

Broughton Astlev was the Rectory of Dr. F. White, 
afterwards Bishop of Ely. 

The inhabitants of Carlton Curlieu have a difficulty 
in pronouncing the letter r. It is called wharling, 

Catthorpe was the Rectory of John Dyer, the poet, 
who married a descendant of " every body's Shakspeare." 

Church Langton was the Rectory and residence of 
William Hanbury, whose plantations and oratorios are cele- 
brated by Woty in his poem of "Charity ;" by Lloyd, in 
his '* Church Langton;" and by an epigram in the ''Oxford 
Sausage." He died here in 1778, aged 52. 

In Claybrook Church are monuments for Cluer Dicey, 
esq. with a beautiful epitaph by Mrs. Hannah Mure ; and 



XISCBLLANB0U8 OBBBRTATIOlfS. 25 

for its rector, the Rev. Charles Jenner, with an inscription 
by the Margravine of Anspach.— Of this place was Curate 
the Rev. Aulay Macaulay, who died Vicar of Rothle j. 

In CoTTESBACH Church was buried, in 1727, its Rector, 
the geographer. Dr. Edward Weils. 

At Croxton Abbey were buried the bowels of King John. 

At DiSHLET, his native place, resided, and in 1795 died, 
Mr. Bakewell, famous for his improvements in the breed of 
sheep and cattle. — ^In 1793, a Leicestershire bull was sold by 
public auction for four hundred guineas! 

At DoNNiNGTON Park are many very .fine portraits and 
pictures. The Duchess of Hainault, wife of Humphrey 
Duke of Gloucester, is a curious and remarkable portrait. 
Among the pictures by the great masters is a Storm at Sea, 
by Salvator Rosa. 

At Easton Chapel is preserved an old speaking trumpet. 

At EviNGTON is the monument of the physician and bo- 
tanist James Sherard (brother of William, bom at Bushby); 
who died 1737, aged 72. 

At Fbnny D&ayton resided the ancestors of the poet 
Drayton. 

At Godbbt, in 1743, was buried, aged 51, its Rector, 
Francis Peck, the Stamford antiquary. 

GopsAL Hall was built, at an expense of £100,000, by 
Charles Jennens, esq. the friend of Handel, and commenta- 
tor on Shakspeare, who also erected near to his house a 
temple with a splendid cenotaph, by Roubiliac, to the me- 
mory of Edward Holdsworth, the author of *<Muscipula,** 
and commentator on Virgil. Here the oratorios of Handel 
were designed, and Dr. Bentley wrote the words. The Cha- 
pel is perhaps one of the most beautiful in England, and is 
wunscotted with cedar. The standards of the Communion 
table are made out of the oak in which Charles II. concealed 
himself. 

GuMbBY was the seat of Joseph Cradock, the friend of 

/ 



2b COUNTY HI6T0BT — LBICBSTBRtHIEB. 

Garrick, author of ''The Czar," a tragpedy, &c., and whostf 
''Miscellaneous Memoirs/* have afforded much amusements 
He died in 1826, aged 85. This estate has from time 
immemorial been celebrated for its fox-earths. 

The Rector of Hallaton had a piece of land bequeathed 
to him, on condition that he provided ** two hare pies, a 
quantity of ale, and two dozen of penny loaves, to be scram- 
bled for on Easter Monday annually.'* The custom is still 
continued, but the pies are veal and bacon. 

Hinckley Fair, on the 26th of August, is mentioned by 
Shakspeare in the 2d part of Henry IV. 

Of Husbands Bos worth was Rector Henry le Spen- 
ser, Bishop ot Norwich, 1370, and a great military leader. 
. Ibstock was the Rectory in 161? of William Laud^ 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 

At KiBWORTH was met with that very rare bird, the 
greatest speckled douker, or loon, in winterr It attacked a 
gentleman's horse, and was killed by the rider's cane. Only 
two have been found in England. — At the school of Mr. 
Jennings, the presbyterian divine,, was educated Dr. Philip 
Doddridge. 
. KiMCOTE was. the Rectory of Richard Jago, the poet. 

Of Knaptoft was Rector, Dr. Watson, Bishop of Llan- 
daif. 

Knipton was the Rectory, and Eaton and Scalford the 
Vicarages, of the painter William Peters. 

lilNDLEY Hall was the residence of William Burton ; and 
here, and at Falde, near Tutbury, in Staffordshire, his History 
of Leicestershire was composea. 

Leicester was an episcopal see* — The Abbots of Saint 
Mary de Pratis were occasionally summoned to Parliament. 
In the Abbey Cardinal Wolsey rested on his journey from 
York to London, after incurring the ungrateful displeasure 
of his petulant Monarch, and here he died and was buried, 
I530» It was here, that, before the assembled monksy he 
gave expression to his feelings in this memorable sentence : 



UlSCELLANEOCS OBSERVATIONS. 27 

"If I had served my God as faithfully as I have served my 
King, he would not in my old age have thus forsaken me." 
— In the College of St. Mary in the Newark, had sepulture, 
Henry Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, and his son Henry 
first Duke of Lancaster, who died of the plague 1361 ; Con- 
stance daughter of Peter King of Castile, and wife of John 
of Gaunt ; and Mary de Bohun, Countess of Derby, mother 
of Henry. — In the Grey Friars was buried Richard the Third ; 
but at the dissolution of the monastery his remains were 
disturbed, and the coffin was used as a watering trough for 
two centuries afterwards at the White Horse public-hbuse. 
— This town had the privilege of a Mint as early as the 
time of Athelstan. — At the Blue Boar Inn was preserved 
the bed in which Richard HI. slept the night previous to tht 
battle of Bosworth. Tradition reports the discovery of great 
treasures in it by the occupant of the inn in the time of 
Elizabeth. A representation of the house and bedstead is in 
Nichols, I. p. 380. The bedstead is now at Rothley Temple. 
—In the Free School were educated its two very learned 
natives, Thirlby and Farmer. Through the most exemplary 
exertions of the Rev« Richard Davies, B.D., the present head- 
master, the National School and St. Margaret's charity school 
were founded. — ^The library of the nonconformist Seaman, 
was the first in England that was sold by auction : it sold 
for £700.— In St. Margaret's Church-yard is the hand- 
some tomb of General Lord RoUo, who died in this town in 
1765. — In St. Mary's Church is the monument of its Vicar, 
Thomas Robinson, author of *« Scripture Characters*" He 
died at Leicester in 1813. — In St. Martin's Church is a hand- 
some monument, erected by subscription, to its Vicar, Edward 
Thomas Vaughan, polemical writer, who died in 1829. 

The plague which raged at Loughborough in 1557 is 
called in the parish register, ** The Swat [sweating sick*, 
ness ?] alias New Acquaintance; Stoupe, Knave, and know 
thy Master.'* 

Lutterworth was the Rectory of the first Reformef 



28 COUNTY HI8T0ET — ^LBIGBSTBRtHIEX. 

WiCKLiFVB, who finislied hit trandation of the Bible and 
died here suddenly whilst attending the celebration of masa. 
The fine old carred oak pulpit in the Church is the oift firom 
which this great Reformer poured forth his purer doctrines* 
Part of his yestment, and the chair in which he expired, are 
also preserved. He was buried in the Church, Dec. 31, 
1387» but his bones were taken up in 1428» by order of 
the Council of Sienna, and thrown into the river Swift, which 
runs near this town. — This place was also the Rectory of Dr. 
Ryder, now Kshop of Ldchfield and Coventry. 

Markbt HARBOBoueH has no lands or fields belonging 
to it, whence ori^ated the local proverb that "a goose 
will eat all the grass that grows in Harborough field/' 

Of MusTON were Rectors " the incomparably learned and 
^ous'* Dr. Robert Sanderson, who died Bishop of linooln, 
1662-3; and the poet Crabbe, who was presented in 1789, 
and died in 1833. 

The old house at Nbwbou) Ver]>un was once the resi^ 
dence of Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham in 1674 ; and sub- 
sequently of the celebrated Lady Mary Wortley Mootagne. 

In Norton Church, in 1783, was buried its founder W, 
Fortrey, aged 86. 

NosBLBY was the seat of Cromwdl's friend Sir Arthur 
Hazdrigge, who died in 1660, and has a monument to his 
memory in the dilapidated church. 

QuoRNDON has been much celebrated for its hunt, esta- 
blished by Hugo Meynell, esq. and afterwards under the di- 
rection of T.Smith, esq.; of G. Osbaldeston, esq.; and then 
of Lord Southampton. The kennel is now removed, and the 
hounds under the management of Mr. Holyoake Goodricke, 
at Thrusungton. 

At Rbduill died, aged 110, a woman named Rawlinson, 
and another named Green, aged 1 15. 
In the soke of Rothlbt the custom of gavdkind prevails. 
At St. Maby-in-Ardbn was buried in ISOl, Mr. Smith, 
a baker, aged 100. 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 29 

Saddington was the Rectory of the Rev. Sambrook Rus- 
sell, learned diyine and antiquary, and accomplished gentle- 
man. He died in 1795. 

Sapcote font, one of the most curious and interesting^ 
remains of the kind, has been removed into the churchyard 
to be used as a receptacle for the rain water from the roof! 

Seoraye was the Rectory of Robert Burton, author of 
tihe '< Anatomy of Melancholy,'' a book written with a view 
to Hie dissipation of the morbidity of his mind, uid from 
which the literary thefts of Sterne were ably, but perhaps too 
harshly, exposed by the late Dr. Ferriar of Manchester. 

The floor and wainscotting of the drawing-room of Skef- 
riNOTON Hall, measuring 32 feet in length by 2S, was ob- 
tained from one oak tree. 

The organ at Stanford Church belonged to ihe ban- 
quetting room at Whitehall, and was sold by order of Oliver 
Cromwell. 

Staple FORD Hall is adorned with a great variety of cu- 
rious sculptures of religious and family subjects. They are 
engraved in the 2d volume of Nichols's History of this 
County. — ^In the Church are many interesting and handsome 
monuments to the Sherards Earls of Harborougb. 

At Staunton Harold, Jan. 13, 1760, Laurence Earl 
Ferrers shot his steward, Mr. Johnson, for Which crime his 
lordship's own life became forfeited to the offended laws of 
his country, May 5. — In the library are the Works of Con- 
fiicius, the Chinese philosopher, in 16 volumes. The library 
front was designed by Inigo Jones. 

At Sutton Chenet, near Bosworth, was buried in 1761 > 
Thomas Simpson, the astrologer. 

Thurc ASTON was the Rectory and residence of Dr. Hugh 
Latimer, and also of Dr. Hurd, both afterwards bright orna- 
ments of the see of Worcester. The latter composed the 
greater part of his works in this place. 

At Whitwick remadns the monument of << Giant Talbot." 
It measures seven feet. 



30 



List of Works consulted. 

1 , The HUtory and Antiquities of the County of Leicester. Bj 
John Nichols, F.S.A. Edinburgh and Perth.— 4 vols, folio, 
1795 — 1816. [Previous to the appearance of this voluminous 
history, its industrious author had published several tracts and 
volumes relative to this county.] 

S. Description of Leicestershire. By William Burton, esq. — ^folio» 
16'22. 

3. Beauties of England and Wales.— vol. ix. pp. S 13-529. 

4. Views of Seats and Excursions in Leicestershire. By John 
Throsby.— 2 vols. 4to, 1790. 

5. A Topographical History of the County of Leicester. By the 

Rev. J. Curtis.— 8 vo, 1831. 

6. The History of Market Harborough, and its vicinity. By W. 

Harrod. — 8vo, 1808. 

7. Walk through Leicester. [By Susannah Watts.] --12 mo, 1804. 

8. The Battle of Bosworth Field, &c. By W. Hutton, F.A.S.S.— 
2d edit, by J. Nichols, esq. F.S.A.— 8vo, 18 IS. 

9. Memoirs of the town and county of Leicester. By John Thros* 

by. — l2mo, 6 vols. 1777. 

10. History and Antiquities of the antient town of Leicester. At- 
V tempted by John Throsby .— 4to, 1 79 1 . 

11. History and Antiquities of Claybrook. By Rev. A. Maeaulay. 

8vo,1791. 



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Published 183&."byJ Nichols & Son. 2 5 Parliament Street. 



LINCOLNSHIRE. 



SITUATION AND EXTENT. 

Bimndaries. North, Yorkshire, divided by the Humber: 

East, German Ocean and Norfolk, separated by the Nen : 

South, Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, and Rutland- 

■ shire: West, Nottinghamshire, dinded by the Trent, and 

Leicestershire. 

'Greatest length, 73 : greatest breadth, 48 : circumfe' 
rence, 300: square 2814 miks: statute acres, 1,758,720. 

Circuit, Midland. 

Province, Canterbury. Diocese, Lincoln. There are two 
Archdeaconries, Lincoln and Stow. Lincoln contains the 
Deaneries of Aswardby-cum-Lafford, Aveland, Beltislaw, 
Bollingbrook, Candleshoe, Calcewaitfa, Gartree, Grant- 
ham, Graffoe, Grimsby Hill, Horncastle, Lincoln, Longo- 
bovey, Loveden, Louth-cum-Ludbrook, Nesse, Stamford, 
Walscroft, Wraghoe, and Yarborough. Stow has the 
Deaneries of Aslacko, Coringham, Lawres, and Manlake. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

British Inhabitants, Coritani or Coriceni. Town, Castor. 
Encampments, Barrow; Ingoldsby, circular, 500 feet 
in diameter; Revesby, 300 feet by 100, with at each end 
a lofty tumulus, about 100 feet in diameter. Earthworks^ 
Alford, three barrows; Ingoldsby, Round Hills, several 
tumuli so called ; Normanton, two tumuli; Tothill, a 
hill called Toote hill ; Well, three barrows. Remama 
discovered, at Benniworth, urn of imperfectly baked clay ; 
Friskney, celt of brass in 1813. 

Roman Province^ Britannia Prima and Flavia Ctesariensis. 
Stations, Ad Ahum, Wintringham near Barton ; Aquii, 
Ankborough; Bannovallium, Homcastle or Ludford; 
Castor, in which the Romans showed " their fine genius 
for choice of station'* more than in any other ; Causenne, 
Ancaster or Great Ponton ; Durobrivn, TattershaU or 
Casterton ; Lindum, Lincoln ; Margidunum, Willough- 
by near Grantham ; Pretorium, Broughton ; Sidnaoester* 
Stow; Vainona^ Wunfleet. Encampments, Aukbo- 
rough, called Countess Close, a square of 300 feet; Aus- 
terfield; Brocklesby; Broughton; Brough, north of 
Castor; Burgh; Burwell; Castle Hill, near Gainsbo- 
rough ; Castle Carleton, Claxby ; Fillingham ; Gedneyj 
Hibberston ; Honington, a summer camp ; North Kyme ; 
South Ormsby, covers three acres; Stamford; Tatters-* 
hall, two; Winteringham ; Winterton Cliffs; Yarbo- 
rough, large. Earthworks, Aukborough; Appleby, 
called Julian's bower ; Broughton, tumulus on the Ro- 
man road from Lincoln to the Humberat Winteringham ; 
Caer-dyke, a canal or drain 50 miles in length and 60 feet 



AlfTIBNT STATB AND REMAINS. 3 

in width, from the river Welland on the south to the river 
Witham near Lincoln; Claxby, tumuli; Foss-djke, 
falis into the Trent near Torksey; Old Sea^jke; 
Tathwell, barrows. Roadi, Ermin Street, from near 
Stamford to Ancaster, Sleaford, Lincoln, and Wintering- 
ham ; Fosse Way, from Saltfleetfoy, by Ludborough and 
Ludford to Lincoln, and thence to Newark ; High Street, 
firom Lincoln to the H umber ; Salt Way, from the salt 
springs at Droitwich in Worcestershire, entered the county 
near Saltby, crossed the Witham at Saltersford, and pro* 
ceeded to Wainfleet ; from Homcastle to Sleaford ; and 
another from Wainfleet to Homcastle, and thence, passing 
near Lincoln, to Doneaster in Yorkshire. Remains di$^ 
covered, at Aukborough, coins; Ancaster, vaults and 
coins ; Ashby Puerorum, or Child's Ashby, urn of glass 
in a stone chest, and a lachrymatory, 17^4 ; Aston 
Grange, coins and urns ; Bourn, coins, and pavement 
Srooldesby, rings, combs, perforated heads, urns, &;c. 
Broughton, coins, bricks, tiles, &c.; Burgh, coins 
Carlton Scrope, urn of coins ; Castor, walls ; Catthorpe 
Ediington, urns, and heaps of ox bones ; Dmton, pave^ 
ment 30 feet in extent, and walls ; Donington, urns of 
bones; Fillingham, coins, urns, bones, &c.; Fleet, an 
earthen pot with three pecks of copper coins of Gallienus j 
Fosadyke, bronze figure of Mars, 1774 ; Friskney, parts 
of an aqueduct ; Gainsthorpe, coins ; Gedney, founda* 
tions and coins ; Gigglesbum, coins ; Goswell, coins ; 
Grantham, a great stone chest covered with a stone, and 
full of coins; Grimsby, copper coins and medals: Grims* 
thorpe, coins ; Haceby, apartments, pavements, &c., 1818 ; 
Harleston, coins, brass pot, &c. ; Haxey, statue of a 
Roman archer, carved out of oak, about six feet high, and 
as blask as ebony; Haynton, pot with a handle standing 
on three feet, and full of coins; Hibbaldstow, tiles, 
coins, &c.; Holbeach, urns, coins, and foundations; 



4 CPUNTY HI8T0BT — LINCOLNSHIIIE. 

Honingfton, spears, bridles, swords, and urns of coins ; 
Horkstow, pavements, 1796; Homcastle, urns, walk, 
coins, &c. ; Little Ponton ; Lincoln, walls, gates, arches, 
hypocausts, pavements, altars, monuments, coins, and 
bones, all very extensive; Ludford, coins; Moulton, 
various kinds of pottery ; Nun Ormsby, coins; Pinchbeck, 
brass coin of Gommodus, and pipes of baked earth, 1742 ; 
Ponton Magna, coins, pavements, bricks, urns, &c. ; 
Roxby, pavement, coins ; Sandton, coins and remains of 
furnaces for making pottery, with fragments of urns, &c.; 
Scampton, villa of upwards of forty apartments, with 
painted walls, tessellated pavements, &c., 1795; Sem- 
pringham* fragments of a vase representing Victory with 
a hare behind her, and other articles; Sleaford, celts, 
coins, &c.; Spalding, cisterns; Spittal in the Street, 
coins; Spilsby, aqueduct; Stainfield, coins ; Strawston, 
coins and vaults ; Well, 600 coins in two urns, 1725; 
Winterton, three curious tessellated pavements, in 1747 ; 
and Yarborough, vast quantities of coins* 

Saxon Octarchy f Mercia. Earthworks^ Spellow Hills, in 
Langton, three barrows on a chalk hill. 

JDanish Encampments, Thonock, near Gainsborough, covers 
six acres of ground, probably constructed by the Britons. 
Earthworks, Thonock, where Sweyn King of Denmark 
is supposed to have been buried. 

Cathedrals. Lincoln, by Remigius first Bishop of Lincoln 
in 1092; Sidnacester, now Stow. 

Abbeys. Bardney, founded ante 647; Barlings, by Ralph 
de Haya, 1154, part of some walls remain; Bourne, by 
Baldwin Fitz-Gislebert, about 1138; Croyland, by King 
Ethelbald in 714; Grimsthorpe, by William Eari of Al- 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS, 5 

bemarle about 1451 ; Hagneby, by Herbert de Orreby, 
and the Lady Agnes his wife, the moat remains ; Hum- 
berston, temp. Henry II.; Kirkstead, in 1139, by Hugh 
Fitz Eudo, the chapel remains ; Louth Park, built by 
Alexander Bishop of Lincoln, 1 139, the foundations of 
extensive buildings remain; Newbo, near Grantham, in 
1198; Newhouse, by Peter de Gousla or Gousel, 1143; 
Revesby, by William de Romara, Earl of Lincoln, 1 142, 
the Abbot's lodge exists; Sempringham, by Sir Gill>ert 
Sempringham, for an order of monks instituted by himself 
in 1148, and thence called Gilbertines, the church remains; 
Sixhill, temp. Stephen, by the De Grelles or Gresleis, no 
remains ; Stamford, by St. Wilfrid the Elder about 658 ; 
Stow, about 1040 ; Swineshead, in 1 134, hy Robert Gres- 
lei ; Thornton, by William le Gros, Earl of Albemarle, 
1139, as a priory, made an abbey in 1148, the gatehouse 
and grand entrance arch are nearly entire, and many parts 
remain of this magnificent foundation; Tupholm, by 
Alan de Neville, and his brother Gilbert, temp. Henry 
II., one of the walls of the refectory, with lancet windows, 
remains; Wellow, by Henry I. 

Priories. Alvingham, by Walter de Bee, temp. Stephen, a 
ruinous chapel remains ; Bondeby, temp. John ; Bos- 
ton, two, one founded .in 654 ; BuUington, by Simon 
Fitzwilliam, temp. Stephen, part of the tower remains ; 
Burwell, by John de Hay, cell to the abbey of St. Mary's 
Silv^ Majoris, near Bordeaux; Cameringham, temp. 
Henry II. by Richard de Hay and his wife Maud, cell to 
the abbey of Blanche Land in Normandy ; Catley, by 
Peter de Belinger, temp. Stephen, foundations traceable ; 
Covenham, by Wm. Carileph, Bishop of Durham, about 
1082 ; Deeping, by Baldwin Wake, 1139, some remains 
in the Manor House ; Elsham, ante 1166, by Beatrix de 
Amundevill; Epworth, about 1395, by Thomas Mqw- 



6 COUNTY RIBTOHT— LINCOLNSHIRE. 

braf. Earl of Nottingham; Fre»ton» temp. Stephen; 
Great Limber, ceU to the abbey of Aveney in Normandy ; 
Grimsby, by Henry I. ; Haverholm, in 1139 ; Haxey, in 
19 Richard II. by Thos. Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham ; 
Hirst ; Holland Brigg, temp. John ; Haugham, by Hugh 
first Earl of Chester, cell to the abbey of St Mary San 
Sever ; Hough on the Hill, in 1164, cell to St. Mary de 
y oto at Cherbourg in Normandy ; Kyme, by Philip de 
Kyme, about 1170, remains in the south front of the 
present chapel ; Lincoln, in 1148; Long Bennington, 
ante 1175, cell to the abbey of Sevigny in Normandy ; 
Markby, by Ralph Fitz Gilbert, temp. John ; Maltby ; 
Newsham, temp. Henry IL; Newstead, about 1230» 
by William de Albini, third Earl of Arundel ; Nocton, 
by Robert de Aveci, temp. Stephen ; North Ormesby, for 
monks and nuns, temp. Stephen, by William Earl of Al<- 
bemarle and Gilbert de Ormsby, no remains ; Spalding* 
by Thoroldde Brokenhale, 1051, some remains; Stamford, 
by Wilfrid, 7th century, refounded 1082, by Bbhop Ca- 
rileph, a portion of the nave, &c. forms an interesting 
Norman ruin ; Thornholm, by King Stephen ; Tork- 
sey, by King John ; West Ravendale, by Alan son of 
Henry Earl of Britany, in 1202, cell to the abbey of 
Beaufort in Britany; Wilsford, temp. Stephen, cell to 
Bee in Normandy; Wyngall. 

Gunneries. Alvingham, founded temp. Stephen ; Boston ; 
Cotham, temp. Stephen; Fosse, temp. Henry III.; Gox- 
hill, by William de Alta Ripa, 1185, the chapel, &c. re* 
mains, and used as a kitchen and other offices ; Grimsby* 
ante 1185; Greenfield, in 1153; Hevening, in Lea* 
by Reyner Evermue, about 1 180 ; Irford, temp. Henry 
II. by William de Albini; Legbourn, ante John ; 
Lincoln, ante William I. ; Stanfield, temp. Henry II. by 
Henry de Percy, no traces; Stixwold, by Lucy relict of 



ANTIBNT STATE AND BEUAINS. 7 

Ivo Tailbois, her son Ralph Earl of Chester, and husband 
Roger de Romara; Tunstal, temp. Stephen. 

Friaries, Boston, Austb, temp. Edward II. ; Black, ante 

1288 ; Grey, ante 1322; White, in 1300, hj Sir de 

Orrebj, kt. Grantham, Grej, 1290. Grimsby. Lincoln, 
Grey, ante 1230. Stamford, White, by Edward III., the 
west gate, of the 14th century, is still entire; Grey, about 
1225, by Henry Ul.; Black, probably by William de Por- 
tibus, second Earl of Albemarle, about 1220 ; Austin, by 
one Fleminge, Archdeacon of Richmond* about 1380. 

Preceptori^s* Aslackby, by John Mareschal, temp. Richard 
I^ a square tower remains; Eagle, temp. Stephen; 
Grantham, some remains in the Angel Inn ; Mere, about 
1200; Temple Brewer, by Lady Matilda de Gauz, about 
Henry II. afterwards a Commaudery, the tower of the 
church and some vaults exist ; WiUiam, in 1164, found- 
ations remain over sereral acres. 

Colkg€9. Kirton; Lincoln, founded 1355; Spilsby; 
Tattershall, by Sir Ralph Cromwell and others, temp. 
Henry VL; Thornton, in 33 Henry VIII. 

HospitaU. Boston* temp. Edward I.; Glanford Brigg, by 
Adam Paynel, temp. John; Holbeach, by Sir John de 
Kirton, about 1351 ; Lincoln, Innocents^ temp. Henry 
I.; Skirbeck, in 1230; Spittle in the Street, ante 16 
Edward IL ; Stamford, three, one in 1494, another temp. 
Henry II. and the third 9 John ; Tattershall, by Sir 
Ralph Cromwell, temp. Henry VI. 

Churches. Ancaster, Norman remains: Barton-upon-Hum- 
ber, very early Norman tower: Belton llth cent.: Ben- 
niworth, Norman doorway : Billinghay, some semicircn- 



S COUNTY HISTORY — LINCOLNBHIRE. 

lar arches: Boston, tower 282 feet high. Bourne: 
Caistor, Norman and early pointed styles: Carlton 
Scrope, Norman tower, and east window a good specimen 
of temp. Edw. 111. : Clee, considerable specimens of Nor- 
man architecture : Coleby, Norman remains : Croyland, 
belonged to the abbey, interesting Norman remains: 
Dorrington : Freiston, Norman arches, pillars, and orna- 
ments intermixed with the pointed style : Gedney, light, 
airy, and high, built by the Abbots of Croyland : Gos- 
berton: Grantham, 13th cent- steeple 273 feet high: 
Great Hale, Norman tower: Grimsby: Heapham, the 
tower has Norman windows: Heckington, very richly 
decorated: Holbeach: Horbling, exhibiting consider- 
able Norman work: Kirkby Laythorpe, fine Norman 
arches : Kirton, a massive building of early pointed archi- 
tecture with a Norman chancel : Lincoln, St. Mary's, St 
Martin's, and St. Bennet's : Louth, exceedingly beauti- 
ful, the steeple is 288 feet high : Middle Rasen, Norman 
remains : Ranceby, Norman : Rowston, fine semicircu- 
lar doorway: Sibsey, Norman remains : Sleaford, par- 
ticularly interesting, built in 1271 by Roger Blunt and 
Roger Brickham, merchants: Springthorpe, Norman 
doorway : Stamford, All Saints, St. Mary's (fine tower), 
St. Michael's (part built before 1230), and St. Leonard's 
(Norman remains): Stow, fine Norman doorways, and 
other details: Tattershall: Thornton Curtis: Thom- 
ton-le-Moor, Norman doorway: Threckingham, Nor- 
man and pointed architecture: Welbourn, various styles : 
West Rasen, Norman remains : Woolsthorpe, in ruins. 

Chapels, Kirkstead, belonged to the abbey: Leake, in 
ruins: Wykeham, erected in 1292-3, and belonged to 
Spalding Priory. 

Fonts, Ancaster, Norman, elegant: Aswarby* circular. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. \f 

and supported by four circular .pillars with foliated capi- 
tals: Belton, octagonal, richly sculptured with figures, 
amongst which is a man ringing two bells : Boston : 
Bourn, with a scarcely legible inscription: Bratoft: 
Carlton Scrope, square and octagonal: Cameringham, 
large plain circular stone: Clee, curious: Covenham 
St. Bartholomew, richly sculptured with statues, &c.: 
Croyland: Deeping St. James, Norman, circular, and 
very high: Donington, Norman : Fosdyke, with carved 
figures, and elaborate cover : Grantham : Grimsby : 
Hall Magna, octagonal, with deep indented niches in 
pointed style of 15th century : Hammingham, curiously 
sculptured : Haydon : Heckington, hexagonal, rich niche 
work : Helpringham, rudely sculptured, much mutilated : 
Horbling: Huttoft, octagonal, sculptured: Knaith, 
very elegant: Lincoln Cathedral, early Norman, circu- 
lar bason cut out of a square block of porphyry, supported 
by four columns, and decorated with rude and grotesque 
animals, &c. Osbournby, 12th century, octagonal and 
drcular, with interlaced semicircular arches : Ruskington, 
octagonal, sculptured: Silk Willoughby, Norman, with 
interlaced semicircular arches: Skirbeck, with a singular 
sculpture of the Deity and Apostles, engraved in the Ar- 
chseologia, vol. x. p. 103 : Stow, curiously sculptured : 
. Swayton : Thornton Curtis, somewhat resembling that 
at Lincoln Cathedral : Threckenham, of red stone : West 
Deeping, with escutcheons, temp. Henry IIL: Weston, 
temp. Henry IIL 

Castles^ .Aslackby, existed as early as 1062: Castle By- 
tham, fortified by William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle, 
temp. Edward III.: Bolliogbrook, built by William de 
Romara, Earl of Lincoln, no vestiges : Boston, built by 
Ranulph Earl of Richmond in 1220 : Bourne, the seat of 
the Wakes, no remains : Castor : Folkingham, by Henrv 



10 COUNTY HI8TOBT— UNOOLKBHIRB. 

de Bellomont: Grinuthorpe, temp. Heniy UL: Haxey, 
belonged to the Mowbraya : Hoincastle : Kianard Ferry, 
rebuilt 1 173» by Roger de Moirbray : lincohi, bj WblI. 
1066, interesting and e&teniiye ruin : Somerton, about 
1305, by Anthony Bee, Bishop of Durham, considerable 
remains occupied as a farm-house : Sleaford, by Alexan- 
der Bishop of Lincoln, 12th century : Spalding, erected 
by Ivo Tailbois : Stamford, bmlt by the Danes, r^uilt 
by Elfrida in 914: Tattershall, erected by Lord Trea- 
surer Cromwell, about 1440, at a cost above 4000 nai^s, 
a very fine tower renuuns : Torksey. 

JHoiuiom. Ashby de la Launde, built 1595, by Edward 
King, esq* : Belleau, remains in a &rm-house of one 
which belonged to the Earls of Lindsey : Castle Bytham : 
Clee HaU, temp. Elizabeth: Doddington Hall, temp. 
Elizabeth ; Freiston, Kyme Tower, of the time of Eliza- 
beth : Gainsborough Old Hall, built temp. Edward HI. : 
Irnham, in the form of the letter h, temp. Elizabeth by 
Richard Thimelby: Lincoln, numerous old houses; tiie 
^shop's palace ; some curious remuns of John of Gannt's 
palace ; and the Jews house, once possessed by Belaset de 
Wallingford, a Jewess, who was hanged for clipping in 
the 18th of Edward I. : Mablethorpe Hall, moated, the 
seat of the Fitzwilliams, now a farm-house : Pinchbetk 
Hall: SilkWilloughby: Torksey Old Hall, in ruins. 

Crosses. Brinkhill, in the churchyard, shaft remains: 
Digby, in high preservation : Grimsby : Heckington : 
Lincoln: Quarrington, remains of two: Somersby, in 
the churchyard, of great beauty : Tattershall. 



11 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 

Rivers. Ancholme, rises in the Wolds near Market Raten, 
falls into the Humber : Bain or Bane : Dun : Glen, 
rises near Folkingham, runs by Stamford, and falls into 
the Wash near Spalding : Humber, one of the larg^est 
in the kingdom, falls into the German Ocean near Hol- 
demcss: Idle, from Nottinghamshire: Limb: Lud: 
Mowbeck : Nen, from Northamptonshire, and falls into 
the Washes: Rase: Slea or Slee: Tom: Trent, 
divides the county from Nottinghamshire, passes Newark 
to Lincoln, where it falls into the Humber: Waring: 
Welland, from Northamptonshire, by Deeping to Croy- 
Und, passes Stamford, and falls into the Wash near Spal- 
ding : Witham, rises near South Witham, flows to Grant- 
ham, Lincoln, and Boston, where it unites with the Bos- 
ton Deeps. 

Inland Navigation, The Ancholme : the Bane, made navi- 
gable from the Witham to Homcastle by act, 179*2^ Bos- 
ton and Bourne Canal, for boats of ten tons : Caistor 
Canal, to the Ancholme at South Kelsey, a direct course 
of nine miles : Fosse Dyke, the first canal of its kind in 
England, formed 1121, from the Witham to the Trent: 
Grantham Canal, commenced in 1793, and goes to the 
Trent near Radcliffe in Nottinghamshire, a distance of 
thirty miles, with a fall of 148 feet: Homcastlp 
Canal: the Humber: Louth Canal, cut in 1762: Slea- 
ford Canal, from the river Witham near Chapel Hill to 

g 



12 COUNTY HI8T0BT — LINCOLNSHIRE. 

NewandOldSleaford: theSlee: Stainforth and Keadby 
Canal, from the river Dun navigable cut near Stainforth 
in Yorkshire, to the river Trent near Keadby : the Trent, 
from Gfunsborougfh to its estuary: the Welland: the 
Witham> from Lincoln. 

Eminences rnnd VkvoM, Aukborough Cliff; Belmont tower ; 
Boston Church tower ; Brocklesby, from the Mausoleum ; 
• Bull's Head, a lofty hill in Uloeby> a noted land-mark : 
. Cock Hill, very extensive prospects ; Dorington Tower, 
very extensive prospects; Dnnsby Lane, from the hill 
near is a most extensive and delightfully varied prospect ; 
Dunftton, from the pillar, very extensive views ; Fulbeck, 
rich prospect over the Vale of Trent ; Gonerby, Honing- 
ton, and Leadenham Hills ; Lincoln Cathedral ; Salt- 
fleetby St. Peter's, prospect tower; Skirbeck Hill; Sum- 
mer Castle, very extensive views ; Syston Park, extensive 
ftnd diversified view ; Tathwell Hill ; Thurgunbury, fine 
prospects; Well, very extensive prospects over the level 
lands to the sea ; Yarborougfo, extensive views from the 
camp towards the east. 

Natural Curiosities. Alford, medicinal spring called Holy 
Well: Bourne, chalybeate spring : Clee, blow wells : Caw- 
thorp, spring : Denton, medicinal spring similar to the 
Malvern waters: Gainsborough^ sulphurous spring: 
Grantham, chalybeate waters : Nocton Park, chestnut tree^ 
considered the finest in England : Scampton, chalybeate 
spring: Stamford, mineral spring, discovered 1819: 
Stanfield^ medicinal water : Syfer Well, in Castor, whose 
waters flow in four directions : Snrfleet heronry : Scop- 
wick, quick springs: Sutton, submarine forest, extend- 
ing along the whole line of coast from Skegness to 
Grinu^y t Walcot> chalybeate spring. 



FRB8ENT STATE AND APPBARANCB. 13 

Public Edifices. Boston, bridge of iron, engrineer Rennie, 
opened 1807, cost £22,000 ; custom bouse, erected 1725 ; 
gaol, erected 1817-18, cost £3»000; guildhall; market 
bouse and assemblj room, a bandsome stone building, 
erected in 1819; town ball. Bourn, town ball, band- 
some. Croyland, tbe triangular bridge, an object of the 
greatest curiosity in Europe, and supposed to have been so 
constructed as an emblem of the Trinity. Dunston, pillar, 
in the midst of a once extensiye heath, 92 feet high, with co^ 
lossal figure of Geo. III. at top, Folkingbam, bouse of 
correction, erected 1808 on the site of the castle. Gains- 
borough, handsome bridge over the lYent, of 3 arches, com- 
pleted 1791, cost £10,000 ; town halL Grantham, guild- 
hall, rebuilt 1787. LmcoLN, blue-coat school ; bridge* 
400 years old ; city gaol and sessions bouse, built 1805-9 ; 
conduit, erected temp. Henry VIIL very beautiful ; county 
assembly room; county gaol, within the castle walls; 
county hall, within the castle walls, a bandsome building 
in tbe pointed style, built 1823-6, architect Smirke, cost 
£40,000; county hospital, erected 1769; dep6t or mili- 
tary arsenal, erected 1806; house of industry; lunatic 
asylum; market house, erected 1736; theatre, erected 
1806. Louth, mansion house or assembly room ; sessions 
house and prison, handsome; theatre; town hall; wool 
market, opened 1825. Market Rasen, bridge, built 1832. 
Sleaford, hospital, founded by Sir Robert Carr, Bart, in 
1636 ; town hall, recently erected. Spilsby, house of cor- 
rection^ Stamford, assembly rooms, built 1725; bridge, 
opened 1834; Browne's hospital, erected 1495 ; butchery 
and markets, erected 1807 ; new gaol, built 1821 ; Stam- 
ford and Rutland infirmary, handsome edifice in pointed 
style, 1827 ; theatre, erected 1768 town baU, built about 
1776. Wainfleet, free grammar school, founded in 1484 
by William Wainfleet, Bishop of Winchester, a handsome 
brick edifice with four turrets. 



14 COUNTY HISTORY— LINC0LN8HIRB. 



SeaU. Belton House, Earl of Brownlow, 
Lard Lieutenant of the Countjf, 

Aisthorpe Hall, John Miloes, esq. 

Lawn, John L. Milnes, esq. 

Al^arkirk, Rev. B. Beridge. 

Allington House, Dowager Lady Welby. 

Appleby, Charles Winn, esq. 

Ashby de la Launde House, Clifford King, esq. 

Ashby Thorpe, Mrs. lliotnas Cracroft. 

Aswarby Hall, Sir Tliomas Whichcote, Bart 

Ayscou^h Fee Hall, Spalding, Theo. Johnson, esq. 

Barnoldby-le-Beck, Hon. George Pelham. 

Barrow Hall, C. Uppleby, esq. 

Bayon's Manor, Tealby, George Tennyson, esq. 

Beckingham Hall, John Milnes, esq. 

Blankney Hall, C. Chaplin, esq. 

Bloxham Hall, Mrs, Manners. 

Blyborough Hall, the late Peter John Luard, esq. 

Boothby Paenell, John Litchford, esq. 

Boultham Hall, Mrs. J. C Bell. 

Bourne Abbey, late Mrs. Pochin. 

, Red Hall, Mrs. Dis:by. 

Brocklesby Hall, L#ord Yarborough. 
Buckminster Park, Lord Huntingtower. 
Burton Hall, Mrs. Hutton. 

near Lincoln, Lord Monson. 

Burwell Park, M. B. Lister, esq. 

Cainby Hall, C. Peel, esq. 

Candlesby House, Captain Thomas Massingherd, R.N. 

Canwick, Charles Waldo Sibthorpe, esq. M.P. 

Carlby, Sir R. J. Woodford, Bart. 

(.aswick House, Sir John Trollope, Bart. 

Caythorpe, George Hussey Packe, esq. 

Claxby Grove, Rev. Dodson. 

Coleby Hall, Charles Mainwaring, esq. 
Cressy Hall, H Smith, esq. 
Culverthorpe, Henry Handley, esq. M.P. 
Dalby Hall, John Bourne, esq. 
Denton House, Sir William Earle Welby, Bart. 
.Doddington Hall, Colonel Jervis. 
Easton Hall, Sir Mountague Cholmeley, Bart. 



8BAT8< 15 

Edlington Grove, Richard Samuel Short, esq. 

Elms (The), Rev. Francis Swann. 

Elsham Hall, the late Thomas George Corbctt, esq. M.P. 

Fanthorpe Hall, Mrs. Lloyd. 

Frampton, J. Yerburgfh, esq. 

Hall, Thomas Tunnard, esq. 

House, C. K. Tunnard, esq. 

Froston, Lord Manners. 

Fulbeck, General Sir Henry Fane. 

Gate Burton, William Hutton, esq. 

Gautby, Robert Vyner, esq. 

Gillingham House, Mrs. Charles Brackenbury. 

Girsby House, 

Glentworth, Earl of Scarborough. 

Goltho, Charles Manwaring, esq. 

Grantham House, C. £. Kent, Bart. 

Great Ravendale Hall, Rev. Dr. Parkinson. 

Gretford, Dr. Willis. 

Grimsthorpe Castle, Lord Willoughby d'Eresby. 

Gunby Hall, W. J. Massingberd, esq. 

Hagoaby iPriory, T. Coltman, esq. . 

Hackthorne, John Cracroft„esq. 

Hall, Captain Nixon. 

Hainton Hall, George Fysche Heneage, esq. . 

Hanthorpe House, William Parker, esq. 

Harlaxton, Manor House, G. de Ligne Williams Gregory, esq. 

Harmston Hall, B. J. Thorold, esq. 

Harrington Hall, R. Eden, esq. 

Haverholm Priory, Earl of Winchelsea. 

Hawerby House, Thomas Harneis, esq. 

Hirst Priory, Cornelius Stovin, esq. 

Holton Hall, Wm. Rayner Burton Burton, esq. 

iiodge, T. Caldicot, esq. 

Holywell, General T. Bissh Reynardson. 
Horkstow Hall, Colonel Tuflfnell. 
Hungerton Lodge, G. de Ligne Williams Gregory, esq. 
Irnham Hall, the Hon. Thomas Charles Clifford. 
Jungle (The), Russel Collet, esq. 
Kenwick Hall, Hinman Allenby, esq. 
Kettlethorpe Hall, Sir Wm. Amcotts Ingilby, Bart. 
Knaith, the late Henry Daiton, esq. 
Laccby Hall, 



16 COUNTY HIBTOET — L1NCOLNBHIRB. 

Langfton Hall, Oeorae Langton, esq. 

Lea Hall, Rev. Sir Charles Andenon, Bart. 

Leadenham Hall, Colonel Reeve. 

Legbourn Abbey, 

Little Grimsby House, Isle Grant, esq. 

J. Nelthorpe, esq. 

Little Paunton, late Sir C. Kent, Bart. 

Louth Park, Rev. Samuel Welfitt. 

Manby Hall, Hon. C. A. Pelham, MP. 

Nettleham, Sir Thomas Bernard, Bart. 

Nocton, Earl of Ripon. 

-^ Abbey, the Hon. the Dean of Windsor. 

Normanby Hall, Sir Robert Sheffield, Bart. 

Norton Place, Sir Montague Cholmeley, Bart. 

Ovston Place, Gervaise Woodhouse, esq. 

Panton House, Christopher Turnor, esq. 

Park House, Joseph Gloed, esq. 

Partney, Geors^e Wilson Maddison, esq. 

Pinchlieck HaB, Captain Brown. 

Raithby Hall, Mrs. S. Brackenbury. 

Redbourne Hall, Duke of St. Alban's. 

Revesby Abbey, the late Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. 

Riby Grove, W. E. Tomline, esq. 

Riseholme Hall, Francis Chaplin, esq. 

Saltfloetby St. Peter's, Thomas Oldham, esq. 

Sausthorpe Hall, Captain Barton. 

Scawbv, Lieutenant-Colonel Elmhirst. 

Scrivelsby Court, Hon. and Rev. the Champion Dymoke. 

Shelton Hall, Major Hall. 

Shillingthorpe House, Dr. F. Willis. 

Skendleby, Major Brackenbury. 

Somerby, E. Weston, esq. 

Park, Rt. Hon. Sir John and Lady Ann Beckett. 

South Ornisby, C. B. Massine^berd, esq. 

Thoresby Hall, Charles Thorold Wood, esq. 

Sprozton, Perceval, esq. 

Stallingborough near Grimsby, 

Staunton Hall, Rev. Dr. Staunton. 
Stoke Rochforid, Christopher Tumor, esq. 
Stourton Hall, Joseph Ltvesey, e«q. 
Stroxton Hall, Rev. John Earl Welby. 
Stubton Hall, Sir Robert Heron, Bart. M.P. 



SEATS. 17 

Sudbrook Holme, Richard Ellison, esq. 

Summer Castle, Ladj Wray. 

Sutterton, Rev. C. Boothby. 

Swinhope House, Rev. Marmaduke Allington, 

Syston, Sir John Thordd, Bart. 

l^thwell Hall, George Chaplin, esq. 

Temple Bellwood, W. P« B Johnson, esq. 

Thetford House, Colonel Denshire. 

Thonock Grove, H. Bacon Hickman, esq. 

Thorgaoby, Thomas Hameis, e^q, 

Thoniey Hall. Christopher Neville, esq. 

Thorpe Hall, Rev. John Wilson. 

Thurlby Hall, Sir Edward Ffrench Bromhead, Bart, 

'Hxover House, the late Donatus O'Brien, esq. 

Torrington, Sir R. 8. Ainslie, Bart. 

UiBneton Hall, Eaii of Lindsey. 

Usselby House, George Tennyson, esq. 

Walcot Hall, Thomas Golton, esq. 

Walcot Tinley, Captain Peacock. 

Walmsgate, WWting Yorfce, esq, 

Waltham Hall, Bushell Anningson, etq. 

Well Vale, the late F. J. B. Dashwood, esq. 

Wellingore, Colonel Noel Nevile. 

Weelsby House, Richard Thorold, esq. 

West Skirbeck House, Henry Clarke, esq. 

Willingham House, Ayseough Bouoherett, esq^ 

WiUingham (Cherry), Rev. F. Peel. 

Willoughby House, Charles Allix, esq. 

Wotton Hall, J. Uppleby, esq. 

Wyberton, Rev. Martin Sheath. 

Wytham on the Hill, OeDeral Wm. Augustus Johnson. 



Produce. Wheat, oats, and bariey ; hemp and flu, great 
quantities in tiie neighbourhood of Epworth; coarse 
wiool. Cattle, neat ; horses, in high estimation ; sheep, 
large, and clothed with long thidc wool; im^bits; mid 
gaese, and sther fovrK Flsht 



18 COUNTY HIBTORT — LINCOLKBHIEB. 

Man^faeturet. Wool is the staple commodity of Lincoln- 
shire. Barton-upon-Humber, starch, paris whiting, sacks* 
ropes, cables, bricks, tiles, and potter's ware. Boston, 
sacking, canvas, sailcloth, lace, iron and brass articles. 
Bourn, leather, and malting. Brigg, rabbit skins, for- 
merly very extensive. Epworth, sacking and canvas. 
Gainsborough, glass, lead, ropes, and ships. Grantham, 
paper, and glass gunpowder. Louth, carpets and blankets^ 
paper, soap, and worsted. Stamford, malting. Tealby, 
paper. 

Peerage, Alford, viscounty, 1815, to Gust Earl Brown- 
low, who is also Baron Brownlow of Belton, 1776 : Bo- 
lingbroke, viscounty, 1712, to St. John : Boston, barony, 
1761, to Irby: Burton, Monson of, barony, 1728, to 
Monson : Digby, Digby of. Earldom, 1790 : De Eresby, 
Willoughby of, barony, 1314, now in the Burrels, Lords 
Gwydir : Foston, Manners of, barony, 1807, to Sutton : 
Grantham, barony, 1761, to Weddell-Robinson : Har- 
rowby, earldom, 1809, and barony, 1776, to Ryder : 
Holland Province, barony, 1762, to Fox: Lincoln, earl- 
dom, 1572, to Clinton Duke of Newcastle: Lindsey 
Province, earldom, 1626, to Bertie : Nocton, Goderich 
of, viscounty, 1827> to Robinson: Stamford, earldom, 
1628, to Grey : Yarborough, barony, 1794, to Pelham. 

Baronetage, Broughton. Anderson, 1660 ; Casewick, 
Trollope, 1641 ; Denton House, Welby, 1801 ; Easton, 
Cholmeley, 1806; Great Torrington, Ainslie, 1804; 
Hanby Hall, Talmarsh late Manners, 1793; Kettle- 
thorpe Park, Ingilby, 1796; Marston, Thorold, 16^; 
Nettleham, Bemard-Morland, 1769 ; Normanby, Shef- 
field, 1755; Parlut, Wentworth, 1795; Penton, Hal- 
ford late Vaughan, 1809 ; Somerby Park, Beckett, 1813 ; 



PRESENT STATE. 19 

Thurlby Hall, Bromchead, 1806 ; West Villc, Trotter, 
1821. 



Representattves returned to Parliament. For the Northern 
Diyision of the County, 2 : Southern Division, 2: Bos- 
ton, 2: Grantham, 2: Great Grimsby, 1: Lincoln, 2: 
Stamford, 2 : total, 13. — The Reform Act added two to 
the County, and disfranchised Great Grimsby of one. 



POPULATION IN laSl. 

Provinces. Three, viz. Holland, containing three Hun> 
dreds ; Kesteven, nine Hundreds and three Sokes ; Lind- 
sey, fifteen hundreds and two Sokes. Totiil, Hundreds^ 
27 ; Sokes, 5 ; City, Lincoln ; Boroughs, 5; Market 
Towns, 31 ; Parishes, 630. 

Houses. Inhabited, 61,615; Uninhabited, 1,968; Building, 
268; total, 63,851. 

Inhabitants. Males, 158,858; Females, 158,607; total, 
317,465. 

Famines. Employed in Agriculture, 35,749; in Trade, 
17,284 ; in neither, 12,870 ; total, 65,903. 

Baptisms in 1830. Males, 5,154; Females, 5,014; totol, 
10,168. Jnnuai average of 1821 to 1830,r 9,794. 

Marriages, 2,473. Jnnuai Average, 2,326. 



ao 



COUNTY UIBTORY — LINOOLNBHIRB. 



BuriiOi. MalM, 2,734: Femalei, 2,494: total, 5,228. 
Annuai Average^ 5,666. 



Piaees 


havingf i 


net less than 1,000 InhaMtants. 






HoOMf. 


la hab. 


HaoMt. 


lokab. 


Uneolii 


t,417 


11,848 


Manthorp with 






Boatoa 


8,487 


11,940 


Little Gonerby 


360 


1,790 


Louth 


1,447 


6,976 


Barton St. Mary 


377 


1,704 




1,460 


6,658 


Belton 


809 


1,597 


SpaldiDg 


1,995 


6,497 


Deeping St. Jamee 837 


1,587 


Stamford 


1,078 


5,837 


Skirbeck 


897 


1,57^ 


LoDg Sutton 


1,005 


5,988 


Kirton in Lindte? 


346 


1,549 


Orantham 


818 


4,590 


Barton St. Peter' 


839 


1,599 


Great Grirosbj 


774 


4,995 


Heckini^ton with 






Horooastla 


788 


8,988 


Garwiok 


819 


1,480 


Holbeach 


757 


8.890 


Friakney 


986 


1,457 


Crowlaad 


546 


9,716 


Market Raten 


801 


1,498 


New SUaford 


474 


9,450 


Owtton 


918 


l,4t9 


PiDchback 


470 


9,391 


SpiUby 


954 


1,384 


Bourn 


467 


9,855 


Caistor 


981 


1,876 


Whaplode 


888 


1,998 


Sil»ey 


965 


1,364 


Swinathaad 


491 


1.994 


Barrowupon- 






Ooabarton 


886 


1»951 


Humher 


991 


1884 


Crowie 


862 


1,889 


Winterton 


976 


1,996 


Gedney 


865 


1,869 


Wa'infleetAllSainto941 


1,186 


Ha«e/ 


860 


1,868 


Bardoey 


193 


1,098 


Moulton 


861 


1,850 


Suttertott 


909 


1,093 


Epworth 


889 


1,895 


Deeping Market 


918 


1,091 


Glandford Briirg 868 


1,780 


Frieston 


999 


1,089 


Alfbrd 


858 


1,784 


Spittlegate, &c. 


997 


1,063 


Coningshy 


835 


1,773 


Billinghay 


195 


1,058 


Kirtou 


341 


1.768 


Scotter 


918 


1,043 


DoningtoQ 


869 


U769 


Wrangle 


185 


1,030 


Leake 


999 


1,744 









Annua! Value of Real Braperfy, as aueued in Aprils 
1815, £2,061 ,83a 



21 



HISTORY. 

A. D. 

449. At Stamford was fought the first battle between tlie 
Saxons and Britons. 

518. Lincoln besieg^ed bj the Saxons ander Cerdic and 
Colgern, relieved, and the invadturs defeated by Arthur 
King of the Britons. 

630. At Torksey, the inhabitants of Lindsey baptised in 
the Trent by Paulinas Archbishop of York, in the pre- 
sence of Edwin, the first Christian King of Northumbria. 

658. The learned and pious Alkfiid kept his court at Stam- 
foid. 

673. Egfrid King of Northitndierfaiiid wrested from the 
Merdans the whole province of Lindsey. 

827. At Nettleton, about a mile from Caistor, Egbert 
King of Wessex defeated with oonsideraUe loss Wiglaff 
King of Mercia, who fled to Croyland, where he was con- 
cealed three months, when by the mediation of its Abbot, 
Siward, he was restored to his kingdom on paying homage 
and becoming tributary to his conqueror. 

868. At Crainsborough, Alfred the Great married to Als- 
witha daughter of the Chief of the Oanii. 

870. At Humberstone, the Danes landed, destroyed Bardaey 
Abbey, slew about 300 monks, and devastated the oonntry 
round.— Stamford Castle burnt. — ^At Laundon (from the 
event of tihe battle since called Threekingham), in Sep4»- 
ber, the Danes defeated, and three of their Kings slain, by 
the men of Lincolnshire, commanded by Algar Earl of 
Mercia ; but the day following, the Danes, who had been . 



22 COUNTY HISTORY — LINCOLNSHIRB. 

A.D. 

reinforced, were victorious; when Algar and his two Se- 
neschals, Wybcrt and Leofric were killed. The invaders 
marched to Croyland, burnt the abbey, and murdered the 
monks. Algar was buried in Algarkirk, thence so named, 
and the residence of his Seneschals is recognized in the 
villages of Leofrington (Leverton) and Wyberton. 

873. At Torksey, the Danes wintered, and were there vi- 
sited by Burhred King of Mercia, who purchased a short 
peace. 

^1. Edward the Elder gave battle to the Danes upon • 
Wittering Heath near Stamford. 

941. Stamford and Lincoln taken by Edmund I. from the 
Mercian Danes, called the Fif-burghers from dwelling in 
the towns of Stamford, Lincoln, Leicester, Derby, and 
Nottingham. 

1013. At Gainsborough, Sweyn King of Denmark landed 
his forces, and so great was the terror of his name that all 
Lindsey submitted to his dominion. In the February 
following he was here assassinated. 

1016. The Danes laid waste the county. 

1110. Henry I. at Stamford. 

1140. Lincoln surrendered to Stephen, but, whilst the arti- 
cles of capitulation were signing, the Empress Maud 
escaped. 

1140-1. Lincoln, which bad been retaken by Ralph de Ger- 
nons. Earl of Chester, and garrisoned for the Empress, 
again besieged (in February) by Stephen, but relieved by 
the Earl of Gloucester ; when the King, after fighting 
with desperate valour, having shivered both his battle-axe 
and sword, was taken prisoner. 

1147. Lincoln given up to Stephen, who entered with 
great pomp, crowned, and in royal robes, and passed his 
Christmas there. 

1155. At Wickford, near Lincoln, Henry II. was crowned 
a second time : his former coronation was at Westminster* 



HISTORY. 23 

A.D. 

1158. Henrj II. kept his court at Lincoln. 

1174. In the Isle of Axholme, Roger de Mowhray, Consta- 
ble of England, one of the adherents to the young King 
Henry in his rebellion against his father Henry IL sur- 
rendered to the men of Lincolnshire, who razed his castle. 

1200. At Lincoln assembled a Parliament, at wliich Wil- 
liam King of Scotland did homage to King John. 

1204. King John again at Lincoln. 

1216. At Swineshead Abbey, King John first rested, after 
losing all his baggage, and narrowly escaping with his life 
in the Washes near Fosdike. Being attacked with dysen- 
tery, he was removed on a litter to Sleaford, whence he 
proceeded to Newark, where he died. Some historians, 
and Shakspeare, attribute his death to poison, administered 
by a monk of Swineshead. 

1217. June 4, at Lincoln, the associated Barons, under 
Gilbert de Gant, Earl of Lincoln, and the French, under 
Count de Perch, were defeated by the Earl of Pembroke, 
Regent for the young King Henry III. when Count de 
Perch and most of the French were slain, the principal Ba- 
rons and 400 Knights taken prisoners. Henry III. re- 
mained at Stow. 

1227. Richard Earl of Poictiers and Cornwall, having quar- 
relled with his brother Henry III., collected an army at 
Stamford, and thence marched into Northamptonshire. 

1264. Henry III. came to Stamford with his army, in the 
Easter week. 

1266. Lincoln sacked. 

1291 . Nov. 28, at Hardeby, on the Trent, near Lincoln, died 
Eleanor, the excellent and beloved Queen of Edward I. 
daughter of Ferdinand III. King of Castile and Leon. 

1301-2. At Lincoln, January 21, assembled a Parliament, 
which affirmed Edward the First's right to the crown of 
Scotland, and protested against the interference of the 
Pope. 



24 COUNTY HISTORY — LINC0LN8HIRB. 

A.D. 

1305. At Lincoln, Edward I. paiMd the winter, and con- 
firmed Ma^na Cbarta. 

ia06. In Sizhill Abbey, Edward I. immored Mary wife of 
Christopher Seton, and the sister of Robert Bruce, King 
of Scotland. 

1309. A Parliament convened in July at Stamford. 

1316-17* At Lincoln, January 28, assembled a Parliament, 
which granted men and money to Edward XL in aid of 
his war against the Scots. 

1327. September 15, at Lincoln, a Psrtiament assembled br 
Edward IIL 

1332. Edward IIL at Stamford, in April . 

1337* A Parliament h(^d at Stamford in June. 

1377* Richard II. held a council of war at Stamford about 
an expedition to France. 

1386. Richard II. visited Lincoln. 

1392. Richard II. held another council at Stamford, to 
consider about the French war, and another to suppress 
the Wickliffites. 

1396 At Lincoln, John of Oaunt, Duke of Lancaster, mar- 
ried to his third wife Lady Catharine Swinford. 

1446. Henry VI. held his court at Lincoln. 

1461. Stamford dreadfully ravaged by the Lancastriaus 
under their leader Andrew Trollope. 

1462. Edward IV. entertained at Stamford. 
1473. Edward IV. at Stamford, July 27. 

1485. After the battle of Bosworth Field, Henry VII. at 
Lincoln, and here he received the intelligence of the 
escape of Lord Lovel of Blankney. 

1503. Margaret, daughter of Henry VII. being affianced 
to James of Scotland at Collyweston, near Stamford, was 
received at Grantham by the corporation, on her way to 
Scotland. 

1532. Henry VIII. passed through Stamford, and was en^ 
tertained bv Alderman Henry Lacy. 



HISTORY. 25 

A.D. 

1536. At Barlings, commeDced an insurrection of the 
lincolnshire men in consequence of the actg of the vice- 
^erencT of Cromwell, and the suppression of some religious 
houses. The insurgents were headed hj Dr. Mackerel, 
Abhot of Barlings, under the assumed name of Captain 
Gobler, but on the King promising them pardon, they dis- 
persed, and Mackerel was taken and hanged at Tyburn. 

1539. Henry VIII. again passed through Stamford on his 
jonmey to York. 

1541. Henry VIII. and Queen, on their return from the 
north, crossed the Humber from Hull to Barrow, and 
were received in solemn procession by the Abbot and 
Monks of Thornton, where they were splendidly enter- 
tained for several days. They then passed on to Grimsby, 
where they stayed three days. On August 9, the King 
and Queen came from Temple Brewer to Lincoln, and 
staid several days. 

1565. Queen Elizabeth dined at the White Friary, Stam- 
ford^ during a progress through the county. 

1566. At the Grey Friary, Stamford, Elizabeth was enter- 
tained by Lord Buighley, because his daughter Anne was 
seized with the smallpox at Burleigh. 

1602*3. James I. on his journey to London, was at Stam- 
ford, March 24. 

1632. Charles slept in St. Martin's at Stamford as he passed 
into Scotland to receive the crown of that kingdom. He 
was again there in 1634 and 1642. 

1634. Charles I. and Queen passed through Stamford on 
their way from Apthorpe, the seat of the Earl of West- 
moreland. 

1642. At Stamford, Charles I. issued a proclamation against 
the papists. 

1642-3. March 22, Grantham taken by Colonel Charles 
Cavendish, and 360 Parliamentarians made prisoners. 

1643% Near Grantham^ twenty«^four troops of Royalist ca- 



26 COUNTY BISTORT— LINCOLN6HIRB. 

A. D. 

▼airy defeated by Oliver Cromwell at the bead of his own 
regiment— May II, at Ancaster, the Parliamentarians, 
under the younger Hotham, defeated by Colonel Caven- 
dish.— July 30, Gainsborough taken by the Parliamenta- 
rians, under Lord Willoughby of Parham, and its gover- 
nor Robert Pierrepoint, Earl of Kingston, taken prisoner, 
who on his passage down the Humber to Hull, was, in a 
mistake, shot by the Royalists.~Near Gainsborough, the 
Royalists defeated, and their commander General Caven- 
dish slfun, by Oliver Cromwell.—October 11, at Horn- 
castle, Lord Widrington, at the head of a detachment of 
the Marquis of Newcastle's army, defeated, 500 Royalists 
slain, and 800 taken prisoners, by the Earl of Manchester, 
On the same day, at Winceby, the Royalists under Sir 
John Henderson were entirely routed by Oliver Crom- 
well.— Oliver Cromwell took Croyland Abbey, and then 
marched to Stamford. 

1644. May 6, Lincoln stormed by the Earl of Manchester, 
who took its governor. Colonel Francis Fane, and about 
800 Royalists, prisoners. 

1645. Lincoln Cathedral became a barrack for Republican 
soldiers, and a stable for their horses. 

1646. May 3, Charles, escaping from Oxford, slept at Al- 
derman Wolfs at Stamford one night, and thence went 
to Southwell, in Nottinghamshire. 

1696. W^illiam III. came to Stamford, October 28. 

1739. A very great frost: the river Witham frozen over 

for nine weeks, commencing on Christmas Eve. 
1813-14. Dec. 30, George IV. then Prince Regent, visited 

the Earl of Lonsdale at Cottesmore, passing through 

Stamford. 



27 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

Anderson, Sir Edmund, Lord Chief Justice of Comsioii 

Pleas, Broa^hton (died 1605). 
Ascougrh, William, Bishop of Salisbury, confessor to Henry 

VL, Kelsey (murdered 1450). 
Ayrmin, William, Bishop of Norwich, Chancellor to Edward 

IL. Aswarby (died 1337). 
Ayscough, Anne, martyr, South Kelsey, 1520. 
Bardney, Richard, benedictine monk, author of a life of Bi- 

shop Gross eteste in latin verse, 1508, Bardney. 
Barlow, Fraaciit, painter of animals (died 1702), 
Barnard, Dr. John, learned divine, Castor, about 1625 

(died 1683). 
Bass, , sun^eon, circumnavigator, discoverer of Basses 

Straits in 17«%i and companion of Matthew Flinders, 

Aswarby. 
Bloxham, John, head of t&e Carmelites, ambassador, Blox- 

ham (flourished 1334). 
Boston, John, ''Boston of Bury,'' bibliofj^rapher, Boston 

(flourished 1410). 
Buck, Sir George, historian and apologist of Richard III. 

(flourished in the time of James I.) 
Burgh, or Borough, Thomas, Lora, Viceroy of Ireland, 

Gainsborough. 
BusBT, Richard, grammarian. Master of Westminster 

School, '* flogging master,'' Sutton St. Nicholas or Lut- 

ton, 1606 (died 1695). 
Caius, or Kaye, Dr. Thorny, divine and translator^ 16th 

century. 
Cbcil, William, Lord Burleigh, statesman and author, 

Bourn, 1520 (died 1598). 
Ceiitlivre, Susannah, ingenious dramatic writer, Holbeach, 

about 1667 (died 1722). 
Cotterell, Sir Charles, traosUtor of Cassandra, Wilsford 

(died 1687). 
Cowley, Thomas, benefactor, founder of free school, Don- 

nington (died 1718). 

h 



28 COUNTY HIBTOET-^LINCOLNBHIRB. 

CrowIaDd, Rorer of, biographer of Becket, Crowland (flou- 
rished 1214). 

Diamond, John, blind calculator and schoolmaBter, Boston, 
1731. 

Disney, John, divine and manstrate, Lincoln, 1677 (died 
1729-30). 

Dodd, Dr. William, divine and author, Bounij 1729 (exe- 
cuted for forgery in 1777). 

Emlyn, Thomas, learned and persecuted arian divine and 
author, Stamford, 1663 (died 1743). 

Fines, Edward, Earl of Lincoln, Lord Admiral of England 
(died 1585). 

Fitzalin, Bertram, a carmelite, author, and founder of the 
library at Lincoln (died 1424). 

Flinders, Cuptain Matthew, unfortunate naval discoverer, 
DonninfftOn (died 1814). 

Forman, William, Lord Mayor of London in 1538, Gains- 
borough. 

Fotherby, Martin, Bishop of Salisbury, Oreat Grimsby 
(died 1619). 

Fox, John, learned divine, church historian, and martyrolo- 
gist, Boston, 1517 (died 1587). 

Richard, Bishop of Winchester, founder of Corpus 

Christ! College Oxford, Ropsley (died 1528). 

Gainsborough, William de, Bishop of Worcester, diploma- 
tist, Gainsboroujfh (died 1308). 

Gilby, Anthony, divine ^flourished temp. Elizabeth). 

Gill, Alexander, divine, author, and schoolmaster (Milton 
his pupil), 1564 (died 1635). 

Goodrich, Thomas, Bishop of Ely, Chancellor to Edward 
VL,Kirkby (died 1554). 

Hartop, Job, voyager, Bourne (died -1595). 

Harwood, Sir Edward, military officer. Bourne (slain at 
Maestricht in 1632). 

Henry IV. the first Kinj^ of the House of Lancaster, depo- 
ser of Richard II., BoUingbrodke or Bullenbrook, 1367 
(died 1413). 

Hcywood, Thomas, voluminous dramatic writer (flourished 
temp. Elizabeth and James). 

Hoberthorn, Henry, Lord Mayor of London in 1546, Wad- 
dingworth. 

Holbeach, Henry, alias de Rands, Bishop of Lincoln, hebri- 



BMINBNT }rAT|VBS« 29 

ctan, and one of the compilers of the liturgy, Holbeach 

(died 1551). 
Holbeck, Laurence, monk of Ramsey, hebrew lexicographer, 

Holbeach (died 1410). 
Holland, Gilbert of, Abbot of Swineshead, friend and bio- 
grapher of St. Bernard (died 1280). 
Holies, Genrase, antiauary, Grimsby (died 1666). 
Horbery, Matthew, learned and able divine, author on the 

'^Duration of Future Punishment,'* Haxey, 1707 (died 

1773). 
Hornby, John, carmelite» writer against the Dominiums 

(flourished 1374). 
Qome, John, nonconformist divine and author. Long Sut-* 

ton, 1615. 
Husee, Sir William, Loid Chief Justice, Sleaford (died 1495). 
Jackson, Cyril, Dean of Christ Church Oxford, Stamford, 

17^ (died 1819). 
William, brother of Cyril, Bishop of Oxford, Stamford, 

1750 (died 1815), 
Jbnninos, Sarah, wife of the great Duke of Marlborough,, 

a woman of boundless ambition and avarice, the Atossa in 

Pope's Satire on Women, Burwell (died 1744). 
Johnson, Maurice, lawyer and antiquary, Spalding (died 

1755). 
Iu>bert, founder of Uppingham and Oakham Schools, 

Stamford (died 1616). 
Kave, V, Caius. 

Kelham,Rob. antiquary, illustrator of Domesday Book, 1718. 
Kilham, Alexander, founder of a class of seceding methodists 

called Kilhamites, Epworth. 
Kirkstead, Hugo, historian of the Cistercians, Kirkstead 

(flourished 1220). 
.Lamb, Charlbs, essayist and poet, 1774 (died 1834). 
Langley, John, Lord Mayor oi London in 1576, Althorpe. 
Langton, Bennett, friend of Dr. Samuel Johnson, Langton. 
Stephen, Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury, Langton 

William, President of Magdalen College, Oxford, 

Langton (died 1626). 
Lidlinffton, William, provincial of the Carmelites, Lidling* 

ton (died 1309). 
Lyndwode, William, Bishop of St. David^s, diplomatist, Lin-» 

wood (died 1446). 



90 COUNTY HirrOftT-^LIHOOLNBHlRB. 

Ifnpletoft, Dr. Robert, Vice QMiicdlor of Cambridge Uni- 
versity in 1671> pious and charitable divine, North Tho- 
resby (died ltS77). 

Marlborough, Sarah celebrated Duchess of, tf. Je^nin^rr. 

Motison, Sir John, loyal )aii7er, South Carlton (flourished 
iu the time of Charles I.) 

Sir William, admiral and naval author. Sooth Carlton, 

1569 (died 1643). 

More, Henry, divine, platonk philosopher, and poet, Grant- 
ham, 1614. 

Moryson, Fines, trtif^dlar and kistorinn, 1M6 (died 1614). 

Morwing, Peter, divine (flourished temp. Mary I.) 

Newcome, John, Disan of Aoehetter, author of Sermons. 
Grantham (died 1765). 

Newstead, Christopher, divine, author of an <*ApoIofy 
Women,'' South SonKreoatea (17th eentury). 

Nbwton, Sir Isaac, philosonher, astroooiner, niatbenmti- 
cian, &c. Woolsthorpe in Coisterworth, 1642 (died 1737)- 

Partridge, Samuel, divme, Lincoln, 1750< 

Plitrick, Simon, Bishop of £lv, learned and zealous- cRvine. 
author of Paraphrases and Commentaries on the Old 'Pes- 
tament, Gunsborougrh, 1626 (died 1707). 

Patten, v. Waynfleet. 

Peart, £dward, physician and author, Butterwick (livings 

loUS). 

Peck, Francis, antiquary, historian of his native town, Stam- 
ford, 1692 (died 1743). 

Rainbow, Edward, Bishop of Carlisle, Gainsborough, 1606. 

Rands, «r. Holbeach. 

llastrick, John, nonconformist divine and author, Hocking- 
ton, 1749. 

Ray, Benjamin, miscellaneous writer, Spalding (died 1760). 

Reyner, John, nouconformist divine ana author, Lincoln. 

Ripley, George, carmelite, alchemist, and author, Boston 
(died 1490). 

Rossiter, Edward, parliamentarian general, Soraerby. 

Sargeant, alias Smith, John, roman catholic divine, answered 
byTillotson, 1621. 

Scrope, Sir Adrian, loyalist, Cockrington. 

— — Sir Carr, poet, satirist, Cockrington. 

Seaton, Joseph, divine, West Butterwick, 1742. 

Seropriogham, Sir Gilbert de, founder of the Gilbertines, 
canonized by Pope Innocent III., Sempringham(ob. 1 189). 



BMINBNT KATIVBS. 31 

SMMd, Edmand, musician, author of Soaoett, Butfeerwick 

(slain 1449). 
Skipwith, Sir William, Lord Chief Baron, Ormesby (Nou- 
rished temp. Edward III.) 
— — Sir William, Junior, conscientious Judge, Ormesby 

(flourisked temp. Richard II.) 
Smith, V. Sargeant. 
John, traveller, warrior, and author, WillouC^hby 

(died la^^l). 
Robert, mathematician, author of** Harmonics," 1689 

(died 1708). 
Somercoate, Robert, Cardinal of St. Stephens, Somerooates 

{died 1241 by poison in the conclave, whilst seeking for 

the popedom). 
Sparks, Thomas, divine, author on Unity and Uniformity, 

South SomerooalfiB (died 1610). 
Stanford, Nicholas, schoolman, Stanford (flouri^ed 1310). 
Still, Jolia» Btsbop of Bath aad Wells, supposed author of 

" Gammer Gurton's Needle," the earliest drama in the 

English language, Graathftm, 1 543 (died 1607). 
Stockton, John, mercer. Lord Mayor of London in 1470, 

Bratoft. 
Stubbe, Henry, physician and miscellaneous writer, Partney, 

1631. 
Stukblbt, William, physician, divine, and antiquary, 

Holbeach, 1687 (died 1765). 
Sutton, Thomas, soldier and merchant, founder of the 

Charter House in London, Knaith or Gainsborough, 1532 

(died 1611). 
Thoresby, John de. Cardinal, Archbishop of York in 1352, 

and Chancellor of England, Thoresby. 
'Hghe, Dr. Robert, one of the translators of the Bible, 

Deeping (died 1620). 
Trekingham, Elias de, chronicler, Threekingham (flourished 

in 1270). 
Tuckney, Anthony, nonconformist divine and author, Kir* 

ton, 1599. 
Tvson, Michael, divine, Stamford, 1740. 
Walsh, John, victorious combatant with a Navarrois who 

had accused him of treason, in 1385, Great Grimsby. 
Ward, James, centenarian, Waddington near Lincoln (died 

1833, aged 101). 



32 COUNTY U18T0RT — LINCOLNSHIRE. 

Waterland, Daniel, dirioe, writer agniiut aiianism, Waselet, 
1683 (died 1740). 

Watson, Colonel Henrt, Ent Indian engineer, Holbeach, 
1737. 

Watnplbbt, William op, (William Patten), Bishop of 
Winchester, founder of Magdalen CoUeg^e Oxford, &c. 
Wainfleet (died 1486). 

Welhy, Henry, eooentric character, 1552. 

Wesley, Gharies, youngest brother, mothodist, £pworth, 
1708. 

John, brother, founder of Methodism, Epworth, 1703 

(died 1791). 

— — - Samuel, eldest of the three brothers, poet, author of 
" Battle of the Sexes, * Epworth, 1690 ^died 1739). 

Whitgift, John, learned Archbishop of Canterbury, perse- 
cutor of " schismatics and heretics. Great Orimsby, 1530 
(died 1603-4). 

Willis, Francis, physidan, eminent in cases of insanity, Lin- 
coln (died 1807). 

Wilson, Thomas, Dean of Durham, Secetftry of State to Eli- 
zabeth (died 1581). 

Woolton, John, Bishop of Exeter (died 1593). 



33' 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

The finest series of Village Churches in England are in 
the Fens of this County. 

Bardnby was a mitred abbey. Ethelred King of Mercia, 
who renounced its crown and became its Abbot ; and St* 
Oswald, King of Northumbria, and Martyr, were buried 
here, but the body of St. Oswald was removed to Gloucester 
in 909. The hand was retained as a relic, and it is said to 
hare remained incorruptible for centuries. - 

Of Baklings Abbey was Abbot Dr. Mackerel, the Cap- 
tain Cobkr of the insurrectionary movement in 1536. See 
under that year in the '' History.'* 

Bblleau was the residence of the fanatic and republican 
Sir Henry Vane, of whom Cromwell said» "The Lord deliver 
-me from Sir tiarry Vane!'' He used frequently to preach 
io his neighbours at this place. 

In Bblton Church, among several splendid monuments 
of the Brownlows and Custs, is the memorial of Sir John 
Cust, Speaker of the House of Commons, created first Lord 
^rownlow, who died 1770, aged 52. 

BooTHBY Patnbl was the Rectory for upwards of forty 
years, commencing in 1619, of the very learned Robert San* 
derson. Bishop of Lincoln. 

Boston was the Rectory of Richard Flemmyng, founder 
of Lincoln College, Oxford, and Bishop of Lincoln, who died 
in 14aO-l.— At Boston^ **the Arch Druid*' Dr. Stukeley was 
educated, and practised as a physician ; thence he removed to 
Grantham, where he continued the same profession ; but 
afterwards was ordained, and became Vicar of All Saints 
and Rector of St. Peter's, Stamford. This learned and indu8« 
trious illustrator of our earliest antiquities died in 1765. 



34 COUNTY HI8T0AT — ^LINCOLNBHIRB. 

Brant Brouohton was the Rectory and residenoe of 
the learned William Warburton, afterwards Bishop of Glou- 
cester ; and here the foundation of his great work the '* Di- 
vine Legfation^* was laid. He died in 1779. 

In Brocklesby Park is a handsome mausoleum, began 
by James Wyatt, 1787, and finished in 1794. It stswds on 
the site of an antient tumulus, or Roman sepulchre, where 
remains have been found, and is built in the form of a porip- 
teral Grecian temple. 

At BtiRWBLL was buried, in 1657, the phvsidan Sir Mat- 
thew Ldster, aged 92. 

Castor, according to Geoffrey of Monmoutih, was called 
Thongcaster, from the circumstance of Vortigem granting 
permission to Hengist as a reward for his suooeflses agidnst 
the Picts and Scots, to inclose as nrach land here as he could 
encompass with a bull's hide, which he cut into small thong*. 
History, however, is opposed to this romantic assertion. — 
On Palm Sunday a curious custom is observed. A person 
enters the churchyard widi a green silk purse, containfai^ 
two shillings and a silver penny, tied at tiie end of a cart 
whip, which he cracks three times in the porch, and conti- 
nues there till the second lesson begins ; when he goes into 
the church and, kneeling- before the desk, waves the 
whip over the clergyman's head till the lesson is con- 
cluded; and then returns to wait the service in the choir. 
Lands are held at Broughton by this tenure. After the 
conclusion of the service, he carries the whip and purse to 
the manor house of Hundon, in Castor, and leaves them. 

At Cleb Church the custom of strewing the interior with 
grass is still observed on Trinity Sunday ; a piece of land 
being left for that purpose. 

Colstbrworth was the Rectory of ^lliam Widker, 
master of the Grantham free school, and author of a treatise 
on English Particles. His monument in the Church is in* 



UlBCMLhAVBOVB 0BSmVAT10N«. 35 

scribec^ «<Hic jaoent Gulielmi Walkeri PartkuUe. Obiit 
l-« Aug«» anno Dom. 1684, atalis 61/' 

CoNurcwBY was the Rectory of Lawfeooe Eunden.poet 
Uureat, who died there in 1730 ; and of John Dyer, the 
poet, who at this place finished his poem of " The Fleeoe,'' 
and died in 1756, being interred in the Church. *-Here died, 
January 14, 1833, Mr. James Ward, of Tattershall, aged 
lOi years. 

In the M Hall at Crmst, Margaret mother of Henry 
VII. was once entertained. The bedstead whereon she lay 
was removed to a &rm-hottse called Wragbolt, in the parish 
of Gosberton. A view of the farm4M»uae, and n^resentfr- 
tions of the earvia^s on fbur of the pannelsof the bedstead 
nay be seen in the Gentleman's MagasEine, toI. Ixiii. p. 889, 

GaotiiAITd was a mitred abbey, founded by King £thel- 
bald on the spot where Us tutor Guthlac, the Saint of the 
Fens, was buried. After its destmction by the Dimes, it was 
rebuilt in 948, by the brave Chaneellor TurketuI, and burnt 
down in lOOL The west jfront, which still remains, has 
been splendidly adorned with statues in tabernacled niches. 
Here died, between the years 970 and 974, Clarenbald, aged 
1^; Swartiag, aged 142; and Turgar, aged 115. /ilie 
historian I^gulphus was Abbot in the 11th century. — The 
bridge, built as an emblem of the Trinity, and ornamented 
vith a rudely seulptured statue of Ethelbald, is considered 
particularly curious. 

JBdbnh AM Church is the burial place of the noble family 
of J3ertfe, of whom Robert Earl of Lindsey was slain at 
Edgehill in 1642; and Robert first Duke of Ancaster and 
Kesleven, ^ho died in 1728. There «re many memorials 
and ^mt marble monuments. 

EpwoKTH Rectory was held by the pious father of the 
ealsbraled leaders of the Artnenian Methodists John and 
Gharies Wesley, 



36 COUNTY HISTORY — ^LtKCOLKSfilAB. 

In Glbntworth Church is the monument of Sir Chris- 
topher Wray, Lord Chief Justice to Elizabeth. 

Gkantham was the residence of a Suffragan Bishop.— 
Canute coined money here. — ^In the Church are handsome 
monuments for Lord Chief Baron Sir Thomas Bury, who 
died 1722, aged 66; and Lord Chief Justice Sir Dudley Ry- 
der, who died in 17d6i aged 64. — ^At the Free School, under 
Henry Stokes, was educated Sir Isaac Newton, *' pure intel- 
li|fencel** — ^The Ang^el Inn is subject to the payment of 40s. 
a year by the bequest of one Mr. Solomon, for a sermon 
agfainst Drunkenness, he ** looking^ upon that sin to be the 
inlet of almost all others." 

At Gbimsbt the cucking-stool was retained till 1796. It 
stood near the Stone Bridge, at a place still called Ducking 
Stool Haven. The last person ** who occupied the exalted 
situation of Chairwoman of the Trebucket was Poll Wliel- 
dale (alias Miss Meanwell) about 1780.'* 

At Harlaxton was ploughed up the helmet of John of 
Oaunt, of gold set with jewels. It was presented to CaA»- 
rine Queen Dowager of Henry Vlil. and deposited after- 
wards in the cabinet of Madrid. 

At Hbgkinotok is a holy sepulchre, representing^ the 
tomb of our Saviour, with the Maries, and other appropriate 
figures. This interesting specimen of a very rare portion 
of Church decorations is engraved in the Vetusta Monu* 
menta. 

At KiRKSTBAD, in the bed of the river Witham, was 
found six singularly constructed antient iron candlesticks, 
one of which is figured in the Archseologia, vol. xiv. 

Kirkstead was the residence of Dr. John Taylor from 
1715 to 1733; and here his ''Hebrew Concordance" was 
composed. 

The Trent on the western side of Lba formerly exhibited 
two very remarkable curves, forming small peninsulas, but 
which are now, by the rapidity of the current, separated 



illSCBLLANBOUS OB8XEVAT10N«. 37 

from the main land. ShikBpeare, in the first part of Henry 
IV. act 3, 8c* i. introduces a warm dispute between Hotspur 
and Glendower eoooeniin^ these curvatures. 

In Lincoln, in 475, was buried Vortimer King of the 
Briton8.^In its magnificent Cathedral had sepulture, Cathe- 
rine Swinford, third wife of John of Gaunt, 1403, and Joan 
Countess of Westmoreland, their only daugrhter, 1440. 
Amonif the more emiment of its ^hops who were here in- 
terred, are St. Remigius de Fescamp, Bishop of Dorchester, 
its founder, 1092; Alexander de Blois, *< styled the benevo- 
lent,'' 1 147 ; St. Hugh Burgundus, whose remains were 
conveyed to the cathedral by two Kings, John of England, 
and William of Scotland, 1200 ; Robert Greathead or Grosse- 
teste, the celebrated scholar and patron of learning, 1253 ; 
Henry Burghersh, Lord Chancellor, 1340; Philip Rejung- 
don, a Cardinal and learned writer, 1423; Richard Fleming, 
founder of Lincoln College, Oxford, died at Sleaford, 1430 ; 
John Russel, Chancellor to Richard III. 1494; and William 
Smith, founder of Brazennose College, Oxford, 1513. llie 
bell called " Great Tom of Lincoln,** weighed 9,8941bs. 
It has been lately taken down to be recast of greater weight. 
Cardinal Wolsey was Bishop of Lincoln. — In the Museum is 
a flat grey stone, about a foot broad by two feet and a half 
long, with a rude inscription, purporting that Egbert after 
his victory over Wyclaif, piously dedicated his spoils to God 
at the foot of the cross. It was dug out of the Castle HiU at 
Castor in 1770. 

In the grounds of Louth Vicarage-house the late Vicar, 
Rev. WoUey JoUand, erected some buildings called the Her- 
mitage, which from their extent and singularity deserve no- 
tice. An obelisk presents us with this amiable inscription, 
'* This rural pile was raised by the hand of gratitude to pro- 
claim to its beholders the benevolenoeof the Rev. Samuel 
Pegge, Prebendary of the prebendal church of Louth, by 
whose diunterested kindness thb hermit was presented to 



38 COUNTY HUTOftT-^LINCOLNSantB. 

hiM Hving in tbe year of our Lord, ildcclxxk.^' The 
•partmentg or buildmg^ for ming this nngular |Hro4uction 
were, a cloister of upwardfl of 70 feet ; an obelisk; a aeoond 
oloiater; the pavilion; Shakgpeare'a gallery; Hemut'i oeU, 
stady, kitclien, chapel, and cemetery. An interesting aocoant 
of this peculiar and romantic spot aoeom|Mmies a meinoir of 
Mr. Jolland, who died August 16, 1831, aged 85, in the 
Gentleman's Magaxiae for October in that year. Thu her- 
mitage has been for the greater part destroyed during Ue 
last two or three yean, the ground being wanted for a new 
vicarage-house. 

At Marbhah-ItB-Fsn is the house and grounds of Mr. 
Roberts, who accompanied Sir Josqph Banks in the fivst 
voyage of Captain Cook round tbe world. In the gardens 
are huts resembling those of I'erra del Fu^o and New 
Holland, a museum of curiosities, and many other things of 
interest. 

Nbwhoubb was the first premonstrateasian abbey in 
England. 

Bbvbsby Abbey was the residence of the natural histo- 
rian Sir Joseph Banks, Bart* whose &ther died here in 
1761. 

At RowsTON, ScopwiOK, and several of the ndghbouring 
villages, the Parish Clerk's desk is placed behind tbe reading 
desk I 

ScaivBLBBT Manor is held by the Dymocks, by perfonn- 
ing the office of Champion at the Coronation of the King. 

Of Sbhprinoham was Sir Gilbert Sempriagham, the 
founder of the Gilbertines, an order of religious whi<^ ad- 
mitted of the residences of men and women under the same 
roof. 

At Slbafoed, in 1789, died the aooompliahed novelist 
and dramatic writer, Mrs. Frances Brooke. 

Stamford traditionally said to have been founded by 
Bladud, of the race of Trojan kings.— Over Brazennose Col- 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSEKVATIONS. 39 

lege was a brass head with an iron ring appendant from the 
mouth. It is said that a servant of Friar Bacon watched it 
speak, and immediately ^y to pieoes. Tradkion adds, that if 
the man had taken the ring* out of the mouth of the head 
while it WM speaking, all Stamford would have been walled 
round with bra&s! — l^his town is famoua for an annual bull* 
running on St. Brice's day, a custom observed for 600 yeaars 
—Here prevaHs the custom ^of Borough English, by which 
the youngest son succeeds to the lands of his father in pre- 
ference to the elder.^AU Saints was the Reetory of Richard 
Camberiaad, aft^wards Bishop of Peterborough, author of 
** De Legibus Naturae." — In St. Martin's burial-ground was 
interred Daniel Lambert, who died in 1809, aged 39. He 
meamred 3 feet 1 inch round die leg, 9 feet 4 inches round 
the body, and weighed 739 pounds. 

At Stoke Roghpord, Sir Iiaac Newton ia said to have 
^one to a day school. 

Stow, the antient Sidnacester, was, it is said, an episcopal 
see, whith«r it was removed from Dorchester in Oxfordshire. 

At Tealbt, in 1807, was turned up by the plough a 
glazed earthen vessel, of coarse workman^ip, containing 
upwards of 6,000 silver pennies of the reign of Henry IL, of 
various mintiogs. A selection of than was made and depo- 
sited in the British Museum. 

To WooLSTHORFE, his native place, Sib Isaac New- 
ton retired during the plague in 1666, and here his system 
of gravitation was first suggested to his mind by observing 
iin apple fall from a tree. The house of his birth still exists, 
and has been interestingly described by Dr. Stukeley in a 
letter to Dr. Mead, 1727, the year of his death. 

Nature, and Nature's Laws, lay hid in night : 
Qed said, * Let Newton be ! * and all was light. 

Pope's Epitaph. 



40 



JLiii of fyarks cwuuited. 

I. The HUtonr of the County of Lincoln. By thtt Author of the 
Hittoriet of London, Yorkshire, &c. — 4to, 2 voU. 1884. 

9. Beauties of England and Wales. — vol. U. pp 599*808. 

3. Terra Inoogniu of Lincolnshire, &c. By Mist Hatfield. — ISino, 
1816. 

4. A topomphical account of the Isle of Axholme, 8ec. By W. 
Peck. — £lio, 1816. 

5. Collections for a topographical and historical account of Boston, 
and Hundred of Skirbeck. By Fishey Thompson.— 4 to, 1 820. 

6. Historical and descripti7e Sketches of the Town and Soke of 
Horncastle, &c. By George Weir.^-4to, 1820. 

7. Collections for a topographical, historical, and descriptive account 
of the Hundred of Aveland. Bv John Moore. — part i. 4to, 1809* 

8. Collections for the history of the Town and Soke of Grantham. 
By Edmund Tumor, F.R.S. F.S.A.— 4to, 1866. 

9. The History of Lincoln. — l2rao, 1810. 

10. History of Lincoln. — 8vo, 1816. 

II. The history and Antiquities of Croyland Abhey. — 4to> 1783. 
19* Observations on Croyland Abbey and Bridge. By James Essex. 

— Ito, 1784. 
IS. The History of Crowland Abbey, &e. By B.Holdich — 8vo, 1816. 

14. An essay on the antient and present sute of Sumford. By 
Francis Howgrave. — 4to, 1726. 

1 5. Aeademia Tertia Anglicanse ; or the antiquarian annals of Stam- 
ford in Lincoln. By the Rev. Francis Peck.— folio, 1727. 

16. The survey and antiquities of the towns of Stamford, &c. By 
Richard Butcher, gent.— 8vo, 1717. 

1 7. The antiquities of Stamford and St. Martin's, &c. By W. Har- 
rod.— 2vols. 8vo, 1785. 

19. The History of Stamford. [By John Drakard.]— 8vo, 1822. 

19. History and Antiquities of Gainsburgh, together with a topo« 
graphical and descriptive account of Stow, &c. By Adam Stark. 
— 8vo, 1817. 

20. A topographical account of Scampton. By Rev. Caley Illing- 
wonh.^to, 1810. 

21. Sketches illustrative of the topography and history of New a 
Old Sleaford, &c. — Rvo, 1825. 

22. A topographical account of Tattershall, &e. — ^Svo, 1813. 

83 • Monumental Antiquities of Grimsby. By Rev. George Oliver. 
— 8vo, 1825. 



NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. 



SITUATION AND EXTENT. 

Boundaries, North, Cambridg^eshire and Lincolnshire : 
East, Huntingdonshire and Bedfordshire : South, Buck- 
inghamshire and Oxfordshire: West, Warwickshire, 
Leicestershire, and Rutlandsliire. 

Cheatesi kngih, 66; breadth, 90; circumference, 21Q; 
square, 1016 miles ; statute acres, 650,240. 

Province, Canterbury. Dioceses, Peterborough and Lin- 
coln. Peterborough has an Archdeaconry of Northamp- 
ton with Deaneries of Brackley, Daventry, Haddon, 
Higharo, Northampton, Oundle, Peterborough, Preston, 
Rothwell, and Weldon. The diocese of Lincoln has juris- 
diction only over the three parishes of Gretton, King's 
Sutton, and Nassington. 

Circuit, Midland. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

British Jnhabiiants, CoritaDi. Encampments, Arbury 
Banks, near Chipping' Warden i Arbury Hill, Thenford. 
Remains, Northampton, urns. 

Roman Province, Flaria Csesariensis. Stations, Benaventa 
or Isannavaria, Burnt Walb near Daventry, or Borough 
Hill ; Brinavis, Chipping Warden ; Durobrivae (^part 
of which station is at Domford Ferry, on the other side 
of the river Nen, in Huntingdonshire), Castor ; Lacto- 
dorum, Towcester; Tripontium, Lilbum. Encamp- 
ments, Chester ; Clifford Hill, in Little Houghton, circu- 
lar with a wide and deep ditch, a supposed speculum or 
camp of observation ; Cotton ; Daventry, Borough Hill, 
the largest in the county ; Farthingstone, Castle Dykes ; 
Guilsborough, called The Burrows ; Hunsborough ; Lil> 
bum, the Round Hill; Panenham; Pitsford, Barrow 
Dykes ; Rainsborough, in Newb^Ue, on the top of a 
hill, almost oval, with a double fortificatioB ; Rin|^tead ; 
Sulgrave; Thenford; Weedon Beck, called Castle 
Dykes. Earthworks, Kettering, vestigia of a dyke; 
Oster Hill, West Haddon Field, conjectured to have been 
the burial-plaoe of the pro^prsetor PubHus O^torius; 
Sutton, tumuli; Wallow Bank. Roads, Portway, visi- 
ble at Aynho, Preston Capes, kc. diverged from tbe Wat- 
ling Street at Daventry, and ran to Black Grounds, and 
Aynho ; Watling Street, at Daventry ; Ermin Street, 
at Peterborough, and thence into Lincolnsiure. Remains 
discovered at Aynho ; Bamack, coins ; Barnwell St. 
Andrew'Si coins; Castor, statues, and pwroments; 
Catesby, coins ; Chester, coins, altars, and pavements; 
Cogenhoe, coins; Cotterstock, pavement in 1798, and 
some coins ; Delapr^ Abbey, coins, Sx, ; Draytoo, 



ANTIENT 8TAVB AND REMAINS. 3 

pavement; Ecton, Saxon coins; Evenley, in 1826, 
several hundred coins; Everdon,. coins; Horestone, 
pavement; Kettering, coins, urns; Netfier Heyfbrd, 
pavement, 1699 ; Northampton, coins, &c. ; Old Strat- 
ford, coins; Paulers Piiry, coins; Piddington, pave- 
ment; Rainshorough, coins, pottery, glass; Ringstead, 
foundations, coins, &c. ; Stanwick, pavement ; Sutton, 
urn of bones and coins, 1825; Thenford, in the church- 
yard, urns, coins, tes8er»i and foundations ; Thorpe, 
pavement; Torpwell, iron furnace : Tow4»ster, coins ; 
Weedon Beck, coins, fragments of pavements ; Wee- 
don Pinkncy, coins; Weldon, very extensive foundations, 
pavements, coins; Welton, coins, urns, beads; Whil- 
ton, walls, coins; Whittlebnry, inscribed bricks, brass 
celt, coins, some of which are Greek or forged imitations, 
1822 ; Woodford, dice, tiles, and urns. 

Saxon Octarchy, Mercia. Encampments, Castle Dykes, at 
Parthingstonc; Passcnham. 

Danish Encampment, Hunsborough Hill, or Dane's Camp, 
near Northampton. 

Cathedral, Peterborough, so converted by Henry VIIL 

Abbeys. St. James's, Duston, i;iear Northampton, ante 
1112, by William Peverel, natural son of William I.; 
Peterborough, originally called Medehamsted, about 650, 
by Peada heir to Penda King of Mercia, refounded in 
970 by Athelwold Bishop of Winchester; Rpewell, 
about 1143, by William Boutevileyn; Sulby, about 
1155, by William de Wideville. 

Priories, Canons Ashby, temp. Henry II. by Stephen de 



4 COUITTT HISTORY — NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. 

Leye ; Chaoomb, temp. Henry II. by Hugh de Chacombe ; 
Gottesbrook, cell to Sulby ; Dayentry, in 1090, by Hugh 
de Leycester at Preston Capes, but removed hither by the 
founder, some remuns in a school; Deene, cell to West- 
minster, suppressed temp. William I.; Everdon, ant^ 
1217, cell to the abbey of Bemay in Normandy ; £ye< 
bury ; Fineshade, by Richard Engaine, temp. John; 
Luffield, by Robert Bossu, Earl of Leicester, 24 Henry I.; 
Northampton, St, Andrew*s, about 1076, rendered a 
cell to the abbey of St. Mary de Carit&te, by Simon St. 
Liz, the first Earl of Northampton, aod Maud his wife, 
1084; Northolm; Oxney, ante Edward I., cell to 
Peterborough; Peakirk, in 716, but suppressed 1048; 
Preston Capes, temp. William I.; Roth well, by the 
Clares; Sewardsley, temp. Henry II., by Richard de 
Lestre; Stamford Baron, in 1155; Weedon Pinkney, 
by Ghilo Pinkeney, temp. Henry I., cell to the abbey of 
St. Lucien near fieauvais in Normandy ; Weedon Beck, 
cell to the abbey of Bee in Normandy ; Wittering, ante 
1308. 

Gunneries. Castor, founded by Kyneburga, daughter to 
Penda King of Mercia, refounded in 946 ; Catesby, ante 
1247, by Philip de Esseby, or his son Robert; De la 
Pr^, founded temp. Stephen by Simon de St. Liz, junior, 
Earl of Northampton; Fotherirgay, by Simon de St. 
Liz, second Earl of Northampton ; Rothwell ; Staiv- 
ford BaroD, by William Abbot of Peterborough, temp. 
Henry II. ; Weedon Beck, by Werburgb, daughter of 
Wulfhere King of Mercia, about 680; Woolsthrop, 
ante Henry I. 

Friaries. Northampton, Austin, ante 1322 ; Black, ante 
1240, by John Dalyngton; Grey, temp. Henry III* ; 



ANTIENT STATJB AKD REMAINS. Q 

White, ante 1271, by Simon Montfort and Thomas 
Chetwood ; Eremites^ in 1322, by Sir John Longueville. 

Preceptoriet and Commanderies, Dinglej, ante Stephen ; 
Harrington, temp. Henry III, 

Colleges. Cotterstock, founded in 1339, by John Gifford, 
clerk ; Fotheringhay, projected by Edmund of Langley, 
fifth son of Edward III. carried on by his son Edward 
Duke of York, and completed by Edward IV. ; Higham 
Ferrers, in 1422, by Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Can* 
terbury ; Irthlingborough, temp. Edward III. by John 
Pyel; Luffwick, ante Edward II.; Northampton, in 
1459; Towccster, temp. Henry VI. by Dr. William 
Sponne. 

Hospitals, Aynho, founded temp. Henry II. by Roger 
Fitz Richard, and his wife and son; Armston, in 1232; 
Brackley, St. John, temp. Henry I. by Robert Bossu, 
Earl of Leicester ; and St. Leonard, ante 1291 ; Cotes, 
near Rockingham, a lazar-house ; Higham Ferrers, ante 
1258 ; Kingsthorp, in 1200, by Peter de Northampton, 
and his son Henry ; Northampton, St. John, about 1 168, 
by William St. Clere ; St. Leonard ; St. Mary ; and St. 
Thomas, about 1450; Piriho; Peterborough, St. Leo- 
nard, ante Stephen ; and St. Thomas k Becket, about 
1180, by Benedick Abbot of Peterborough; Stamford 
Baron, St. John and St. Thomas, about 1176; Wark- 
worth, temp. John. 

Churches, Badby ; Bamack; Barnwell; Brackley, in 
the 13th century, particularly fine tower; Braunston, 
very curious, spire 150 feet; Brington; Brixworth, one 
of the very few churches in the kingdom containing genu- 



6 COUNTY HISTORY— N0RTHABCPT0N8HIBB. 

ine Saxon characteristics; Castor, exceeding^ly curious 
and interesting, the tower a most heautiful ^lecimen of 
highly enriched Norman architecture; Canons Ashby, 
a curious example of the progress of the early pointed 
style; Chipping Warden, with a very elegant tower; 
Croughton, circular pillars, one of them of a peculiar 
character; Duston, Norman remains; Bail's Barton, 
Saxon tower ; Everdon, highly enriched pointed south 
doorway; Finedon; Fotheringhay, collegiate, enriched ar- 
chitecture, built by Edward Duke of York, temp. Henry 
v.; Great Addington; Higham Ferrers, handsome, 
spire 170 feet high; Hinton, low Norman tower; 
Irthliugborough; Kettering; King's Sutton, beautiful 
tower and spire; Luffwick; Northampton, St. Sepul- 
chre's, round church, Norman, built by the Templavs, 
exceedingly interesting ; St. Peter's, the great arch under- 
neath the Norman tower is very elaborate, and the church 
altogether is of great interest; Morton Pinkeney, chan- 
cel of the time of Henry H. ; Oundle, very rich and 
spacious, spire 201 feet high ; Peterborough, cathedral, 
Norman; Pitsford, early Norman remains; Raunds; 
Spratton, fine specimen of Anglo-Norman blended with 
the pointed; Titchmarsh, highly enriched; Twywell, 
large circular arches on massive piers, and curious door- 
ways; Warmington, early pointed ; Weedon, some re- 
mains of Norman church ; Wellingborough, particularly 
fine, with a handsome spire and decorated east window ; 
Whiston, highly enriched; Woodford, specimens of late 
Norman. 

Chapels, Brackley, dilapidated ; Glynton ; Upton, near 
Peterborough, Norman pillars. 

Fonts. Aston-le-Walls, square, curiously sculptured; 



ANTIENT 8TATF AND RBMAIN8. 7 

Barnaek, octagonal en trefoH headed arches richly orna- 
mented; Brackky St. James, Norman^ circular, with 
grotesques; Brackley St. Peter ; Broughton ; Castor ; 
Chacomb^ circular, Norman, with interlaced arches and 
cable moulding ; East Haddon ; Ejdon, singularly cu- 
rious; Green's Norton, Norman; Hardwick; Little 
Billing; Marham; Marston St. Lawrence, octagonal, 
enriched; Northampton, St. Peter's; Paulers Pury, 
Norman; Radston, circular, Norman, rude; Slapton, 
rudely circular; Towcester; Wansford, 10th century, 
with figures under arcades. 

Castles. Barnwell, erected 1132, by Reginald le Moine ; 
Barton Seagrave, built by Sir Nicholas deSeagrave, temp. 
Edward XL; Brackley, deserted ante Henry III. ; Cas- 
tle Hymel ; Fotheringhay, built by Simon de St. Liz, 
second Earl of Northampton, rebuilt by Edmund Duke of 
York, son of Edward III. demolished by James I.; 
Maxey; Northampton, by Simon de St. Liz, the first 
Earl of Northampton of that name, temp. William I. ; 
Rocki ogham, erected by William I. 

Mansions and Houses, Althorp ; Apethorpe ; Astwell, 
temp. Elizabeth, the seat of the Ferrers, an embattled 
tower remains ; Burleigh ; Castle Ashby ; Drayton 
House, erected by Henry Green, temp. Henry VI.; 
Edgcote ; Fawsley, fine baronial hall and other apart- 
ments; Higham Ferrers, the Bede House ; Kirby Hall, 
erected 16th century; Norborough, belonged to the 
Cleypoles ; Rothwell or Rowell, market house, began 
but left unfinished by Sir Thomas Tresham, in the time 
of James I., an interesting ruin preserved from des- 
truction by subscription in 1827; Rushton; Wood- 
crof); House. 



8 COUNTY III8T0RY— NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. 

Crosses, Geddingtoo, triang'ular in form, erected to the 
memory of Queen Eleanor, the most perfect remaining of 
the Queen 'b crosses; Helpstone, fine; Higham Fer- 
rers ; Irthlingborough; Northampton, erected to Queen 
Eleanor, exceedingly elegant. 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 

Rivers. This county is singularly independent as to water, 
for all its rivers take their rise within its own boundaries, 
and not a single stream, however insignificant, runs into 
it from any other county. The Avon rises at Naseby, 
and goes into Leicestershire ; Charwell, rises near Char- 
welton; Ise; Learn, rises at Hallidon, passes Catesby, 
and goes into Warwickshire; Nen or Nyne, rises at 
Naseby, and leaves the county at Peterborough, crossing 
the Isle of Ely, and a branch rises near Daventry, crosses 
the Grand Junction navigation near Welton, and goes to 
Northampton ; Ouse, rises in Ouzle Close near Brackley ; 
Tove ; Welland, rises at Sibbertoft, and goes into Lei- 
cestershire. 

Inland Navigation. Grand Junction Canal, joins the Ox- 
ford and Coventry Canal near Braunston, where there is a 
tunnel of a mile in length and two reservoirs ; proceeds 
between Welton and Daventry ; thence to Weedon, with 
an embankment half a mile in length, and Gayton, with 
a cut to Northampton : there is another branch at Crick, 
1500 yards in length. Leicester and Northampton Ca- 
nal, crosses the Welland, joins the Nen navigation, and 
a branch of the Grand Junction, being a course of 43 
miles from Leicester to Northampton. Nen river. Ox- 
&rd and Coventry Canal, joins the Grand Junction at 
Braunston. Union Canal, from Market Harborough 
Canal to the Grand Junction Canal. Warwick and 
Braunston Canal, from the Oxford and Coventry Canal 
at the latter place. Welland river. At Blisworth is an 
extensive tunnel, opened 1805. 



10 COUNTY HISTORY — ^NORTHABCPTONSHIRB. 

Emintnees and Fiews. Arburj Hill, 804 feet high ; Barby 
village ; Brington Church ; Borough Hill, near Dayen- 
try, whence a moBt beautiful and eztennve panoramic 
view ; Crick, commancU rich and extensive views even to 
Coveutry; Deene Thorpe Park, pleasing views; Dus- 
ton, pleasing views; Fawdey Manor House commands 
a rich prospect; Fox Hill; from a hill between Great 
Billing and Overstone is a view of 45 churches ; Har- 
dingstone village, on the brow of a hill, commands very 
extensive prospects; Hunsborough Hill, an extensive 
view ; Naseby, prospects almost unbounded, and from the 
old Windmill Bank 3d parish churches may be seen with 
the naked eye; from Legers Ashby the Malvern Hills 
may be seen; Newnham village; Rainsborough Hill; 
Stow village; Studbury Hill, by some, whilst Naseby is 
by others, supposed to be the highest land in England ; 
Sttlgrave Castle Hill. 

J^alural Curiosities. Althorp, petrifying spring ; Astrop, 
medicinal waters, discovered by Dr. Richard Lower, 1664; 
Benefield Swallows, consisting of nine cavities, whence 
the land-flood waters flow and disappear ; Farthinghoe, 
chalybeate spring ; Great Oxenden, polysyllabic echo in 
the belfry tower ; Northampton, medicinal water ; 
Oundle, mineral springs, and a well called from its pecu- 
liar noise " the drumming well ; "" Raunds, petrifying 
spring ; Rothwell, petrifying well and bone well ; Stan- 
wick, a spring called Fin's Well, which, after running 12 
perches, suddenly disappears; Wellingborough, medi- 
cinal waters, particularly the Redwell chalybeate spring. 

Public Edifices, Braokley, town hall, handsome, encted 
by the first Duke of Bridgwater in 1705, cost £2,000. 
Braunston, bridge over the Oxford and Coventry Canal. 
Northampton, barracks, erected 1796; county^hall, very 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 11 

handsome; gaol, erected 1794, Brettlngham architect, 
cost £16,000; infirmary, opened 1793, Saxton architect, 
cost £15,000 ; market place, very large ; theatre. Oundle 
bridge. Peterborough, infirmary ; market house; town 
hall. Thrapston, bridge. Towcester, free grammar 
school. Weedon, military dep6t, capable of receiving 
200,000 stand of arms ; and with its storehouses, maga- 
zines, hospital, &c. may be considered almost unequalled 
in the world. Wellingborough, free grammar school ; 
town hall. 

Seats. Apethorpe, Earl of Westmoreland, K.G. 
Lord Lieutenant of the County. 
Abington, J. H. Thursby, esq. 

Addington, Great, Hollidffe, esq. 

Aldwinkle, Hon. and Rev. Frederick Powys, 

Althorp, Earl Spencer. 

Arthingworth Hall, Langham Rokeby, esq. 

Lodge, T. Wood, esq. 

Ashby Mears, Hall, esq. 

Ashby St. Leger, Hon. Lady Senhouse« 
■^ — Lodge, George Henry Arnold, esq. 

Hall, Rev. W Stockdale. 

Astrop, William Willes, esq. 

Aynho, W. R. Cartwright, esq. M.P. 

Badby House, W. Watkins, esq. 

Sainton, C. Henson, esq. 

Barnwell Castle, ■ 

Barton Segrave, Hon. and Rev. R. B. Stopford. 

Hall. Mrs. Tlbbits. 

Biggin Hall, near Oundle, Jesse Watts Russell, esq. 
Billing Paddock, R. C. Elwes, esq. 
Blakesley Hall, J. H. Wight, es(j. 
Blatherwick Hall, Stafford O'Brien, esq. 
Blisworth, J. Stone, esq. 
Boughton, Cololiel Vyse. 

House, Duke of Buccleuch, K. G. 

Bradden, Cornelius Ives, esq. 
Bragboroueh Hall, R. Lamb, esq. 
Brampton House, Beesley, elsq. 



12 COUNTV HISTORY — ^NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. 

Brixworth, Hall, W. Wood, esq. 
Brock Hall, T. R. Thornton, esq. 
Bulwick, Thomas Tryon, esq. 
Burleigh House, Marquis of Exeter, K.G. 
Burton Latimer, the late Joseph Harper, esq. 
Canons Ashhv, Rev. Sir Henry Dryden, Bart. 
Carlton, Sir John Henry Palmer, bart. 
Castle Ashby, Marquis of Northampton. 

Catesby Abbey, 

Chacomb Priory, Fiennes Wickham, esq. 
Churchill House, Welton, Miss Clarke. 
Clapton Hall, Peere Williams, esq. 
Cottingham, late Henrv Boulton, esq. 
Cosgrove Hall, J. C. Mansell, esq. 

Priory, Admiral Sir Robert Moorsom. 

Cotterstock, Charles Berkeley, esq. 
Cottesbrook, Sir James Langham, Bart. 
Courteenhall, Sir William Wake, Bart 
Cranford, Rev. Sir George Robinson, Bart, 
Cransley, John Capel Rose, esq. 
Culworth, Captain Peter Rye, R.N. 

Dallington House, Reddale, esq. 

Deene Park, Earl of Cardigan. 
De la Pre Abbey, Edward Bouverie, esq. 
Dingley Hall, H. H. H. Hungerford, esq. 
Drayton House, Duke of Dorset, K.G. 
Earl's Barton, William AVTiitworth, esq. 
Easton Neston, Earl of Pomfret. 

Ecton House, Ambrose Isted, esq. 
Cottage, F. Orlebar, esq.. 

Edgcote Hall, Thomas Carter, esq. 

Elton Hall, Earl of Carysfort. 

Evenly Hall, Hon. Philip Sydney Pierrepoint. 

Everdon Hall, Sir John Doveton. 

Eydon Lodge, Rev. Francis Annesley. 

Farmingwood Hall, Ladies Fitzpatrick, 

Farthingho, George William Rush, esq. 

Fawsley Park, Sir Charles Knightley, Bart. MP, 

Finedon Hall, Sir J. E. Dolben, Bart. 

Fineshade Abbey, late Hon. J. Monckton. 

Floore House, Weedon Beck, R. Pack, esq. 

Geddington Hall, Hon. E. S. Pery. 

Glendon Hall, John Booth, esq. 



) 



SEATS. 

Great Harrowdeo, Earl Fitzwilliam. 

Great Oakley, Sir Arthur B. de Capel Brooke, Bart. 

Guildsborough, W. Z. L. Ward, esq. 

Grange, J. W. Boughton Legh, esq. 

Hackleton, Thomas Mercer, esq. 
Haddon Hall, East, W. Sawbridge, esq. 
Harlestone Park, W. R. Rose, esq. 

Haslebeach, Bumaby, esq. 

Hatton Hall, Wellingborough, Rev. C. P. Vivian. 
HoUowell, William Lucas, esq. 
Horton, Sir Robert Gunning, Bart. 
Houghton House, Thomas Baker, esq# 
Hunwick Hall, W. A. Orlebar, esq. 
Kelmarsh Hall, William Hanbury, esq* 
Kingsthorpe House, Miss Bodington. 
Kirby Hall, Earl of Winchelsea and Nottingham. 
Knuston Hall, Captain Vivian. 
Lamport, Sir Justinian Isham, Bart. 
Laxton, Lord Carbery. 
Lilford Hall, Lord Lilford. 
Loddington, Admiral Thomas Eyles. 
Mwdwdl Hall, Rev. Thomas Holdich. 
Mares Ashby, J. Hall, esq. 

Marston St. Lawrence, John Jackson Blencowe, esq, 
Milton Abbey, Earl Fitzwilliam. 
Nascby House, J. Fitzgerald, esq. 
Norton Hall, Beriah Botfield, esq. 
Orlingbury, A. E. Youne, esq. 
Overstone Hall, Lewis Lloyd, esq. 
Peterborough Palace, Bishop of Peterborough. 
Pltsford Hall, the late Colonel Corbett. 
Preston Deanery, L. Christie, esq. 
, Rinestead, Thomas Wilkins, esq. 
Rockingham Castle, Lord Sondes. 
Rushton Hall, W. Williams Hope, esq. 
Rushden Hall, Thomas Fletcher, esq. 
Salcey Forest, Earl of Euston. 
Shelbrook Lawn, Colonel Fitzroy. 
Southwick, G. F. Lynn, esq. 
Stanford Hall, R. Otway Cave, esq. 
Stoke Brien, late Levison Vernon, esq. 
Sudborough, Hall, Duke of Cleveland. 
Sulby Hafl, George Payn> esq* 



13 



14 COUNTY HISTORY — ^IfOBTHAMPTONSHIRB. 

Sywell HaU, E. PteU, cm. 
Teeton Houm, Thomas Langton, esq. 
Thenford Hall, Samuel Amy Severne, esq. 
Thorpe Hall, Longthorpe, Edward Jenkins, esq. 

>-Mal8or, T. P. Maunsell, esq. 

Thurnby Hall, Edward Faux, esq. 

Ufford Hall, Mrs. Tryon. 

Upton Hall, W. L. W. Samwell, esq, 

Waddenhoe Hall, the late Thomas Welch Hunt^ esq. 

WakeiSeld Lawn, Duke of Grafton, K.6. 

Walcot Hottse, Colonel Neville Noel. 

Wellingborough House, Charles Hill, esq. 

Weston by Wedon, Hon. H. Hutchinsou. 

Welton Place, Richard Clarke, esq. 

Whittlebury, late J. Beauclerk, esq. 

Lodge, Lord Southampton. 

Whilton, Mrs, Rose. 

Wicken Park, Hon. Arthur Trevor, M.P. 

Woodford Lodge, near Kettering, Rt. Hon. Chas Arbuthnot. 

Woollaston Hall, near Wellingborough, — *- 

Wootton Hall, William Harris, esq. 

Peerage. Althorp, viscounty (1765) to Spencer Earl Spen- 
cer, who is also Viscount and Baron (1761) Spencer of 
Althorp. Boughton, Montagu of, barony (17S6) to 
Scott ; Brackley, viscounty (1616) to Egerton Earl of 
Bridgcwater; Braybrook, barony (1788) to Griffin-; 
Burleigh, barony (1571) to Cecil, Marquess of Exeter ; 
Daventry, Finch of, barony (1673) to Finch Earl of Win- 
chelsea and Nottingham; Deene, Brudenell of, barony 
(1780) to Brudenell Earl of Cardigan ; Drayton, Sack- 
lalle of, viscounty (1782) to Germaine Duke of Dorset; 
Grafton, dukedom (1675) to Fitzroy ; Harrington, earl- 
dom (1742) and barony (1729) to Stanhope ; Haryng. 
worth, Zouch of, barony (in 13th century, in abeyance 
from 1625 to 1815, when it was terminated infavonr of 
Sir Cecil Bishop); Lilford, barony (17^7) to Powis ; 
Milton, viscounty (1746) and barony (1742) to Fitzwilliam 
Earl Fitzwilliam of Norborough, (1746) ; Northamp- 



PRESENT STATE. 15 

ton, marquessate (1812) and earldom (1618) to Compton . 
Thornhaugh, Russell o( barony (1603) to Russell Duke 
of Bedford ; Waldegrave, Waldegrave of, earldom (1729) 
to Waldegrave. 

Barof^tage. Canons Ashbj, Dryden, 1795 ; Carlton, Pal- 
mer, 1660; Cottesbrook, Lasgham, 1660; Easton 
Nest on, Denys, 1813; Fawsley, Knightley, 1798; 
Great Oakley, Brooke, 1803; Holcott, Hardy, 1806; 
Lamport, Isham, 1627; Stamford, Cave, 1641 ; Thing- 
don, Dolben, 1704. 

Representatives returned to ParUament, for the Northern 
Division of the County, 2 ; Southern Division, 2; North- 
ampton, 2; Peterborough, 2;-T~tota], 8. The Reform 
Act disfranchiied Brackley, 2, wd Higham Ferrers, 1, 
and added 2 to the County; — Diminution, 1. 

Produce. Stone, at Duston: ragstone, at Great Weldon 
and at Stanwick: limestone:: brick and potter's clay: 
marl. Timber: corn: cherries, at Weston Fa veil; apples, 
at Twy well, &c. and at Finedon the dried apples. Deer. 

Manufactures, Brackley, lace. Daventry, whips, shoes, 
and hats. Kettering, wool, shoes, and brushes. Long 
Buckby, shoes, malting. Northampton, shoes and boots, 
to an immense extent : currying of leather : lace. Peter- 
borough. Potterspery, coarse kind of earthenware, very 
brittle. Thrapstone, whips, thread lace, paper. Tow- 
cester, lace. Wellingborough, shoes and boots ; army 
contracts got up. 



16 



POPULATION IN 1831. 

Hundreds, 19; Boroughs, 2; Liberty, 1; CHy, 1; Mar-^ 

ket Toums, 9; Parishes, 336; Parts of Parishes, 5. 
iHbtt^ei, Inhabited, 36,322; Building', 154; Uninhabited, 

882. 
Inhabitants. Males, 87,949; Females, 91,387; total, 

179,336. 
Families, Employed in Agriculture, 18,334; in Trade, 

12,895 ; in neither, 7,934 ; toUl, 39,163. 
Baptisms in the year 1830. Males, 2,395 ; Females, 2,439 ; 

totol, 4,834. Annual average of 1821 to 1830, 4,782. 
Marriages, 1,373; annual average, 1,329. 
Burials. Males, 1,620; Females, 1,737; total, 3,357. 

Annual average, 3,247* 



Places having not less than 1,000 inhabitants. 






Hooset. 


Inbab. 




Houses. 


Inhab. 


Northampton 


8,091 


15,351 


Kingsthorpe 


886 


1,844 


Peterborough 






Moulton 


364 


1,819 


(Liberty) 


3,953 


10,961 


Finedon orThindon 868 


1,293 


(City) 


1,188 


5,558 


Irthlingborough 


355 


1,808 


Wellingborough 


924 


4,688 


Rushdeo 


827 


1,845 


Kettering 


885 


4,099 


King's Sutton 


878 


1,270 


Daventry 


786 


8,646 


Stamford Baron 


814 


1,285 


Towcester 


543 


8,671 


King's Cliffe 


339 


1,178 


Oundle 


474 


8,808 


Brigs tock 


358 


1,167 


Brackley 


876 


8,107 


Ey. 


240 


1,183 


Long Buckby 


453 


2,078 


Paalers Pury 


325 


1,098 


Rothwell 


408 


1,876 


Yardley Hastings 


198 


1,051 


Weedon Beck 


3R8 


1,489 


Hardingstone 


208 


1,086 


Middleton Cheney 880 


1,415 


Thrapstone 
Welford 


185 


1,014 


BrftunstoD 


287 


1,880 


824 


1,011 


Raunds 


853 


1,870 









Annual Value of Real Property, as assessed in April, 
1815, £942,162. 



17 



HISTORY. 

A. D. 

870. Medehamsted, now Peterborougfh, moBastery burnt, 
its abbot Hedda and the monks slaughtered by Hubba and 
the Danes. Peakirk Priory also suffered much. 
921. At Towcester, the Danes repulsed by the inhabitants in 

an attack upon the town. 
1006. At Borough Hill, near Daventry, the Saxons defeated 

by the Danes. 
1064. Northampton plundered and burnt by the Northum- 
brians under Earl Morcar. 
1094. At Rockingham, the Council of clergy and nobility 
to terminate the dispute between William Rufus and Aup 
selm Archbishop of Canterbury. 
1106. At Northampton, interview between Henry L and 

his brother Robert Duke of Normandy. 
1122. At Northampton, Henry I. passed his Easter with 

much pomp. 
1130. At Northampton, a Parliament held by Henry I. 
when the nobles swore fealty to his daughter the Empress 
Maud. 
1138. At Northampton, a Council held by Stephen to make 

promotions in the Church. 
1144. At Northampton, Stephen held his Court, when 
Ranulf Earl of Chester was detained in prison until be 
had delivered up the castle of Lincoln to the King. 
1163. At Northampton, a Parliament held by Henry II., 
when Archbishop Becket, for embezzlement of public 
money and insulting the King, was sentenced to be im- 
prisoned, and his moveables to be confiscated. 



18 COUNTY HISTORY— N0RTHAMPT0N8HIRB, 

A. D. 

1173. Northamptoii plundered bj Anketil Mallore, an ad- 
herent of the young King Henry, in his insurrection against 
his father Henry H. 

1175. At Northampton, a Parliament held by Henry II. 
in which the Constitutions of Clarendon were confirmed. 

1176. At Northampton, a Parliament in which William 
King of Scotland attended on Henry II. but refused to 
profess subjection to the Church of England. 

1179. At Northampton, a Parliament to which Knights 
and Burgesses were summoned as Veil as nobles and pre" 
lates; the first important approximation to our present 
Constitution. At this Parliament Justices itinerant were 
appointed to the six Circuits in England ; the Welsh 
Princes did homage to Henry II. ; and the Constitutions 
of Clarendon were again confirmed. 

1188. At Geddington, a Parliament held by Henry II. 
when a subsidy was voted for the Crusade. 

1194. Richard I. resided at Silveston, when William King 
of Scotland had an audience to prefer his complaint against 
the Bishop of Durham for an insult received at Brackle j. 

1199. At Northampton, a meeting of the nobles on the 
death of Richard I. when they took the oath of fealty to 
John, who was then in Normandy. 

1209. To Northampton, John, being enraged fit the citizens 
of London, removed the Exchequer. 

1211. At Northampton, a Council held by John with the 
Pope's Legate's Pandulph and Durand, but the King not 
making sufficient concessions, was excommunicated by the 
Legates. 

1215. The Barons with their army rendezvoused at Brack- 
ley the week after Easter, and there received the nobles 
from the King, to whom they delivered their demands; on 
the denial of which they elected Robert Fitzwalter their 
general, styling him the Marshall of the Army of God 
and of Holy Church, and then marched to the siege of 



HISTORr. 19 

AD. 

Northampton Castle, which was suocessfuUj defended hj 
the King's forces during a siege of fifteen days. 

1217« At Northampton, the King of Scotland, who, as an 
adherent of Lewis the Dauphin, had heen excommunicated, 
did homage to Henry HI. and was absolved by Gallo, the 
Pope's Legate. 

1220. Fotheringliay Castle, under Ranulf Earl of Chester, 
taken by surprise, and the surrounding country ravaged 
by William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle. 

1232. Henry IIL visited Fotheringhay Castle. 

1249. A celebrated tournament held at Brackley, where 
others had been held in several preceding years, in which 
the Foreigners defeated the English through Richard de 
Clare, Earl of Gloucester, << contrary to custom, and much 
to his dishonour/' allying himself to the aliens. 

1264. A treaty at Brackley to settle the differences between 
the King and his Barons, entirely failed. The parties 
were, on the side of the King, the Bishop of Coventry and 
Lichfield, and Nicholas Archdeacon of Norfolk ; Simon 
de Montfort and the Barons ; in the presence of Sir John 
de Valencines, nuncio from the King of France. Failing, 
the King and Prince marched to Northampton Castle, 
which, after a desperate resistance, was taken. Simon de 
Montfort, William de Ferrers, with twelve other Barons, 
and sixty knights, were made prisoners. 

1266. At Northampton, a Parliament held by Henry Iff. 
when Ottobon, the Pope's Legate, excommunicated th» 
Clergy that joined the party of Simon de Montfort, Earl 
of Leicester. 

1267. A tournament at Brackley when many distinguished 
persons entered the lists. 

1277. At Northampton, thirty Jews were hanged for clip, 
ping the King's coin ; and in the following year fifty were 
hanged for having, as it was pretended, crucified a child 
on Oood-Fridav. 

k 



70 COUNTY HISTORY— KOftTHAMPTONSHIRE. 

1. D. 

1307* At Northampton, a Parliament amembM to arrange 
the funeral of Ed^Tard I. and the gncoBStion of Edward II. 

1316. At Northampton^ a Parliament held by Edward II., 
at which John Poydras or Deydras, the eon of a tanner at 
Exeter, who pretended to be tbe real son of Edward I., 
and that the reigning monarch had been substituted at 
nurse in his stead, was tried and executed. 

1338. At Northampton, a Parliament held hj Edward the 
Black Prince, when a large ud was granted to his father 
Edward III., then in Flanders, for his war with France. 

1380. At Northampton, a Parliainent hdd 3 Richard II. 
when the Poll-tax Was enacted, the levying of which caused 
the insurrection under Wat Tyler. 

1459. In Hardingstone Fields, near Northampton, Jnly 9, 
the Lancastrians were defeated, Henry VI. taken prisoaer, 
Humphrey Stafford Duke of Buckingham, John Talbot 
Earl of Shrewsbury, John Beaumont the first English 
Viscount) Thomas Lord Egremont, Sir Christopher Ta1> 
hot, and 10,000 men, slain by the '< King-making'' Earl 
of Warwick. 

1464. At Orafton, May 1, Edward IV. married to EKza*> 
bcth Widville, widow of Sir John Grey. 

1469. A desperate engagement between the Yorkists and 
Iiancastrians at Edgecote, in which the former were de- 
feated through the withdrawal of Lord Stafford's forces, 
occasioned by a quarrel with the Earl of Pembroke. 

1481. At Fotheringhay, Alexander King of Scotland did 
homage to Edward the Fourth. 

1586. Mary Queen of Scots brought to Fotheringhay Castle 

• as a prisoner. On October 11, the Commissioners arrived 

for the trial ; and on the 8lh of February following the 

eventful career of this unhappy Queen was liere terminated 

by decapitation. 

1603. At Apethorpe> George Villiers, afterwards the pow- 



HISTORT. 21 

A.D. 

erful Dake of Bttckingham, first introduced and noticed 

hj James the First. 
1610. James 1. visited Holdenby. 
1626. Charles and his Queen Henrietta resided for nine 

weeks at Wellingborough to drink the chalybeate waters 

of the Redwell spring. 

1642. Charles arrived with his two sons at Edgcote, and 
quartered his army between that place and Cropredy. 
The Parliamentarians under Essex were quartered at 
Keynton ; and on the 23d of August the two powers met 
at Edge Hill, and so obstinate and equal the engagement, 
that both sides claimed the victory. The King drew oS 
his troops towards Oxford on the 24th, and slept that 
night at Aynho. — August 28, the Royalists on their way 
to Oxford attacked by the townspeople of Bradcley, and 
totally routed ; the people getting many valuable prizes. 
The value of all the gold, money^ horse, and apparel, 
C4)uld not be less than six or eight thousand pounds. 

1643. At Middleton Cheyney, May 6, the Parliamentarians 
defeated by James Earl of Northampton* — In August, 
the Earl of Essex rendezvoused on Brackky Heath. 

1644. April 18, a party of Parliamentarians, thirty in 
number, being pursued by a troop of the Earl of North^^ 
ampton's horse, took shelter in Canons Ashby Church, 
which the royalists forced, driving the besieged into the 
steeple^ where, after a defence of two hours, they sur- 
rendered, the Royalists having began to fire the place. 

1644-5. February 26, Sir William and Sir Charles Comp- 
ton, with 300 horse, routed 400 of the Parliamentarian 
horse from Northampton near Daventry, killed 13 men, 
wounded several, took 36 prisoners, and 50 horses, with a 
considerable store of arms* 

1645. June 7> Charles fixed his head-quarters at Daventry, 
and staid six nights. On the 14th, the King totally de« 



22 COUNTY HISTOftT — NOBTHAMPTON8HIBB. 

A. D. 

feated at Naaebj, and 5000 men with all his artiller j and 
bagg^age captured by the Parliamentarians under Sir Wil- 
liam Fair&x and Oliver GromwelL 

1647. At Holdenby or Holmbj House, Charles I. arrived 
on the 16th of February, in the custody of the Commia- 
sioners of the Parliament, to whom he had been sold by 
the Scots for £400,000. He remained there till the 4th 
of June, when he was seized by Comet Joyce, and con- 
veyed to Childersley in Cambridgeshire. 

1648. Woodcroft House garrisoned by the Rev. Dr. Nicho- 
las Hudson for the King, taken June 6, and the gallant 
divine most cruelly mutilated, and then murdered. 

1675. The greater part of Northampton consumed by fire. 
The loss estimated at £150,000. In aid of the sufferers 
was collected about £25,000, a sum exceeding by £7fO0O 
the general subscription raised after the great fire in Lon- 
don in 1666. 

1738. At Wellingborough, July 8, 205 houses burnt, loss 
^timated at £26,000. 



^ 23 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

AddingtoOy Dr. Stephen, learned dissenting divine and 
author, Northampton, 1729 (died 1796). 

Sir William, police magistrate, and author, Litchbo- 

rough, 1749. 

AUgood^ Thomas, first inventor of japanning in this king- 
dom (temp. Charles II.) 

Alsop, Vincent, nonconformist divine' and author, Wilby 
(died 1703). 

Andrew, George, Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin, Daventry, 
1573 (died 1^). 

Ashworth, Caleb, dissenting divine, tutor, and author, 1709 
(died 1774). 

B^haw, Edward, republican, nonconformist author, 
Sroughton, 1629. 

Bailes, John, button-maker, Northampton, 1592 (died at 
the age of 114). 

Barker, Matthew, nonconformist divine and author, Crans- 
ley (died 1698). 

Bathurst, Ralph, divine, physician, and latin poet, How- 
thorpe, 1620 (died 1704). 

Beaufu, William, author on Miracles of the Virgin, North- 
ampton (died 1390). 

Belchier, Dawbridgecourt, dramatist, Guil8boTOugh(ob.l621). 

Bernard, Edward, astronomer, mathematician, orientalist, 
and critic, Paulers Pury, 1638 (died 1697). 

Billing, Sir Thomas de. Chief Justice to Edward IV. Astwell. 

Blencowe, Sir John, Justice of the King's Bench, and 
Member of Parliament, Marston St. Lawrence, 1642 (died 
1726). 

William, third son of the judge, decipherer to the Go- 
vernment, Marston St. Lawrence, 1682-3 (died 1712). 

Bolton. Robert, divine and author, Broughton (ob. 1671). 

Brasbridge, Thomas, physician, divine, and author, 16th cent. 

Braybrooke, Robert, Bishop of London, Lord Chancellor, 
Braybrooke (died 1404). 

Brett, William, died aged 121, Braunston. 

Bridgman, Henry, Bishop of Sodor and Man (died 1682). 

Britton, Thomas, musician and chemist, known as the ^^mu-* 



24 COUNTY HISTORT-^NORTHAMPTONSHIRB. 

sical small-coal-man/' Higham Ferrers, about 1650 (died 
1714). 

Browne, Robert, founder of the Brownists, Northampton 
(died 1630). 

Brudenel, Sir Robert, Chief Justice, Dean (died 1531). 

Burkitt, William, commentator on the New Teataraent, 
Hitcham, 1650 (died 1703). 

Butler, Alban, learned catholic divine and historian of the 
Saints, Apletree, 1710 (died 1773). 

Carey, William, LI1.D. miwioiiarj and orientalist, Pkulers 
Pury (died 1834). 

Cartwright, Thomas, Bishop of Cheater, author, Northamp- 
ton, im ^ , ^ 

Catesbr, Robert, conspirator m the gunpowder plot, Asbhj 
St. Leger (executed 1605). 

Sir William, minister to Richard IIL A^by St. Leger 

(beheaded 1485). 

Chambers, John, last abbot and first Bishop of Peterbo- 
rough, Peterborough (died 1556). 

Chapone, Esther, poet and moralist, Twywell, 175^7 (died 

1801). 

Chichblb, Hbnbt, Archbishop of Canterbury, a popularly 
esteemed prelate, distinguished scholar, and munificent 
founder of All Souls College, Oxford, and a college and 
hospital at Higham Ferrers, where he was bom in 1362 
(died 1443). 

Clarke, Samuel, divine and orientalist, Brackley, 1624 (died 

Coran. Thomas, physician, and author on ethical philosophy 
and theology, ftowell, 1736 (died 1818> 

Coles, Elisha, author of "Practical Discourses of God's So- 
vereignty" (died 1688). 

Elisha, nephew of the preceding, lexicographer, 1640 

(died 1684). 

Crew, Nathaniel, Lord Crew, servile and versatile Bishop of 
Durham, excepted by name from the general pardon issued 
by William and Mary, Steane, 1633 (died 1731). 

Crowley, Robert, divine, writer against Popery (oh. 1588). 

Dallington, Sir Robert, miscellaneous writer, Geddington, 

1561 
Dodford, Robert, monk of Ramsey, hebrician, Dodford 

(flourished 4370). ,kkk .a- ^ laAK^ 

Dod, John, the decalogist, Fawsley, 1555 (died 1645). 



BMllCBirT KAT1YB8. 99 

I>oddridge, Pliilm» D.D. learned dissentiiii^ divine and com* 

mentator, Northampton, 1702 (died 1751). 
Dolben, John, Arcbbighop of York, Stanwick, 1624, 
]>RTDBN, John, dramatic, political, and satirical poet aikd 

translator, Aldwinkle All Saints, 1631 (died 1700). 
EoipsoB, l^r Richard, minister to Henry VII. Towoester 

(beheaded 1510). 
Estwick, Nicholas, divine, Harrowden (died 1657). 
Featley, John, divine, editor of his uncle Daniel Featley's 

Works (died 1666), 
Fisher, Samuel, journeyed to Rome to convert the Pope, 

Northampton (died 1665). 
FHtzviiliam, Sir William, Lord Deputy of Ireland, Milton 

(died 1559). 
PLBTeHBB, John, dramatist, coadjutor of Beaumont, 

Northampton, 1576 (died 1625). 
Foster, Samuel, mathematician and astronomer, 1597 (died 

1652). 
Freeman, William Peere Williams, successful naval com- 
mander, Clopton, 1741-2 (died 1832). 
Freind, John, physician, politician, and elegant writer, 

Groughton, 1675 (died 1728). 
Robert, brother of John, scholar, celebrated for latin 

epitaphs, Croughton, 1667 (died 1751), 
FuLLEB, Thomas, royalist, divine, biographer and histo-^ 

rian, Aldivinkle St Peter, 1608 (died 1661). 
Oastrell, Francis, Bishop of Chester, author of *< Christian 

Institutes.'' Slapton, 1662 (died 1725), 
Gilbert, Jeremy, died at Lutton a^ed 132, Apethorpe. 
Gill, Dr. John, baptist, orientafist, commentator on the 

IKble, Kettering, 1697 (died 1771> 
Godwin, Francis, Bishop of Hereford, biographer of the 

Bishops, HaningtOB, 1561 (died 1683)* 
Goulston, Theodore, physician (died 1632). 
Grimbald, John, built Tripity College library, Cambridge, 

Raunds. 
Gunton, Simon, historian of the cathedral, Peterborough 

(died 1676). 
Hacket, Wiuiam, religious enthudast, Oundle (hanged 

1591). ; 

Harrington, James, author of ** Oceana,'^ Upton, 1611. 
Hatton, Sir Chbistophbb, Lord Keeper to Queen Eli- 

s^abeth, statesman and lawyer, Holdenby (died 1591). 



26 OOUNTY HISTOBT— NOBTHAMBTONSHIRB. 

Hausted, Ptoter, divine, poet, and dramatist, Oundle (died 

1645). 
Heath, Henrr, roman catholic, Peterborough (ezea 1643). 
Henchman, Humphrey, lojal Bishop of London, Barton 

Segrave, 1592, 
Hervey, James, pious divine, author of "Meditations,"* 

Hardingstone, 1713-14 (died 1758). 
Hickman, Charles, Bishop of Derry, Rushton (died 1713). 
Hill, Sir John, physician, voluminous writer, butt of the 

wito, Peterborou|ph, 1716 (died 1775). 
Hind, Richard, divine, Boddington, 1715. 
Holcot, Robert, scholastic divine, Holcot (died 1349). 
Holland, Henry, translator of the Rhemish testament. Da- 

ventry (died 1625). 
Huntingdon, Selina Countess of, virtuous, pious, and cha» 

ritable founder of sixty-four chapels, some colleges and 

seminaries, Astwell, 17w (died 1791). 
Jefferys, George, poet and miscellaneous writer, Weldon, 

1678. 
Jekyll, Sir Joseph, Master of the Rolls, whig, Dallington, 

Jones, William, divine, institutor of the '* British Critic»"' 
Lowick, 1726 (died 1800). 

Kellison, Matthew, roman catholic divine and controver- 
sialist, Harrowden, about 1560 (died 1641). 

KnoUes, Richard, historian of the Turks, Cold Ashby, 1543. 

Landen, John, mathematician, Peakirk near Peterborough, 
1719 (died 1790). 

Lane, Sir Richard, Lord Keeper to Charles L Courtenhall 
(died 1650). 

Latham, Nicholas, founder of almshouses at Oundle, Brig- 
stock, 1548. 

Law, William, nonjuring divine, author of " Serious Call,*' 
King's Cliffe, 1686 (died 1761). 

Laxton, Sir >^lliam. Lord Mayor of London, founder of 
school, Oundle (died 1556). 

Leapor, Mary, poetess, daughter of a gardener, Marston St 
Lawrence, 1722 (died 1746). 

Leiffh, Anthony, "Tony Leigh," comic actor (died 1692). 

Levmz, Sir Creswell, Justice of Conunon Pleas, and author, 
Bvenley, 1627 (died 1700-1). 

•— — Dr. Baptista, younger brother, divine, Evenley (died 



BMINBNT NATIVES. V 

Lucas. Charles, divine and author. Daventnr, 1769. 

Manninir, Owen, divine, and historian of Surrey, Orlinir. 
bury, 1721 (died 1801). 

Marmion, Shakeriey, poet and dramatist, Aynho, 1602 
(died 1639). 

Montagfue, Charles, first Earl of Halifax, K.6. <* Msecenas,'' 
statesman and poet, Horton, 1661 (died 1715). 

— Edward, baron of Boughton, founder of Weekley alms- 
houses (died 1645). 

Sir Edward, Chief Justice to Henry VIII. Brisfstock 

(died 1557). 

Sir Henry, Earl of Manchester, Lord Treasurer, 



Bouehton (died 1642). 

— James, Bishop of " 

Boughton (died 1618). 



ames. Bishop of Winchester, translator of James I. 



Morris, Joseph, dissenting divine, Badby, 1685. 

Mulso, Thomas, essayist and dialogue writer, Twywell, 
about 1720. 

Newton, John, mathematician and astronomer, Oundle, 
1622 (died 1678). 

Richard, divine, founder of Hertford College, Oxford, 

Yardley Hastings, 1675. 

Nicoll, John, learned divine and schoolmaster, Preston 
Capes, 1683. 

NicoUs, Sir Augustin, judge, Ecton (died 1616). 

Northampton, Adam of. Bishop of Ferns, Northampton 
(died 1346). 

John of, author of the " Philosopher's Ring** (flou- 
rished 1340). 

Richard of, Bishop of Ferns, Northampton (ob. 1304). 

Owen, John, Bishop of St. Asaph, Burton Latimer (ob. 1651). 

Oxenbridge, John, nonconformist and eccentric divine and 
author, Daventry, 1608. 

Paget, Ephraim, divine and author (died 1647). 

Eusebiiis, fether of preceding, divine, author of History 

of the Bible, Cranford, 1542 (died 1617). 

pALBY, William, divine, philosopher, and theologian, Pe* 
terborough, 1743 (died 1805). 

Palmer, Sir Geoffrey, attorney-general, Carlton, 1598. 

Parker, Samuel, Bishop of LK>ndon, historian of bis own 
times, Northampton, 1640 (died 1687). 

>^lUam, woollen-draper in London, founder of Da- 
ventry school in 1576, Daventry. 



28 COONTT RISTNfET— WOATHAMFTONSHIBB. 

Parkhunt, John, diyine, qritic* aad lezktoenuiber, CiUMby , 
1728 (died 1797). 

Parr, Catharine, sixth and last Queen of Hemy VIII. 
''whose heauty obtaiaed, and vhose character adorned a 
crown/' but whose subsequent marria^ with Lord Sey- 
mour of Sudeley proved unhappy, if not fatal. Green's 
Norton (died 1548). 

-— ^ William, Marouess of Northampton, brother of the 
Queen, Green's Norton (died 1571). 

PateshuU, Hu^h de, ^sh^ of lichfkdd and Coveatiy, Lord 
Treasurer, Pateshull. 

Martin de» Dean of St Paul's, and judge, P^bteshuU 

(died 1226). 

— -^ Peter, writer against popery, Pateshull (tor. 1390). 

Simon de, Chief Justice to Hemfy HI. Pateabull. 

Payne, Thomas, " honest Tom Payne," booJcseller and bihUo- 
polisft, Brackley, 1717 (died 1799). 

Porter, Thomas, nonconformist, author of Sermons (died 
I667> 

Preston, Dr. John, divine, disputant, and politician, " the 
atriarc^ of the puritans," Nether Heylord, 1587 (died 



Pindar, Sir Paul, merchant, ambassador to the Porte, Wd» 

liDgborough, 1566. 
Randolph, Robert, divine, poet, editor of his brother's 

poems, Newenham (died 1672). 

Thomas, poet and dramatist, Newenham, 160$. 

Richard III. the last King of the Piantageneis, Fother- 

inghay Castle, 1450 (slain at Bosworth Fie'd in 1485). 
Rogers, John, nonconformist divine and author, Chacomb, 

16ia 
Rumbald, St. infant saint. King's Sutton, 680. 
Sampson, Henrv, divine and uhysician (died 1705)., 
Segrave, Sir Nicholas, marsoal of England to Edward II, 

Rarton Segrave. 
Skinner, Robert, Bishop of Worcester, Pitsford, 1590. 
Smith, John, divine ana scholar, Achurch, 1618 (qb. 1652). 

John, mezzotinto engraver, Daventry, 1652. 

Spinckes, Nathaniel, nonjuring divine, Castor, 1654. 
Stanbridge, John, rrammarian, Nether Hey ford (ob. 1525). 
Steward, Richard, Dean of Westminster, author, Pateshull, 

1595. 



EMINENT NATIVES. 29 

Talbot, Robert, divine, antiquair, friend of Leland, Thorpe 

Malser (died 1558). 
Thicknesse, Philip, lively writer, and eccentric character, 

Parthinghoe, 1719 (died 1792). 
Tolson, Francis, dramatist (died 1746). 
Tresham, Francis, gunpowder plot conspirator, Rushton 

(died 1605). 
Vaux, Nicholas Lord, poet, Harrowden rdied 1522). 
Wake, Sir Isaac, scholar, diplomatist. Great Bilhng, 1575 

(died 1632). 
Welsted, Leonard, poet, satirized by Pope, Abington, 1689 

(died 1747). / 1- 6 

Werbuivh, S«. foundress of Weedon monastery, Weedon. 
West, Cdward, nonconformist divine and author, North- 
ampton, 1634. 
Whitftj; Daniel, leameddiyine, of unsteady character, autJior 

of "Commentaries,'* &c. Rusbden, 1638 (died 1726). 
White, Sir Edward, Chief Baron (died 1717). 
Widville, Anthony, Earl Rivers, captain-general to Edward 

IV. Grafton (beheaded at Pomfret 1483). 
WiDyiLLB, Elizabeth, Queen of Edward IV. Grafton. 
— -— Leonard, JKshop of Salisbury, Grafton (ob. 1484). 

Richard, Earl Aivers, fat^r of the Queen, Grafton, 

(beheaded at Banbury in 1469). 
Wilkins, John, Bishop of Chester, philosopher, Fawsley, 

1614 (died 1672), 
Williams, John, Bishop of Chichester (died 1709). 
Winwood, Sir Ralph, Secretary to James I. diplomatist and 
statesman, author of *' Memorials,'' Aynho, 1565 (died 
1817). 
Wood, William, unitarian, author of sermons, CoIIingtree, 

1745. 
WoolstoD, Thomas, divine, and author of some works of a 

ddstical tendency, Northampton, 1669 (died 1732-3). 
Yelverton, Sir Henry, judge, able lawyer, and author of 

"Reports,*' &c. Easton Mauduit,* 1566 (died 1630). 
Zouch, William le. Archbishop of York, victor at Neville's 
Cross, Haringworth (died 135%. 

* Or at Islington in Middlesex 



30 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

It is not a little remarkable that this County, darings the 
brilliant reign of Elizabeth, furnished the Lord Treasurer 
and Prime Minister, Cedl Lord Burleigh of Burleigh ; the 
Lord Chancellor, Sir Christopher Hatton, of Holdenbf ; 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir Walter Mildmay, of 
Apethorpe; and the Speaker of the Houae of Commons, Sir 
Christopher YeWerton, of Easton Mauduit. 

Abinqton was the residence and place of burial of the 
favourite grand-daughter of Shakspeare ; and here is a mul- 
berrjr»tree planted by David Garrick in 1778, ''at the request 
of Ann Thursbj, as a growing testimony of their friendship/' 

Althorp, the seat of Earl Spencer, is particularly inte- 
resting from its pictorial and literary treasures. The books, 
** choicest copies of the choicest editions of the choicest an* 
thors» in the choicest bindings,'' are about 33,000 volumes 
in number. The paintings are equally valuable and import- 
ant, and include fifty family portraits. 

In Apbthorpb Church is the sumptuous monument of 
Sir Walter Ifildmay, Chancellor of the Exchequer to Queen 
Elizabeth, and founder of Emanuel College, Cambridge, 
who died in 1617- 

In AsHBT St. Leobr Church is the monument of Sir 
William Catesby, who was beheaded at Leicester three days 
after the battie of Bosworth, 1485. Catesby, Sir Richard 
Ratcliffe, and Lord Lovel, were the ministers of Richard 
III. whose crest was a boar, and are alluded to in the lines 
(for which their author, one Colliugbourn, was hanged,) 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 3l 

The Catf the Ratt and Loyel the dog. 
Rule ail England under a Hoff, 
Of the same family was the projector of the Gunpowder 
Plot in 1605. 

AsTROP Hall was the seat of Lord Chief Justice Willes. 

Aynho was the Rectory of Dr. Joseph Wasse, editor of 
Sallust, who died here in 1738. 

Barnwell takes its name from the custom of dipping 
sickly infants, called bemt, in the wells here, which are ge* 
nerally considered to possess peculiar virtues. 

In Barton Segrave Church is the monument of John 
Bridges, who formed his collections for the ''History of 
Northamptonshire'' at this place, and died here in 17^; 
and his father, a scientific agriculturist, who died of grief 
for the death of his wife in 1712. 

In Blatherwick Church was buried Thomas Ran* 
dolph, poet, 1634. 

BouGHTON Green is celebrated for the lai^est fair in this 
part of the country. It begins on the Vigil of St. John the 
BapUst, and lasts three days. 

At BouoHTON House, near Kettering, are several of the 
Cartoons of Raphael. 

At Bradeen died in February 1727-8, Henry Green* 
wood, aged 103.— This was the Rectory, in 1795-7, of Wil- 
liam Van Mildert, afterwards Bishop of Durham. 

Brampton was the Rectory of Richard Cumberland, 
author of '*De Legibus Naturse,'' afterwards Bishop of Pe- 
terborough. He was buried in his cathedral in 1718. 

Braunston was the Rectory and residence of Dr. £d« 
ward Reynolds, calvinistic divine, afterwards Bishop of Nor-» 
wich, who died in 1676. 

At Bray BROOK Church is the figure of a man with a 
dog at his feet, carved in wood, the removal of which, it is 
s^d, would occasion nearly half the lordship to devolve into 
another family. An attempt was once made to effect it 



39 COUNTY ■I8TOET-- KaETRAVPTOlVSHIRB. 

during fair tioM, bat the parties were surpriaed in the act of 
placing it in a carriage. Here is also an elaborately deco" 
TCitod monament of Sir Nidiolas Griffin, fait. 1509. 

Among the copyhold tenures of Brig stock is this peou* 
liaritj. If a nan dies seised of copyholds which oane to 
him by descent in fee, his youngeet son inherits ; but if such 
lands were purchased, the eldest succeeds. 

Brinoton was the Rectory of Archbishop Chichdey, 
the munificent foander of All Sonls College, Oxford* In 
the Church, among numerous monuments of the Spencers, 
are those of Sir Robert, first Baron Spencer of Wormleigh- 
ton, 16V ; William Lord Spencer, by Nicholas Stone, oost 
£600, 1636; and, John £ari Spencer, by NoUekins, 1763; 
Here was also buried Dorothea Countess of Sunderland, 
and daughter if Robert Sydney Earl of Leicester, the <^S»- 
cbarissa*^ ot Waller, 1684. 

Brougiiton was the Rectory of Robert Bolton, whose 
life was published by Edward Bagsbaw, in 4to, 1633. 

At BvRLBtOM Hall) partly in Lincolnshire, the seat of 
the Marquis of Exeter, is an extensive collection of histori- 
cal and family portraits, classical and familiar subjects, by 
eminent artists ; many rare curiosities ; and some good spe- 
cimens of antique sculpture. 

Castle AbhbT was the Rectory of John Towers, after- 
wards Bishop of Peterborough, who died in 1648. At the 
Earl of Northampton's are portraits of John Talbot, the 
renowned Earl of Shrewsbury, and Margaret his Countess, 
which are noticed by Horace Walpole, as among the most 
antient examples of oil painting in England. 

At Castor was buried St. Kyneburga, daughter of 
Penda, King of Mercia, in a nunnery which she had founded. 
The Church is dedicated to her.— Castor was the Rectory 
of the amiable Spencer Madan, Bishop of Peterborough, who 
died in 1813.— In the Church was interred John Landea, 
mathematician, 1790.^— Here, in 1600, died Richard How- 



land. Bishop of Peterbovoagb ; be was buried in his cathe- 
dral. 

In CoTTE&BROOK Church is the manument of Sir Jobn 
Langham, the first baronet, loyalist, and founder of Cottes- 
brook hospital and Gnilsborough sebool. He died in 1671. 

At Cos'rERSTOCK Hall, Dryden osraposed his •* Fables,*^ 
and passed the two last summers of his life. 

In Dbenb ChHtch, among the monnmeats of the Bru- 
denels, is that of Sir Robert, Lord Chief Justice, 1531. 

St. James's Abbey at Dustoit, near Northampton, had 
its Abbots occaaio9ial]y, but not regutariy, summoned to 
Parliament* 

In £a8TOn Mauiktit are monuBients of the Longue- 
▼illes. Barons Grey de Ruthyn, and of the Yelvertons; 
among whom Sir Christopher Yelverton, Speaker of £liza^ 
beth's Parliament in 1596, died 1611 ; and Sir Henry Yel- 
verton, judge, and law-writer, 1625. Also a monument of 
l%omas Morton, Bishop of Durham, 1659. 

Easton Nbston House was built by Sir Christopher 
Wren and Hawksmoore. In the Church are several hand- 
some monuments of the Fermors* 

At EcTON, the ancestors of the celebi^ted Dr. Benjamiit 
Franklin held a freehold estate, of about 30 acres, for at 
least 300 years, and where they carried on the trade of black* 
smiths. — At the Rectory are portraits, by Hogarth, of him* 
self, and of John Palmer, esq. the village magistrate.^ In 
Mr. Isted's grounds is a summer house from a des^ by 
Inigo Jones. 

Edgcotb House was the residence of Thomas Cromwell, 
Earl of Essex, Vicar*general to Henry VIII. 

Fawslby was the Rectory of John Dod, the decalogist. 
— In the Church are some fine monuments of the Knightleys. 

Fotheringha Y Castle was the inheritance of Mary de St. 
Paul, daughter of Guido de Chatillon, Comte de St. Paul in 
France, who married Audemare de Valentia, Earl of Pfcm- 



34 COUNTY HISTOar— KOETHAMPTON8HIEB, 

broke, killed at a tournament on his bridal daj. Gray allades 
to her as the 

" Sad Chatillon, on her bridal mora, 
That wept her bleeding lore." 
— In the Church were interred Edward Duke of York 
Twhose death in the glorious field of A^ncourt, 1414, has 
been exquisitely described by Shakspeare); and Richard 
Duke of York, (&ther of Edwaid IV. and Richard III.), 
slain at the battle of Wakefield, 1459; and his Duchess, 
Cecilia Neville, 

. The Crosses at Geddinotoit and near Northampton, 
with one at Waltham in Hertfordshire, are all that remain 
of those elegant and affectionate memorials erected by Ed- 
ward I. at every place where the body of his amiable wife 
rested, on its removal from Herdeby in Lincolnshire (where 
she died) to Westminster Abbey. 

Of Grbat Billing Daniel Cawdry, polemist, was Rector 
in 1625. — In the Church is a very large monument of Henry 
Carl of Thomond, who died at hi»seat here in 1691. 

In Orbat Oxbndbn Church belfry is a most remarkable 
polysyllabic echo. Here was buried its Rector John Morton, 
who wrote his ** Natural History of Northamptonshire"* at 
this place. 

Hanington was the Rectory of Thomas Godwin, after- 
wards Bishop of Bath and Wells, father of the learned 
Francis Bishop of Hereford, who was born here. 

In Hardingstonb Church are several monuments of the 
Harveys, and a tomb by Rysbrack for Mr. Clarke. 

At Hinton-in-thb-Hbdgbs was buried its learned and 
ingenious Rector Dr. Richard Grey, author of " Memoria 
Technica,*' who married a sister of the eccentric Philip 
Thicknesse, and died in 1771* 

Holdbnbv or Holmbf House, the prison of the unhappy 
Charles I. was built in his native villftge by Lord Keeper 
Sir Chrbtopher Hatton^ 



HIBGBLLANBOUB OBftElftVATIOirS. 33 

Whose bushy beard, and shoe-stringa green, 
His high*crown'd hat, and satin doublet, 
M OY'd the stout heart of England*s Queen, 
Though Pope and Spaniard could not trouble it. — Gray. 
Sir Chrigtopher also erected Kirby Hall. 

In HoRTON Churdi is a fine monument of William Lord 
Parr, uncle and Chamberlain to Catherine sixth and last 
Queen of Henry VHI. 

At King's Ci»ippb, his native place, was buried in 1761, 
William Law, nonjuror, whose "Serious Call to a Holy 
Life'' gave the first strong religious tendency to John and 
Charles Wesley, the founders of the sect called Methodists, 
a name given to them from the exact method in which they 
<ii8posed of each hour of the day. This book also first 
induced serious reflection in the mind of the great and good 
Dr. Samuel Johnson. 

In LiLFORD Church are handsome memorials of the 
Elmes, and a splendid monument of Sir Thomas Powys, 
judge, with an inscription by Prior, 1719. 

Of LiTCHBOROUOH were Rectors, William Peters, distin- 
guished amateur artist and Royal Academician ; and James 
Douglas, antiquary, author of "Nenia Britannica.'' 

In Marham Church are the monuments of the Fitzwil* 
Hams, aihong which are those of Sir William, Lord Deputy 
of Ireland, 1559; and William Earl Fitzwilliam, a magni- 
ficent memorial by Fisher, 1719. 

Marston St. Lawrence was tjie Rectory, in 1637, of 
Francis Cheynell, opponent of Archbishop Laud, afterwards 
one of the Assembly of Divines, and an intolerant presby- 
terian and bitter disputant. He died in 1665. 

MiDDLETON Cheney was the Rectory of William de 
Edyngdon in 1327, afterwards Bishop of Winchester, and a 
great builder, who died 1366 ; and of Ralph Churton, Arch- 
deacon of St. David's, elegant and voluminous writer, who 
died in 1831. 

/ 



36 COUlfTT HIBTOET — NORTHAMPTONBHIEB. 

At Morton Pinknbt resided Edward Bagshaw, poli> 
tical and controversial writer. He died here in 1662, and 
was buried in the Church. 

In Nbthbr Heyford Church is an elegant monument 
of Francis Morgan, the judge, who passed sentence of deatfi 
upon the amiable and accomplished Lady Jane Gray, and 
died in 1558. 

At Nor BOROUGH, the seat of her husband John Cley- 
pole, esq. died Elizabeth, the favourite daughter of Oliver 
Cromwell. Here also died and was buried Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Sir James Bourchier, the widow of Cromwell, 1665. 

St. Sepulchre's at Northampton is one of the four 
Round Churches now remaining in England, built by the 
Knights Templars in imitation of the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre at Jerusalem. — Here died, and was buried within 
the precincts of St. Peter's Church, John Smith, characterized 
by IValpole as ''the best mezzotintor of the age, who united 
softness with strength, and finishing with freedom." — 
In the prison of Northampton, in 1630, whither he was sent 
for assaulting a constable and insulting a magistrate, died 
Robert Brown, a native of the town, founder of the Brown- 
ists, who had previously been an inhabitant of 31 other 
prisons. — In All Saints Church is the mural monument 
alluded to by Hervey , in his Meditations, to the lady of the 
Rev. Sir James Stonehouse, Bart, benevolent physician ; 
and in 1817> was erected a statue by Chantrey, of Spencer 
Perceval, who had represented this borough in parliament 
from the commencement to the unhappy close of his political 
career. — In Castle Hill meeting is a cenotaph to the memory 
of the excellent Dr. Philip Doddridge, who had been its 
minister for 22 years, and died at Lisbon, 1751. — In the 
Baptist's Chapel is a monument to the memory of the 
celebrated Rev. John Ryland, who was buried here. — In this 
town in 1732 died Mrs. Catharine Rules, aged 102, whose 



MI8CBLI.ANB0US OBSBRVATIQNS. 37 

father, a native, died in 1706, aged 114, and is Qominemorated 
by a tablet on the oulside of All Saints Church. 

At Oterstonb the rarest of British birds, the Hoopoe, 
was once shot. 

Pbterbobough is the least Bishopric and smallest City 
in England; and is the only one without a mayor and 
aldermen, the civil government being vested in seven magis- 
trates, and the biuliffs to the lords of the manor. — ^The abbey 
was mitred. Its re- foundation was in the presence of Edgar 
and his Queen, Archbishops Dunstan and Oswald, with 
most of the prelates and nobles of England ; at which time 
its original appellation of Medehamsted was changed to 
Burgh, to which has since been prefixed the name of its 
patron saint. The conventual Church was converted into a 
Cathedral by Henry VIII. In 1541. In the Cathedral, 
besides the monuident of Catharine of Arragon, the first 
Queen of Henry VIII., . 1535; and a cenotaph for Mary of 
Soots, 1587, whose body was removed by order of her son 
James I. and deposited in Westminster Abbey, 1612; are 
several memorials of its Bishops, and a curious representation 
of the sexton, ^* Old Scarlet,'' who buried the two Queens. 

PytchlBy was formerly much celebrated for its fox-hiint, 
BOW, removed to Brixworth. 

Rockingham was a frequent residence of our early sove* 
rdgns, particularly Henry III. and Edward III. — In the 
Church are numerous handsome memorials of the Watsons, 
and a sumptuous monument of variegated marbles, by 
Scheemakers and Delvaux, for Lewis Watson, created Earl 
of Rockingham (1644), and Catharine his Countess. 

SiLVBSTON was an occasional royal residence. Many 
grants and papers bear date from hence.-rHere died in 1828, 
aged 102, Mary Adams. Both her mother and grandmo- 
Jkher's ages exceeded 100 years. 

- In Stamford Baron Church, among the many splendid 
monuments of the Cecils, is that o£ the illustrious founder 



38 COUNTY RISTOBT—NOETaAllrTONtHIRB. 

of hit. family, HUliam Lord Burleigh, High Treasurer to 
Elizabetb, who built the splendid mansion Burleigh House 
near this place. He died in 1596. Here is also & monument 
for William Wissing, pidnter, 1687. 

In Stbanb Church are monuments of Thomas Crewe, 
Speaker of the House of Commons, 1633; John Crewe, 
created for his loyalty to Charles I. Baron of Steane 1679 ; 
and its native Nathaniel, Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham, 
1721. — ^At the Manor-house resided Sir Reginald Bray, 
who found the crown of Richard III. at the battle of Bos- 
worth, and negotiated the marriage of Henry with the 
Princess Elizabeth ; who was an able statesman, and archl* 
tect of Henry Vllth s Chapel. He died in 1503. 

At Stokb Brubrnb Park resided Francis Crane, who 
introduced (at Mortlake in Surrey), the manufiicture of 
tapestry into this kingdom, and died, after a loss of many 
thousand pounds, aged 81, in 1703. 

In Stow Church, according to Pennant, is " the most 
elegant tomb this or any other kingdom can boast oV It 
eommemorates Elizabeth, fourth daughter of John Lord 
Latimer, who died in 1630, and whose effigies, a fine piece of 
sculpture in white alabaster, is represented as sleeping on a 
black marble slab. It was the work of Nicholas Stone, and 
cost £220. Here is also a large mural cenotaph, by Thomas 
Stayner, to the memory of Dr. Thomas Turner, who left 
£26,000 to public charities, and died 1714. 

Sutton was the Rectory from 1760 to 1773, of William 
Thomas Bowles, the father of the Rev. Canon Bowles, *^ one 
of the most elegant, pathetic, and original of living poets,'' 
who was himself born here in 1762, and whose mother was 
a daughter of Dr. Grey, the learned author of *' Memoria 
Technica,'' by a sister of the eccentric Philip Thicknesse. 

Wakefibld Lodge was erected by John Cleypole, esq. 
of Norborough, who married Elizabeth the favourite daugh- 
ter of Oliver Cromwell. 



HIBCBLLANBOUS OBBBRVATIONB. 39 

In Warkton Church are three very magnificeiit monu- 
ments, of John Duke of Montagu, byRoubiliac, 1749 ; Mary 
Duchess of Montagu, by Roubiliac, 1751 ; Mary Duchess 
of Montagu, by Vangelder, 1775. 

WbstonFavbll was the Rectory and residence of James 
Hervey, author of '^Meditations,'" who was buried in the 
Church 1758. On June 18, 1833, the institution of this 
amiable divine was commemorated by a procession from the 
Rectory to the Church ; by the performance of sacred music 
in the Churdi ; the recital of anode written by James Mont- 
gomery ; a lecture on the Works of the Creation, by Mr. Cole 
of Northampton, the projector of the jubilee ; &o. 

Shrob Lodge, in Whittlbburt Forbbt, was tiie seat 
of the antiquary Browne WilliiB. 

Yardlby-Hastings was the Rectory of Edward Lye, 
Who composed his '* Saxon Dictionary,^' and died here in 
1767. 



40 



List of JVofJci comuHed. 

1. Th« history and aotiqaitiet of NortbamptoDihire. By John 

Bridgsi, eiq. and edifiad by the lUv. Peter Whalley.— a toU. 

folio, 1791. 
t. The history and atitiquittet of the County of Northampton. By 

George Baker.— folio, 188«-80. [ThU rery superior county 

history is still paasing through the press.] 
a. The Beauties of England and Wales. Vol. zi. pp. l-2»9. 
4. Tour of the Grand Junction ; ilhutrated with a series of engrar- 

ings. By J. Hassell.— 8to, 1819. 
t. The history of the Church of Peterborough, &o. By Symoa 

Guntnn, late Prebendary —folio, 1686. 

6. Historic Notices in reference to Fotheringhay. By the IUv« H. 
K.fionney, M.A.— 8to, 1821. 

7. The history and antiquities of Weston FaTell. By John Cole.— 

8VO, 1887. 

8. The history and antiquities of Eoton. By John Cole. 8vo. 

9. The history and antiquities of Naseby. By the Rev. John Mas- 

tin, Vicar.— 8vo» 1792. 

10. A guide to Burleigh.— 8to, 1816. 

11, A comment on part of the Fifth Iter of Antoninus through Bri- 

tain. By the Her. Kennett Gibson, With an account of 
Castor, &c. By Richard Gough.— 2d edit. 4to, 18 19. 



/!<« fifurmf i^^^t^ iAiftMn» f/fmJ^tfiFJ^0Lmt 



M, si?. 












rjk^rrtfO^ 



T 

4 















WOTXTWCill AM SHIRK. 



Liinisn PljlilishcJ \6'i5^\rjrJ B Vichjlsl-Sofln 25 rorhiUEmt Str' 



NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 



SITUATION AND EXTENT. 

BBundaries, Nor^h, Yorkshire : East, Lincolnshire, sepa- 
rated by the Witham; South, Ldcestershire : West, 
Derbyshire, separated bj the Erwash.- 

Greatest lengthy 50: greatest breadth, 26: cireumfe- 
rence, 145 : square, 837 miles : statute acres, 535,680. 

Circuit, Midland. 

Protnmce, York. Diocese, York. Nottingham is an Arch- 
deaconry, with the Deaneries of Bingh^un, Newark, Not- 
tingham, Retford, and Southwell. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

British Inhabitants, Coritani. Encampment, Barton, called 
Brent's Hill. Earthwork, Otton, tumuli. 

Druidkai iZematiw, BUdworth rock. 



2 COUNTY HISTORY— N0TTIN6HAM8HIRB. 

Roman Province, Flavia CsBsarieiuiis. Stations, Ad Pon- 
tern, Southwell; Crocolana, Brough; Margidunum, 
East Bridgeford; Segelocum or Agelocum, Littlebo- 
rough ; Sidnacester, Newark ; Vernometum, near Wil- 
loughbj, on the borders of Leicestershire, to which county, 
at Burrow Hill, this station has been assigned. Bneamp- 
ments. Barton Hill; Burridge Hill, Southwell; Combers 
Farm; £a8t Bridgefoid ; Oringlej-on-the-Hill ; Hex- 
grave Park ; HoUj Hill, near Arnold, central depot of 
Roman forces in this district ; Littleborough ; l^lnny 
Hill. Earthwork, Clifton, a maze. Roads, the £rmin 
Street, passes through the county, going into Yorkshire ; 
Fosse Way, enters at MUoughby-on-the-Wolds, and at 
Newark crosses the road from London to York; the 
Street, or old Roman road from Newark to Mansfield. 
Remains diseovered, at Barton, coins; Bingham, coisM ; 
Everton, urns and spear; Hiekling, coins; Mansfield 
Woodhouse, two villas, with pavements ; Newark, coins* 
urns, fibula, and lar ; So uthwell, coins ; Stanford, coins ; 
Tiine, agates, cornelians, and a stylus; WHibvd, coins. 

Saxon Octarchy, Mercia. 

Abbeys* Beauvale, by Nicholas de Gantelupe, 1343; New- 
stead, by Henry II. about 1170 ; Rufi'oFd, by OilbeK de 
Gaunt, Earl of Lincoln, 1148, some lew remains in the 
present mansion ; Welbeok, temp. Stephen, by Thomas 
de Cukeney, or Ralph de Bellafage. 

Priories. Brodholme, also a nunnery; Blyth, by Roger 
de Busli, in the time of Henry I.; felley, by Ralph 
Annesley, 1152 ; FIdcerton, cell to Thurgarton ; Len« 
ton, by William Peverel, temp. Henry I., some remuns; 
Marshe; Mattersey, by Roger son of Ranulph de Mare- 
say, ante 1192; Newark ; NotUngham» two, one to St. 



;&19TISNT flTATB AND KRUAINflU 3 

Mar3^ and another to St Si^ulclire; SbnUbrd, 1^ Ralph 
Haunaeljn, temp. Henry II. ; Thwrgarton, bj Ralph 
d'Aynoouit, about 1130, no zemains; Worksop, bj Wil- 
liam de JLavelot, temp. Henry L, the abbey gate jremains 
in a ruiBoas state. 

Gunneries. Brodham, founded by Ralph de Albeniaco, 
temp. Henry II., or by Agnes de'Camvilk, wife of Psler 
Gousla ; Southwell ; Walling Weils, by Ralph de Cher- 
rolcourt, temp. Henry I. 

Friaries. Lenton, White. Newark, Aiutin ; Obsenraats. 
Nottingham, Grey, founded by Henry HI. 1250; White, 
by Reginald Lord Grey de Wilton and Sir John Sbbley. 

CmiMHMmderies. Newark, ante 1185; Wilickbwne) eeH ^ 
Newland in Yorkshiiie. 

Hospiiais. BIythe ; Bradesbusk, founded by William He- 
rn, temp. Henry HI. ; Lenton ;. Newark, St. LeenaMl, 
erected by Alexander Bishop of Lincoln; Nottingham, 
in 1392, by J(4ui Plnmtree; and aaiother to St. Leonard, 
temp. Henry IIL; Soutfawdl; Steloe by Newark. 

€6Uege9. Bingham; Clifton^ Nottingham; Rodkig- 
ton; SiUhofp, by Geoffrey k Scroop, temp. Edwavd II. 
Southwell, by Paulinus the first Bishop of Northumbria, 
about 1633; Tuxfiird. 

CAurches. Salderton, Norman porch; Bingham; BIythe; 
Goatham ; Holme ; Hoyeringham, Norman porch, with 
curious bas-relief of St. Michael and the dragon ; Newark, 
lai^e and handsome, of the enriched pointed; North 
GoUiugham, the arches on the south side of nave are ** all 
pure Saxon;'' Nottingham, St. Mary's, handsome, and 



4 COUMTT RUTOET-^MOTTINGHAIISHIRB. 

• St PMer^Sy lome Norman frsgmeiito ; Radford, bdonged 
to Worksop priory, in form of a cathedral, many inte- 
retting spedmens of early art ; Ruddington, Norman ; 
SouthweU> collegiate, specimens of Norman and pointed, 
Tcry beautiful, and of every style, the chi^ter*house 
erected in 1377 ; TcTershall. 

CkapeU, Aslacton, in ruins; Edingley, curious west 
doorway; Kimberley. 

FimU, Lenton; Newark, beautiful and curious; Not- 
tingham, St Mary, with the Greek monostich, Nli'ON 
ANOMHMA MH MONAN Oi'IN, which may be read 
botiiways; StreUey; Trowell. 

CoiUes. Blyth; Cukeney ; Newark, built by Alexander 
Bishop of Lincoln, in 1 126, an imposing ruin ; Notting- 
ham, built by William Peverel, natural son of William I. 

Mqntiont. Beesthorpe, built temp. James ; Clipstone^ a 
royal palace ; Grove Hall, East Retford, temp. Henry 
VIII. by the Hercys ; Hampton Hall, the gateway re- 
mfdns; Rependon Grange, in Sutton Bonnington; 
Southwell, the Archbishop of York*s palace, in ruins ; 
Thrumpton, built. 1630; Wiverton Hall, the gateway 
remains ; , Woollaton Hall, of the time of Elizabeth. 

Crosses. Newark, called Beaumond ; Willoughby-on-the 
Wolds. 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 

Rivers, Bljth; Deven ; Dover or Dare-beck; Enrash; 
Fleet ; Greet, famous for red trout; Idle, rises in Sher- 
wood Forest, and passes East Retford and Bawtry, to the 
confines of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire ; Leake ; Lene; 
Maun; Meden; Poulter; Rainworth Water; Rdy- 
ton ; Snite ; Soar, conies from Leicestershire, and falk 
into the Trent about three miles to the north-east of Keg- 
worth ; Trent, enters from Derby, near Radcliffe-upon-' 
Soar, passes Nottingham and Newark, and leaves beyond 
Qifton-upon-Trent, when it goes into Lincolnshire 9 
Wallin or WoUen ; Witham ; Worksop. 

Inland JVavigation. Chesterfield Canal, from Derbyshire, 
proceeds to Worksop, and thence into Jjincolnshire to the 
Trent ; Cromford Canal, joins the Erwash Canal at Lang- 
ley Bridge ; Erwash Canal, from Lincolnshire, joins the 
IVent near Radcliffe, with a branch to Bingham of three 
miles ; Foss Dyke, from Lincolnshire; the Idle; Not- 
tingham Canal; the Trent; Trent Canal. 

Lakes. Whitewater; Thoresby Park. 

Bminenees and Views. Barton Camp; Beacon HiH; 
Bingham, views extensive and rich ; Blacow Hill; Bram- 
oote Hills; Carlton Hill; Clifton Oiff; Cock^sMoor, 
considered the highest ground in the county ; Combers 
Farm Encampment ; Deb Dale Hill ; Famfield ; Got- 
ham; Gringley-on-the-hill ; Grove Hall, East Retford, 



6 COUNTY HISTOET^KOTTINGHAMBHIEB. 

affords a number of interesting prospects ; Hicklin Cliffe, 
extensive prospects ; Holland Hill, 487 feet high ; KeUtam 
Hall, fine view of Newark across the river ; Langar Hill, 
views delightful ; Nottingham is built on a rocky emi- 
nence, and overlooks a vast range of country, which for 
picturesque beauty is scarcely equalled ; Osberton House, 
very picturesque scenery ; Papplewick Hall, pleasing and 
extensive prospects; Pusto Hill; Radctiffe-on-Trent, 
particularly romantic ; Robin Hood's Hill ; Sneinton 
-Church; South Leverton; Sutton Ashfield Hill, in 
. Sherwood Forest, 600 feet high ; Strelley Hall, peasant 
. views; Weston Church; Wiseton Hall» view over the 
fiiur adjoining counties. 

Jfatural CurkuUies. Bramcote, the hemlock stone ; near 
Clipstone; the broad oak, 27 feet six inches in circumfer- 
ence; East Retford, St John's well, medicinal wster ; 
Langton arbour elm-tree, near BMdwortfa ; Nottlngkun, 
St. Anne's well, medicinal ; West Thorpe, St Catharine's 
well, the coldest in the kingdom, The Shire Oak» on 
the spot where the counties of Nottingham, Dei^, and 
York unite, the boughs of which in Evelyn's time oovsred 
a auperficies of 707 squ»e yards. In Welbeck Park are> 
the Greendale Oak, 1500 yean old, through which, in 
1724, a coach road, 10 feet 3 inches high, 6 leet 3 indies 
iride, was made, and which measures above the arch 35ft 
3 inches in circumference: the Duke's Walking-stick, an 
oak 111 feet 6 inches high, cubic contents 440 tet,w«gfat 
41 tons : the Two Porters, so named from a gate 
being between them, 98 and 88 feet h^h, 38 and 34 leet 
in circumference : the Seven Sisters originally conoBted 
of seven stems (but one has been broken off), i^iriBging 
perpendicularly from one oak-root, height 88 feet. 



PR&BSKT 8TATB AND APPBARANCB. 7 

Public Edifices, BIyth, bridge. Kelham, wooden bridge. 
Mansfield, moothall, built 1752, by Lady Oxford : free 
scbool. Mattersey, bridge- Newark, bridge, 7 arches, built 
1775: grammar school, founded in 1529, by Thomas 
Magnus: library and news-room, built 1827: national 
school, for girls, established 1826 : theatre, built 1774 : 
town hall, built in 1775, cost £17,000: St. Leonard's 
hospital: borough gaol and workhouse, constructed in 
1786. The road from Newark to South Muskham, con- 
structed by Mr. Smeaton, 1770, and nearly two miles 
in length, is preserved from the effects of floods by being 
rsdsed on thirteen brick bridges, one of which has nine 
arches ; and these bridges are exclusive of the one at each 
extremity over the Trent. Nottingham, banracks, built 
1792 ; bridge over the Trent, twenty arches, founded in 
1683 ; range of arches over the Lene and swampy grounds ; 
charity schools ; county gaol ; county hall, erected 1770: 
Collins's hospital, founded in 1704, by Mr. Abel Collins: 
exchange, 123 feet long, a beautiful building : free school, 
founded by Agnes Mellors, the widow of a bell-founder 
at Nottingham, in 15J3; hospital, founded by John 
Plumtre, 16 Richard II.: infirmary, founded 1781, to 
which an unknown benefactor subscribed £10,000 in the 
3 per cents: lunatic asylum, opened 1812; race-stand, 
erected 1777 : theatre : Thurland hall, erected 1657, by 
Francis Pierrepoint, third son of the Earls of Kingston : 
town bridewell, erected 1791 : town hall and prison, a 
noble edifice: workhouses. Retford, bridge: free school: 
Dorrel's hospital, founded in 1666, by Dr. John Dorrel: 
Sloswick's hospital, rebuilt in 1806 : town hall. South- 
well, county bridewell: county hospital, began 1780. 
Tuxford, free school, founded by Charles Read, esq. 



COUNTY HISTOftT^NOTTlNGHAMSHIRI. 



Seati, Clumber Park, Duke of NevrcMtle, Lord LituU- 

nant of the County, 
Anneslej Hall, J. M. Musters, esq. 

Apsley, Burnside, esq. 

Arnold Grove, William Turbutt, esq. 

Averham Rectory, Rev. Robert Cha|4in. 

Babworth Hall, Hon. J. B. Simpson. 

Balderton Hall, the Miss Welbys. 

Bamby Moor, Samuel Barker, esq. 

Beaconfield, Coddin^n, Thomas Spraggin^ Godfrey, esq. 

Beesthorpe Hall, Wuliam Miles, esq. 

Berry Hill, Mrs. Walker, esq. 

Bleasby Hall, Robert Kelham Kelbam, esq. 

Blyth Hall, Henry Walker, esq. 

Bramcote, Colonel Mund^. 

House, John Sherwin esq. 

Brook Hill, D'Ewes Coke, es(|. 
Brougbton, Upper, F. Morrb, esq. 
Bulwell House, Rev. Alfred Pwlley. 
Bunney Park, Lord Ranclsffe. 
Calverton, Lady Sherbrooke. 
Carlton, G. W. Hutton, esq. 

Hall, the late R. Ramsden, esq* 

House, John Vere, esq. 

Caunton Hall, Samuel Hole, esq. 
Chilwell Hall, Dr. Davison. 
Qapwell Hall, Captain Thomas Hallows. 
QittoQ Grove, Sir Robert Clifton, Bart. 
Clipstone Park, Duke of Portland. 

Cockglade, 

CoUton Bassett, Henry Martiu, esq. 
Colwick Hall, John Musters, esq. 
Cromwell, Rev. Charles Fvnes Clinton. 
Edwinstow, Dowaeer Laay Boothby. 

Elston Hall, Darwin, esq. 

Elton, William Fletcher Norton, esq. 
. Farnsfield, William Houldsworth, esq. 
Firbeck, H. Gaily Knight, esa. M.P. 
Flintham Hall, Mrs. Hildyard esq. 
Fountain Dale, near MansBeld, Major-General Need. 
Gatetbrd Hill, H. Machin, esq. 
Gedling Hall, W. Elliott ElUott, esq. 



8BAT8* 



Gedling House, Rev. Charles Williams. 
Grove Hall, East Retford, A. H. Eyre, esq. 

Hexgreave Park, Werge, esq. 

Hi^hfield, Lenton, Alfred I^we, esq. 
Holme Hall, Thomas Adwick, esq. 
Holme Pierrepoint, Earl Manvers. 
Kelham Hall, Lady Harriet Manners Sutton. 
Kirklington Hall, Admiral Frank Sotheron. 

Langar, 

Langford Hall, 

Lenton, Matthew Needham, esq. 

• Firs, Dr. Storer. 

Grove, Mrs. Evans. 

House, John Wright, esq. 

Priory, William Stretton, esq, 

Mansfield Woodhouse, Colonel John Need. 
Mapperley House, Ichabod Wright, esq. 
Muskham Grange, John Handley, esq. 

• House, 

Villa, James Atty, esq. 

Nettleworth, Major Bilby. 

Newark, William Famworth Handley, esq. 

Edward Smith Godfrey, esq. 

— — • Chauntry House, Rev. Joseph Sykes. 

Newstead Abbey, Colonel Wildman. 

Norwood Park. Sir Richard Sutton, Bart. 

Nuthall Temple, Robert Holden, esq. 

Ordsall, George Brown, esq. 

Osberton House, G. S. Foljambe, esq. 

Ossington Hall, J. E. Depison, esq. 

Oxton Hall, Mrs. Sherbrooke. 

Papplewick Hall, Thomas Nixon, esq. 

Park Hall, Fr. Hall, esq. 

Ranby Hall, the late Duchess Dowager of Newcastle. 

Ratcliffe Lodge,' Rev. Henry Boulton. 

Ratcliffe, Francis Wright, esq. 

Red Hill, Israel Chamberlain, esq. 

Rempston Hall, John Smith Wright, esq. 

Rev. Thomas Hosking. 

Ruddington, Thomas Moore, esq. 

Rufford Abbey, Earl of Scarborough. 

Scofton, R. Sutton, esq. 

Serlby Hall, near Bawtry, Dowager Viscountess Galway 



lO COUNTY HI8T0AT— 4rOTTINOHAUSHIBB. 

Sherwood Hall, Thomw Houldsworth, eiq. 

Lodge, Henry Coape, esq. 

Shirland, Sir S. H. Clarke, Bart. 
Skegby Hall, John Dodsley, esq. 
Stanford Hill, Rev. C. V. Daahwood. 
Stapleford Hall, Lady Warren. 
Staunton Hall, Rev. Dr. Staunton. 
Stoke, East, Sir Robert Howe Bromley, Bart. 
Strelley Hall, Thomas W Edee, esq. 
Syerston Hall, George Fillingham, esq. 
'rtioresby Park, Earl Manvers. 
Thomey Hall, Christopher Neville, esq. 
Thrumpton Hall, J. Emmerlon Wesoombe, esq. 
Thurgarton Hall, William Benet Martin, esq. 
ToUerton Hall, Barry Barry, esq. 
Valley Field, Charles Miller, esq. 
Upton, Thomas S. Wright, esq. 
WaUingwells, Sir T. W. White, Bart. 
WatnaU, Lancelot Rolleston, esq. 
Welbeck Abbey, Duke of PortUnd. 
Wellow Hall, Jonathan Thompson, Mti, 
West Retford Hall, P. Dickenson, esq. 
— — »- House, James Lee, esq. 
Wiffthorpe, Sir T. W. White, Bart. 
Wilford House, Henry Smith, esq. 
Winkbourne, Peter Pegge Burnell, esq. 
Winthorpe, Edward Valentine Steade, esq. 

Hall, 

Wiseton Hall, Earl Spencer. 
Woodborough, Colonel Hancock. 
Wollaton Hall, Lord Middleton. 
Worksop Manor, Duke of Norfolk. 



Caves. Mansfield ; Nottingham, several in the rocks on 
the banks of the Lene ; Sneinton. 

Peerage, County, earldom (1681) to Finch Earl of Win - 
Chelsea : Granby, marquessate (1703) to Manners Duke 
of Rutland ; Langar, title of baroness to the wife of Sir 
W. Waller, Bart. ; Mansfield, titles of countess and ba* 



«BAT8. II 

tonesB (17^) to tiie wife of tke Hon. H. F. Of tvifle ^ 

Newark, viscounty, and Holme Pierrepoint, barony (17i6) 
to Pierrepoint Eatl Manvers; Shelford, Stanhope of, 
barony (1616) to Earl of Chcsterfidd ; Upton» Carring- 
ton of, barony (1797) to Smith. 

Baronetage. Clifton, Clifton, 1611 : East Markhaoh 
U^illiamson, 1642; Neirark-npon-'Trent, Gordon, 1764v 
and Heron, 1778; Norwood Park, Sutton, 1772 ; Not- 
dngham and East Stoke, Bromley, 1757 ; Tuxford and 
Wallingwells, White, 1862. 

Representativet returned to ParikanenU Northern Di* 
vision of the County, 2 ; Southern Diviaon, 2 ; East 
Retford with the Hundred of Bassetlaw, 2 ; Newark- 
upon«Trent (die last borough in England winch ob- 
tained this privilege by royal chatter, the charter being 
granted in 1676 by Charles II. in recompence of its distin- 
guished loyalty to his father)^ 2 ; Nottinghami 2 j^tolal, 
10. The Reform Act. added two to the County repre- 
sentation. 

Produce, Coal, in large masses at Radford, and said to 
possess a greater proportion of gas than any other in the 
kingdom ; a peculiar kind of gypsum is obtained at 
Beacon Hill, near Newark, which when burnt and pulver- 
ized is much used as a composition for stucco works and 
ornaments for cielings ; alabaster, at Red Hill, very ex- 
cellent; limestone; freestone; marl Wheat; barley; 
oats, particularly the species called skegs ; hops, particu- 
larly about OUerton, Retford, and Southwell; peas, of 
which many acres are sown near CoUingham ; apples ; 
pears ; weld ; " the yellow-staining weed luteola/' Cat- 
tle, the breed much improved by the encouragement of 



12 COUNTY HI8TORT^NOTTINGHAM8HIRB. 

Earl Spencer ; sheep ; pigeons. Red Trout, in the river 
Greet. 

Jdanufaciurei, Beeston, silk; lace. East Retford, paper. 
Gainston, candlewicks. Lenton, bobbin lace; machines. 
Mansfield, cotton; stockings; bobbin net, and lace 
thread ; gloves ; iron ; and malt. Newark, malt, a 
greater quantity of which is made here than in anj 
other ten places in Great Britain, there being upwards 
of serentj kilns, and some of very extensive size ; beer ; 
linen and sacking ; lace ; iron and brass ; ropes ; can- 
dles, famous ; flour or meal, much sent to Manchester. 
Nottingham, stockings (the frame invented by the 
Rev. William Lee, a native of this county), chiefly the 
finer kinds of silk and cotton; lace, for veils and 
shawls; coarse earthenware ; bobbin net; ale, particularly 
famous, and the subject of a song in the Gentleman's Ma- 
gazine for January 1752. Papplewick, cotton. Rad- 
ford, similar to those at Nottingham. Sutton-in-Ashfield, 
cotton ; stockings ; bobbin net. West Retford, sacking. 
Worksop, malt, to a great extent. — ^The manufacture of 
stockings and lace in this county employ 13,600 males 
upwards of twenty years of age. 



13 



POPULATION IN 1831. 

Wapentakes, 6 ; Boroughs, 3 ; Market Toums, 11 ; Pa- 

riskes, 207. 
Houses, Inhabited, 44,936; Building, 456; Uninhabited, 

1,701. 
Inhabitants, Males, 110,457; Females, 114,870; total, 

225,327. 
Families, Employed in agriculture, 13,351 ; in trade, 

25,578; in neither, 8,188; total, 47,117. 
Baptisms in 1830. Males, 3,830; Females, 3,509; total, 

7,339. Annual average of 1821 to 1830, 6,899. 
Marriages, 1,783; annual average, 1,853. 
Burials, Males, 2,159; Females, %039, total, 4,198. 

Annual average, 4,198. 

Places having not less than 1,000 Inhabitants. 



Houses. 


iDhab. 


I 


louses. 


Inhab. 


Nottingham 10,407 


50,680 


Kirby in Ashfield 


368 


2,032 


Radford 1,974 


9,806 


Mansfield Wood- 






Mansfield . 1,889 


9,426 


house 


362 


1,869 


Ne wark-on Trent2 ,022 


9,557 


Bingham 


352 


1,738 


Basford 1,261 


6,895 


Carlton 


361 


1,704 


Worksop 1,127 


6,566 


Selston 


311 


1,580 


Sutton in Ashfield 876 


4,805 


Stapleford 


313 


1,533 


Greasly 852 
Arnold 812 


4,588 


Ruddington 


270 


1,428 


4,054 


Eastwood 


270 


1,396 


Snenton 749 


3,605 


Warsop 


248 


1,218 


Soathwell 643 


3,884 


Calverton 


228 


1,196 


Lenton 554 


3,077 


Sutton Boiinington241 


1,136 


Bulwell 502 


2,611 


RadcliflFe-on-Trent 217 


1,12.S 


Beeston 504 


2,530 


Tuxford 


227 


1,II.S 


East Retford 507 


2,491 


Farnsfield 


218 


1,010 


Hocknall Torkard 894 


2,200 


Sutton-upon-Trent 2 16 


1,002 


Claroborough 477 


2,106 









Amual Value of Real Property, at attested in April 
1815, £727,'i3a 



14 



HISTORY. 

A O. 

617. On the banks of the Idle, Ethelfinth King of Koith- 
umbrift, defeated and Main by Redwald King of Bast 
Anglia. 
868. Nottingham taken by the Danes under Iy«r and 
Ubba, who were besieged in it by Burrhed, Kkig of Mer- 
cia, assisted by Ethebed King of W^esaex/and his brother 
Alfred ; but as the Saltons could not break through the 
Danish circumyallation, a convention iras entered into 
by which the town was delivered to Burrhed, but the 
Danes were allowed to retire into Northumbria with all 
their plunder. 

941. Nottingham taken from tiie Danes, called Fif- 
burghers (from their residence in the towns of Notting- 
ham, Stamford, Lieicester, Derby, and Lincoln) by Ed- 
ward I. 

1068. Nottingham visited by William I. who ordered the 
Castle to be built. 

1140. Nottingham taken and plundered by the Earl of 
Gloucester. 

1153. Nottingham was taken by Henry son of the Em- 
press Maud, but the garrison retiring from the town to 
the Castle, set fire to the place. 

1173. Nottingham, under Reginald de Lucy, taken and 
burnt by William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby and Notting- 
ham, an adherent of the young King Henry in his rebel- 
lion against his father Henry 11. 

1179. Henry II. kept his Christmas at Nottingham. • 

1194. Nottingham Castle, after a siege of several days, 
taken b) Richard I. from the adherents of his rebellious 



HISTOfiT* 15 

A. D. 

brother, John. Earl of Nottingham. (afterwards King of 
Epglaad), when Richard assonhled a Parliament here, 
uid, deprived John. of the earldom^ but on hia subnuission 
he was restored to lus rank. 

1212. To. Nottingbam John retired, and shut himself up 
in. the Castle^ guarded only by the inhabitants and some 
foreign archers, baring disbanded his armj from distrust 
of the fidelity, of Ins officers,^ 

1215. John kept his Christmas at Nottingham. 

1216^ At Newark, Oct 19, King J<^ died;* 

1264» Nottingham taken from the Barons by Henry Uh 

1290. At Clipstone a Parliament held by Edwardl. 

1291. At Hardeby, in the parish of North Clifton (erro- 
neously entered in . Lincolnshire), Nov. 29^ died Eleanor, 
the excellent and beloved Queen of Edward I. andxlaugh* 
ter of .Ferdinand in* King of Castile an4.Leon. 

1204k Majosfidd nearly destroyed by fire^ 

1330-2* In Nottingham a. Parliament assembled, wh^ii Ed- 
ward JIJ, lodged in the ton^, and the Queen Mother, with 
her, paramour Mortimer Earl of March, and a. guard of 
180. knights, kept possession of the Castle; but. the Go- 
vetnor, Sir William Eland, by a secret passage through 
the rock, known, only to himself, admitted Edward.with 
a small body of: armed men, at. midnigbt, Oct; 19, who 
seized Mortimer in the presence of the Queen, and, not. 
withstanding her earnest address of " Bel fitz, bel fitz, 
ayez pitie du gentill Mortimer,'' he was conveyed to Ty- 
burn, and there hanged. 

1334. At Nottiugham, July IP, a Council of the Lords 
Spiritual and Temporal a^sembledby Edward IIL 

1337* At Nottingham, a. Parliament, in.which laws were 
enacted encouraging foreign doth- workers to settle in the 
kingdom, and prohibiting the. exportation. of wool, 

1386. At Nottingham lUchard II. assembled the Sheriffs 
apdr Judjfea^ and ordered the former to raise troops against 



16 COUNTY HISTORY — ^NOTTINGHAIISHIRS. 

A, D. 

the Duke of Oloucester and the assodated Barons, and to 
permit no members to be chosen for the ensuing Parlia- 
ment but such as were contained in a list which he would 
deliver to them ; but the Sheriffs declared their inability 
to raise men against the Barons, who were very popular; 
and that the people would not submit to dictation in the 
choice of their Representatives. The Judges, however, 
were less patriotic, and pronounced that " the King was 
above the Law." 

1394 & I397« Richard held great Councils at Nottingham. 

1460. At Nottingham, Edward IV. proclaimed himself 
King, and had a rendezvous of his troops, 

1470. Edward IV. at Nottingham. 

1485. From Nottingham, where he had assembled his 
forces, Richard III. marched, August 16, to the fatal 
battle of Bosworth Field, which was fought Aug. 22. 

1487. At East Stoke, Lambert Simnel, the pretended Earl 
of Warwick, who had been crowned King in Ireland, 
assisted by John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln (who had 
been declared by Richard III. presumptive heir to the 
Crown of England), Fitzgerald Earl of Kildare, with a 
body of Irish, and Martin Swart at the head of 2000 Ger- 
mans, after a desperate resistance, defeated by Henry VII. 
when Simnel was taken prisoner, and the Earls of Lin- 
coln and Kildare, Lord Lovel, and Martin Swart, and 
4000 of their troops, together with 3000 of the royal 
army, were slain. 

155S. July 7» at Nottingham and its neighbourhood, a 
marvellous tempest of thunder, which beat down the 
churches and houses, and tore up trees in vast quantities. 

1603. James I. arrived at Newark. April 5. — At Worksop, 
on the 20th. — Queen Anne and Prince Henry passed 
through Mansfield on their way from Scotland. 

1642. July 4, at Newark, Charles I. made his first appeal 
to the fiselings and loyalty of his people, and declared his 



HRTORY. 17 

A, D. 

intention of having recourse to arms, and concerted his 
future plans of operation, and made his determination to 
«rect his standard at Nottingham ; which he did on the 
22d of August, on Standard Hill, near to the site of the 
present infirmary. — September 18, the Newark troops, 
600 in number, under the command of Sir Richard Byron, 
effected an entrance into Nottingham, and during the 
space of five days lived upon free quarter ; and then 
obliged to retreat to the fort at the Trent bridge, but 
with a considerable booty and many prisoners. 

1^643. January 15, the Newarkers endeavoured to gsun pos- 
sion of Nottingham Castle, but being overwhelmed by 
numbers were obliged to evacuate the town. — March 11, 
Hercules Clay, an eminent tradesman of Newark, three 
times successively in the night dreamt that his house was 
in flames. He and his family arose at the third warning, 
and quitted the house, at that time in perfect safety. 
Soon afler, a bomb from a battery fell upon the roof and 
destroyed a great portion of the building. The circum- 
stance is mentioned on his tomb, and is annually com- 
memorated by a sermon, and a donation of bread to the 
poor. — Newark under Sir John Henderson successfully 
defended against the' Parliamentarians. 

1€44. On Beacon Hill, March 21, the Parliamentarians 
Sir John Meldrum and Lord Willoughby of Parham 
(who had been unsuccesfully besieging Newark, which 
was bravely defended by Sir Richard afterwards Lord 
Byron), totally defeated by Prince Rupert, with the loss 
of all their ordnance and ammunitioa — Between Newark 
and Nottingham a detachment of Royalists defeated, Cap- 
tain Thimbleby slain, and fifty prisoners taken, by Colonel 
Hutchinson, Governor of Nottingham. — December 22, 
the Newarkers surprised two troops of the Nottingham 
horse at Upton, and took them prisoners. 



1$ CaUICTT HI8T0RT— ilOTTINGHAlfSHIRB. 

A.O. 

1645. April 19, th» Governor of Nevrark detached a partj 
to surpriM the fort at NottiBgham Trent bridge, which 
they took after killing about thirty men and their eneign- 
—July 16, A party from the Newark garrison took Wel- 
beck House, when they made 200 prieonert, and took 
three pieces of cai^noft. — ^August 1, a party from the same 
garrison took Torksey Castle. 

1646. Newark, after an heroic def<^noe undM J<^b Lord 
Bellasis, in which, on* January 1, ho had nude a sally 
upon General Poyntz's quartos at Famdon, where he 
kiQed and took prisoners 200 men ; and had repulsed the 
enemy with very great loss, in a general aesaiilt made by 
them April 1 ; at length by tho special oommand oi the 
King, was reluctaatly surrendered to the Scotch army 
in May ; when it was demolished by order of the Parlia- 
ment. Tliere are but few vestiges of this lines and forts now 
observable^ although they were two miles and a quarter 
long. — At Southwell, May 6, Charles L surrendered 
himself to the Commissioners ai4>ointed by the Scotch 

^ army then besieging^. Newark. On the 12th, Southwell 
Palace ordered to be dismantled by the Parliament. 

1648. At |WiUottghby-on-the-Wold, in July, a skirmish 
took place, in which the Royalist Gdonel Stanhope, son 
of the first £arl of Chesterfield, was dain. He was buried 
in the Church, where there is an inscription to his me- 
mory. 

1785. November 1, at NotUti^am was seen one of tho 
largest water-spouts ever observed in England* 

1 794. Considerable riotihg at Nottingham. 

1795. February 7> a great flood, alter a-week^s severe frosty 
when the damage done by the Trent alone was, by an 
accurate estimate^ upwards of a nuUion pounds. 

1812. At Nottingham and its neighbouchood^ riots among 
the stocking-weavers.. 



HISTORY. 19 

A. D. 

1816 and 1817. Nottingham and its yicinity kept in con< 
stant alarm bj bands of ^stressed weavers, styling them- 
selves '* Luddites/' who with masks on their faces, or 
otherwise disguised, broke open many houses and work- 
shops, destroying: the madunery, and coimiutting several 
acts of robbery and murder. 

1826. June 8, at Newark considerable riotiikg at the elec- 
tion of Members of Parliament who were not chaired. 



20 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

Arden, or Ardern, John, reviver of surn^ery, Newark (flor. 

14th century). 
Ajncou^h, Samuel, divine, antiquarv, index and catalog'ue 

compiler, Nottingham, 1745 (died 1804). 
Blay, John, founder of charity school. East Leake (ob. 1731). 
Blow, John, musician, excelled in church music. North Col- 

lingham, 1648 (died 1708). 
Brightman, William, commentator on the Apocalypse, Not- 
tingham (died 1607). 
Burne, James, itinerant ventriloquist, Nottingham. 
Gartwrighl, Major John, politician, reformer, and author, 

Mamham, 1740 (died 1824). 
Chappel, William, Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross, Lax- 
ton (died 1649). 
Clifton, Sir Gervaise, loyalbt commander, Clifton (flourished 

in the time of Charles the First). 
Cooper, John Gilbert, magistrate, biographer of Socrateis, 

essayist, and poet, 1723 (died 1769). 
Cranmer, Thomas, Archbishop or Canterbury, martyr, 

Aslacton, 1489 (died 1555-6). 
Cromwell, Sir Ralph, Baron of Tattershall, High Treasurer 

to Henry VI. 
Darwin, Erasmus, eccentric physician and poet, Elston, 

1731 (died 1802). 
Dodsley, Robert, bookseller, poet, and dramatist, Anston 

near Mansfield, 1703 (died 1764V 
Fenton, Edward, navigator ana author, see Hackluyt's 

Voyages (died 1603). 
Sir Geoffrey, brother of Edward, statesman, translator 

of Guicciardini, &c. (died 1608). 
Fleming, Caleb, socinian minister and author, Nottingham, 

1698 (died 1779). 
Frobishbr, Sir Martin, navierator, and able and intrepid 

commander, Finningley (slun 1594). 
Garnet, Henry, Jesuit, executed for the gunpowder plot in 

1606. 
Granbv, John celebrated Marqms of, warrior, 1720-21 (died 

1770). 
Groves, Thomas, rose fi-om a private to be Colonel of Ma- 
rines, served 75 years, Bingham, 1700 (died 1790). 



BMINBNT NATIVES. 21 

Hacker, Francis, colonel, regicide. East Bridgeford (hanged 

Handby, Henry, founder of hospital at Nottingham, Bramcote 
(died 1650). 

Holder, William, divine, first instructor of the deaf and 
dumb, about 1615 (died 16967). 

Holies, Denzil, Lord, patriot, Houghton, 1597 (ob. 1680). 

John, father of above, first Earl of Clare, soldier and 

statesman, Houghton, 1564. 

Holt, Daniel, printer and politician, 1766. 

Home, Thomas, scholar, head master of Eton. 

Howe, Richard, fourth Viscount and first Earl, naval com- 
mander, 1726 (died 1799). 

Howell, Dr. divine, chancellor of Lincoln, author of a His- 
tory of the World, Beckingham (died 1683). 

Ireton, Henrv, regicide, son-in-law to Cromwell, Attenbo- 
rough, 1611 (died 1651). 

Jebb, Samuel, physician, learned editor, Nottingham (died 
1772). 

Kippis, Andrew, dissenting divine, biographer, Nottingham, 
1725 (died 1795). 

Lee, William, inventor of the stocking frame, Woodborough 
(flourished in the time of Elizabeth). 

Lightfoot, John, divine, hebrician, Newark-upon-Trent,* 
1602 (died 1675). 

Maenus, Thomas, diplomatist, founder of school, Newark 
(flourished in the time of Henry VIII.) 

Mansfield, William, defender of Thomas Aquinas, Mansfield 
(flourished 1320). 

Markham, Gervase, loyalist, miscellaneous writer, Gotham, 
about 1590. 

Sir John, Chief Justice to Edward 'IV. Markham 

(died 1409). 

Colonel Thomas, loyalist, OUerton (drowned 1643). 

MoNTAOUB, Ladt Mart Wortlet, classical translator, 
letter writer, poetess, introducer of inoculation, Thoresby, 
1690 (died 1762). 

Nottingham, William, author of *' Concordance of Evange- 
lists," Nottingham (died 1336). 

Parkyns, Sir Thomas, wrestler, author of " The Cornish 
Hug," Bunney, 1663. 

* Many biographies give the place of nativity of this learned 
divine as Stoke-upon-Trent, in Staffordshire. 



22 COUNTY HISTORY-- 'N0TTINGHAM8HIRB. 

Plough, John, author of "Apologj for th« ProtestantB.*' 

Nottineham (died about 1559). 
Plumtre, John de, founder of hospital at Nottagham, Plui»- 

tree (flourished in the tims of Richard the Se^nd). 
Porter, Robert, nonconformist dirine and auUior (ob. 1690). 
Radcliffe, Stephen, founder of the church at Radcliffe-npon- 

Trsnt, the place of his birth. 
Ridley, Humphrey, physician and anatomist^ author op the 

brain and animal functions, Maoifield, 1653. 
Rooke, Major Hayman, traveller, historian of Sherwood 

Forest, antiquary (died 1806). 
Sampson, Henry, diirine and pbi-siciao. South LevertoR 

(died 1705). 
Sandby, Paul, drauebtsman and aquatint et^aver, NoU 

tingham, 1732 (died 1609). 
Sandey, Thomas, arclutect, Nottingham, 1721. 
Scarlet, Will, companion of Robin Hood, Eyfaering (flou- 

rishttl in the time of Henry IIL) 
Secker, Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, pious and 

learned, Sibthoipa, 1693 (died. 1766). 
Sterne, Richard, Archbishop of York, Mansfield, 159S. 
Sutton, Charles Manners, Aop. of Caiiterbury (died 1629). 
Thomson, C. agent for the Russia Company in Persia, 

Mansfield (died 1764). 
Thoroton, Dr. Robert, physician, historian of this county, 

Screyeton (17th century). 
Truman, Joseph, nonconformist divine and author, Gedlifig, 

1631. 
Wakefield, Gilbert, classical scholar and cri^ Nottinghwn, 

1756 (died 1601). 
Warburton, William, Bishop of Gloucesleri author of 

"Divine L^ation,^' Newark, 1696 (died 1779). 
Warren, Sir John Borlase, admiral and author, Stapleford 

(died 1622). 
White, HsfiRT Kirks, poet, ainlahle and pious* Notting*- 

ham, 1765 (died 1806, a victim to study). 

Robert, astronomer, Bingham, 1722 (died 1773). 

Thomas, Bishop of Peterboroi^h in 1665, dep^ved for 

refusing the oaths to William and Mary in 1690 (ob. 1696). 
Wikon, Barnard, divine and author, Newark, 1689. 
Worksop, Robert, author of ^'Entrance of the Sentences,'' 

Worksop (died 1360). 
Wright, Samuel, divine, author of ** Happy hour, all houn 

excelling,'* Retford, 1663. 



23 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

In AvERH AM Church are sereral monuments of the Sut«^ 
tons, among which is the memorial of the first Lord Lexing- 
ton. 

In BiLSTHORPE Church is the monument of William 
Chappel, Bishop of Cork and Ross, 1649. 

In Bingham was buried in 1773 its native, Robert White, 
author of ** The Celestial Atlas,'' an almanack Which still 
retains his name. — The three successive Rectors of this place, 
Abbott, Hanmer, and Wren, became Bishops. 

In Bramcote was buried its native, Henry Handby, 
benefactor, 1650. — Gilbert Wakefield, eminent classic, made 
an attempt to establish a school here, but without success. 

In BuNNEY Church is a curious monument to Sir Tho" 
mas Parky ns, erected in his life- time, with a representation 
of the Baronet, in one part in a wrestling attitude, and in 
another part as just thrown by Time, w*ith an inscription 
ascribed to Dr. Friend : 

** Quern mode stravisti longo in certamine, Tempus, 

Hie recubat Britonum clams in orbe pugil 
Nunc primum stratus ; prseter te vicerat omnes ; 
De te etiam victor, quando'resurgat, erit." 

Clipstonb was the frequent residence of King John, 
when Earl of Morteign and Nottingham, and after his acces- 
sion to the throne. 

Clumber Park is eleven miles in compass. The state 
dining-room, 60 feet long, 34 broad, and 3D high, is magni- 
ficently ornamented. Among the paintings in this mansion i 



24 COUNTY HMTORT — ^NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 

which are numerous and of great excellence, is the " Sigis- 
munda weeping over the heart of Tancred," ascribed to 
Correggio, but by Horace Walpole attributed to Furino, 
with the remark, that "it is imposable to see tibe picture* 
or to read Dryden's inimitable tale, and not feel that the 
same soul animated both/' Hogarth, in an attempt to riral 
it, miserably failed. 

Elbton Church contains many interesting monuments of 
the Darwin family. 

Flintham Hall was the residence of Dr. Thoroton, the 
historian and topographer. 

Gotham is famous in proverbial story. "The Merry 
Tales of the Madmen of Gotham" were written by Andrew 
Borde, or " Andreas Perforatus," a travelling quack, with 
whom originated the term of " Merry Andrew.'' The tale 
most celebrated is a pretended attempt to hedge in a cuckoo, 
and there is still a bush at Court-field, in this parish, called 
the "Cuckoo Bush." "Gotham" is the title of one of 
Churchiirs satires.— It was the Rectory of John Lightfoot, 
the botanist, author oi "Flora Scotica," who died in 1788. 

Gryesle Y parish is the largest in this county ; it is said 
to be twenty miles in circumference. — The Vicarage was the 
first ecclesiastical preferment of the learned Bishop War- 
burton. 

In Holme Pierrepoint Church are monuments of the 
noble family of the Pierrepoints, and a memorial of John 
Oldham, satiric poet, 1682. 

in Houghton were buried its illustrious natives, John 
Holies, first Earl of Clare, 1637, and Denzil Lord Holies, 
one of the five Members demanded by Charles 1. 1680. 

In HucKNALL Torkard Church are monuments of the 
Byrons, of whom the brave Richard first Lord Byron, with 
his seven brothers, all bore arms for their unfortunate king. 
Here, in 1824, were deposited the remains of the late Lord 
Byron, whose varied and romantic career, exalted poetry, 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 25 

and loss of life at Missolonghi, whilst generously promotii^ 
the cause of the oppressed Greeks, lend an interest to the 
name which will last for all time. The Corporation of Not- 
tingham recdved the body at its entrance into their town. 

Kelham Hall was the first place of imprisonment of 
Charles the First, after he had delivered himself to the Scots. 
— In the Chnrch is a richly-wrought monument of the last 
Lord Lexington and his lady; but their effigies are strangely 
placed back to back. 

At KiNGSTON-upoN-SoAR was the scat of Anthony Ba- 
bington, conspirator against Elizabeth, executed 1586.— In 
the Church is a curious monument of one of this family, 
adorned with upwards of 200 rebuses of the name, being the 
head of a babe in ar^un. 

Lang A R was the seat of the brave veteran, Admiral Earl 
Howe.— In the Church are many monuments of the ScroopeSj 
one of which, foi* Lord Scroop, who died in 1609, is very 
elegant. 

Mansfield was the frequent residence of our early Nor- 
man Kings, who were ' extravagantly fond of the pleasures 
of the chase, which they enjoyed in the surrounding forest 
of Sherwood. A ballad of "The King (said to be Henry 
II.) and the Miller of Mansfield,'' is preserved in Percy's 
"Reliques," and is the subject of two dramatic entertain- 
ments by Dodsley. The Manor of Cokeney was held by the 
service of shoeing the king's palfrey when he came hither ; 
and by an antient custom of the same manor, the heirs are 
declared of age as soon as bom. 

In Markham East Church is the monument of the up- 
right judge Sir John Markham, 1409. 

Newark is famous for its Inns, which are nearly fifty in 
number, and many of them of great extent. The town 
is a principal station on several great roads. — In the 
Church is a curious brass, engraved in Gough's •* Sepulchral 
Monuments," of an ecclesiastic, named Alan Flemyng, the 



26 COU)?TT HIBTORY— KOTTlNGHAMSHtRB. 

foutfdcr ofthe chureh in the time of Hemry VII.— Here, at 
the Free Sehool, were Vacated Thomas White, Bishop of 
Peterborough ; William Sbikeley, Ihe antiquary ; Bishop 
Warburton ; and 'Francis Tailents, 'President of Magdalen 
College, Gambridgey author of a " View of Universal Hifr 
tory, &c. a branch of whose family now resides in Newark. 
— *Here commenced practice as a physician^ David Hartley, 
writer on metaphysics and morals. He patronized Mrs. Ste- 
phens' nostrum for the cure of the stone; contributed 
greatly towards her obtaining a grant of £5,000 from 
Parliament for the discovery ; and, after taking as much of 
her medicine as contained 2001b8. of soap, fell a victim to 
the disease it professed to cure in 1757. 

In North Muskham died in 1805, a Mr. Wass, who, in 
consequence of a vow to that effect, never stepped out of his 
house on any account for thirty years. 

Nottingham, softened from the Saxon Snottinghara, 
denoting the place of caves, gives name to the county, and 
the town is also a county in itself. — ^The Castle, burnt down 
in riots produced by the rejection of the Reform Bill, was 
built by the Duke of Newcastle in 1674. Over the prin- 
cipal entrance was a fine equestrian statue ofthe founder, 
sculptured by Wilson out of one solid block of stone brought 
from Donnington in Leicestershire. — Marshal Tallard, taken 
prisoner by the Duke of Marlborough at Blenheim, August 
13, 1704, resided in this town; and here Gilbert Wakefield 
vainly endeavoured to establish a school. (See also under 
Bramcote). — St Peter's was the Rectory of John Plough, 
author of the " Apology for Protestants." In the church- 
yard lies Charles Dering, physician, and historian of the 
town. 

Ordsall was the Rectory of Dr. Marmaduke Moor» 
whose living was sequestrated by the Parliament in 1652 for 
the heinous offence of playing at cards three several times 
with his own wife f 



HISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS, 27 

In OssiNGTON is a magnificent mausoleum to the memory 
of the late Mr. Denison, who acquired a very large fortune 
by the woollen trade at Leeds. 

OwTHORPE Hall was built by, and was the residence of 
the regicide Colonel Julius Hutchinson, Governor of Not- 
tingham Castle, whose ** Memoirs,'' written by his interest- 
ing wife, have been published by one of his descendants. 
In the Church are several monuments of this family. 

At Papplewick, the seat of his friend Mr. Frederick 
Montague, Mason composed a great part of his ** English 
Garden," 

In Radcliffe-on-Trent Church !s a wooden effigy of 
its founder, Stephen RadclifEie. 

RuFFORD Abbey was often visited by James I. and 
Charles I. and was the residence of the patriotic Sir George 
Saville, Member for Yorkshire. It contains numerous 
portraits and other paintings. 

ScREVETON was the birth-place and residence of Dr. Tho- 
roton, the historian of this county. 

At ScROOBY was a Palace of the Archbishops of York. 

At Selby Hall is a fine large picture by Daniel My ton, 
representing Charles I. with his Queen ; and two undoubted 
Holbeins. 

Sherwood Forest was the principal haunt of the fa- 
mous outlaw Robin Hood, with his ** merry men." The 
collection of ballads, entitled " Robin Hood's Garland," is 
universally known. Ritson has displayed his usual acumen 
and research in illustrating his history. 

Southwell Collegiate Church declared by Act of Par- 
liament, in 1542, to be the Mother Church of Nottingham- 
shire. It contains numerous most curious specimens of 
antient sculpture, many of which have been engraved by 
Carter, and its screen is of the richest Gothic. In this 
Church are the monuments of ^ve Archbishops of York : 



28 couirrr RtsroEr-^icOTTiKGHiiisHiRE. 

Lodham 1264; Corbridge 1303; tiro Booths 1464 and 
1480; and Sandjs 1588.-^ardinal Wohty passed many of 
his summers at the Palace here.— Here are held two annual 
synods of the clergy of this county. 

Staplbford Hall was rebuilt about 1797, by its gallant 
proprietor, the Right Honourable Sir John Borlase War- 
ren, Bart. G.C.B. 

SuTTON-iN-AsHPiBLB was fof twenty years the Vicarage 
of the facetious and pathetic Lawrence Sterne. 

Thoresby House, burnt down March 4, 1745, was 
shortly afterwards rebuilt by the Duke of Kingston. The 
Park is thirteen miles round. 

TuxFORD, according to Gough, is *' branded to a proverb 
for its miry situation.^* Tlie place is now almost made up 
of inns for the acoommodaftion of travellers ; and the com- 
plaint of Drunken Bamaby of *'bad wines/' is not now 
applicable. — ^The town was nearly destroyed by fire Sep- 
tember 8, 1702. 

Warsop was the Rectory of Dt. Samuel Halifax, after- 
wards Bishop of St. Asaph ; and Richard Southgate, numis- 
matist. 

Wblbegk Abbey contains many interesting portraits. 
The riding-house was built in 1623 by the brave and loyal 
William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, author on horse- 
manship, who also erected the stables, 130 feet long, by 40 
broad, in 1625. The park is aght miles round. — The Abbey 
by a bull granted in 1512 by Pope Julius II. and confirmed 
by King Henry VIII. was constituted the superior of all the 
houses of Premonstratensian Canons (35 in number) in 
England and Wales. 

At Westhorpe died Mrs. Dorothy Gark, aged 112. 

In Whatton Church is the monument of Thomas Cran- 
mer, father of the martyred Archbishop of Canterbury, 1501. 

In WoLLATON Church are several antient and handsome 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 29 

monuments of the Willougbbys. The hall was built from his 
own plan, by Sir Francis Willoughby, in the reign of Eli- 
zabeth, with stone brought from Ancaster, in Lincolnshire. 
It contains several fine paintings and interesting portraits. 

Worksop antient manor-house was burnt down in 1761, 
when the loss in psuntings, statuary, books, and furniture, 
was estimated at more than £100,000. It was quickly re- 
built ; architect Payne ; Its front 318 feet long. It con- 
tains many valuable paintings, and the bed, of silk danask, 
on which George the Third was born in Norfolk House, 
London, May 24, O.S. J738. The lord of this manor prs- 
sents an embroidered glove» which the King puts on his right 
hand iuimediatelj htfote be receiTes the weptre ai his coro- 
nation. 



30 



List of JVorkt eansuHed 

I . Thoroton*t history of Nottinghamshire ; republished with large 
additions, by John Throsby. — 8 toIs. 4to, 1797. 

9. Beauties of England and Wales^ vol. xii.— 8to> 1813. 

S. Nottinghamia vetus et nova ; or an historical account of the an- 
tient and present state of the town of Nottinghana> &c. By 
Charles Peering, M.D.— 4to, 1751. 

4. The history of Mansfield, and its environs. By W. Harrodr— 

4to, 1801. 

5. The history and antiquities of the town of Newark. By Willism 

Dickinson, esq. — 4to, 1819. 
U. The history and Antiquities of the town of Southwell. By Wil- 
liam Dickinson, esq. — 4 to, 1819* 



The dauresshaw the dutance frvni Ruzlviii. 



R r T L A > D S H I K E. 







Pabli6heil836.'bvJ.B.Nic:hols & Scm,25 Parliament Street. 



RUTLAND. 



SITUATION AND EXTENT. 

Boundaries y North-east and East, Lincolnshire : North- 
west and West, Leicestershire : South, Northamptonshire. 

Greatest iengtA, Id ; greatest breadth, 15 ; circumference, 
58 ; square, 149 miles ; statute acres, 95,360. 

Province, Canterbury. Diocese, Peterborough, excepting' 
the parishes of Empingham, Ketton cum Tixover, and 
Lyddington cum Caldecote, in Lincoln. The Deaneries 
are Alstoe Hundred, East Hundred, Oakham Soke, Rut- 
land alias Martinsley Hundred, and Wrangdike. 

Circuit, Midland. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

British Inhabitants, Coritani. 

Roman Province, Flavia Csesariensis. Station, Bridge Cas- 
terton, but antiquaries disagree as to its antient name. 
Encampment, Bridge Casterton. Road, Ermine Street, 
at Five Mile Cross and Bridge Casterton. Remains dis- 
covered, at Bridge Casterton, foundations ; Great Cas- 
terton, coins ; Market Overton, coins in great abundance. 

Saxon Octarchy, Mercia. 



^ COUNTY HISTORY — RUTLAND. 

PrUmet, Brooke, founded by Hu^ h de Ferrers, son of Wal- 
cheline, temp. Richard L, cell to Kenilworth in Wanrick- 
thire ; Editbweston, temp. Hen. L, cell, first to the abbey 
of St George at Banquerville, Normandy, and afterwarda 
to the Carthusians at Coyentry. 

CoUege. Manton, founded 25 Edward III. by William 
Wade and John Wade. 

Haspitali. Manton; Oakbam, founded about 1390, by 
William Dalby, of Exton. 

Friary, Rutland, Black, temp. Richard III. 

Churches. Empingham ; Essenden, the south door-way is 
the most antient specimen of architecture in the county; 
Exton, the handsomest church in the county ; Greetham ; 
KettoD» rebuilt about 1233, spire 180 feet high; Little 
Gasterton, Norman ; Oakham, handsome ; Pickworth, 
in ruins; Preston, with Nonnan ardies; Stretton; 
Tixover. curious ; Tynwall ; Whitwell ; Wissendine. 

ChapeU. Essendine ; Langham. 

Fonts. Caldecot; Tickencote, adorned with interlaced 
arches. 

Catties, Essendine ; Oakham, probably built by Walche- 
line de Ferrers, baron of Oakham, temp. Henry II. some 
remains of the outer walls, and a building called the Hall. 

Mansions and Houses, Exton Hall, of the Elizabethan 
period, considerably damaged by fire In 1810 ; Glaiston, 
bunt in the nuddle of the 17th century ; Hambledon Hall, 
of the Elizabethan era ; Lyndon Hall, 17th century ; 
Preston Manor-house ; North Luffenham. 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 

Rivers. Chater; Guash or Wash ; Little Eye ^ Welland, 
from Caldecot to Stamford. 

Inland JVavigation. Oakham Canal, with a reserroir near 
Langham, completed in 1804. 

Eminences and Views, Beaumont Chase; Bee HUl; 
Burlej House: Manton» the highest grAUiid in the 
county; Preston Hill; Rake6borou|fh Hill, &e pros- 
pect over the Vale of Catmose ; Seaton Windmill, com- 
mands a view of the curve in the vallej below ; Teigh vil- 
lage ; Wissendine Hills ; Witchlej CommoB. 

JVaturai CuriosiHes. There are chalybeate springs and me- 
dicinal waters at Hambledon, Lyndon, Martin's^thorpe, 
Normanton, North Luffenham, and Tolthorpe between 
Teigh and Market Overton, which is the strongest in the 
county. Numerous marine exuvise are found in the lime- 
stone of this county. 

Public Edifices. Casterton, bridge Qf seteral arohes. Lyd- 
dington, hospital, established 1602, part of the old Bishop's 
palace. Oakham, county gaol, ercqted in 1810; hall, 
where the assizes are held; school; hospittd; itnd market 
cross. Uppingham, free school and hospital, built 1584, 
by Rev. Robert Johnson. 

Seats. BuRLBY-ON-THE-HiLL, Gcorgc Finch, esq. M.P. 
Ayston Hall, George Fludyer, esq. 
Catmose Lodge, - — 
Clipsham, Miss Snow. 



4 COUNTY H18T0RT--SUTLAICD. 

(Cottesmore House, Earl of Lonsdale. 

Richard Westbrook Baker, esq. 

Editbweston, Edward Septimus Orme, esq. 

Rev. Richard Lucas. 

Empinffham, Thomas Syson, esq. 

Exton HalU Sir Gerard No^ Noel, Bart. M»P. 

Glaiston, Lady Sophia Whichcote, esq. 

Mrs. Mary Tryon. 

Gunthoroe, Edward' Watson Smyth, esq. 
Holywell, General Birch Reynardson. 
Ketton, Hon. William Noel. 

John Ea^leton, esq. 

Captain C. Grantham. 

Luffenham (North), Henry Heathcote, esq. 

(South) Robert Nichols, esq. 

Lyddington» Thomas John Bryan* esq. 
Lyndon, Miss Barker. 

Rev. T. K. Arnold. 

Manton, Joseph Mortimer, esq. 

Market Overton, John Muxloe Wingfirid, esq. 

Morcott, Rev. R. Hustwick. 

Normanton Park, Sir Gilbert Heathcote» Bart. M.R 

Preston, Rev. William Belgrave. 

Rev. Henry Shields. 

William Lawrence, esq. 

Ridlington, Rev. Charles Swann. 

Stocken Hall, Gilbert John Heathcote, esq» 

Thbleton, Rev. Henry Fludyer. 

Tickencote Hall, Samuel Richard Fydell, esq. 

Tixover, Thomas Hotchkin, esq. 

Tixover House, Henry O'Brien, esq. 

Tolthorpe House, Eveson Harrison, esq. 

Tynwell, Rev. Thomas Roberts. 

Rev. C. Arnold. 

Uppingham, Mrs. Hotchkin. 

Thomas Hill, esq. 

Jonathan Gibbons, esq. 

Wing, R. Shield, esq. 

Peerage. Rutland, dukedom (1703) and earldom (1525) 
to Manners ; Essenden, Cecil of, barony (1603) to Cecil 
Marquis of Salisbury. 



PRESENT STATE. 5 

Baronetage. Exton Park, Noel, 1781 ; Ridlington, Ha- 
ringtoD, 1611. 

Representatives returned to Parliament. For the County, 
2. This County not affected by the Reform Act. 

Produce, Corn, particularly barley. Timber. Limestone; 
building-stone, at Ketton ; red ochry land about Glais- 
ton, whence by many authors is derived the name of Rut- 
land, quasi " Red land;'" a soft stone easily wrought into 
troughs, &c. 

Manufactures. None of any importance. Cheese, some of 
the rich kind called Stilton (from having been first sold 
at an inn at Stilton in Huntingdonshire), is made in the 
parish of Leafield, and in Catmose Vale.— -This County 
was formerly noted for the manufecture of tammies, but 
nothing of the kind is now done. Uppingham was noted 
for trencher making. 



POPULATION IN 1831. 

Hundreds, 4; Soke, I ; Market Towns, 2 ; Parishes, 

50 ; Part of Parishes, 1 . 
Houses, Inhabited, 3,935 ; Building, 22 ; Uninhabited, 99. 
Inhabitants. Males, 9,721; Females, 9664; total, 19,385. 
Families. Employed in Agriculture, 2,299 ; in Trade, 

1,102; in neither, 790; total, 4,191. 
JJop^wm* in the year 1830. Males, 274; Females, 296; 

total, 570. Annual average of 1821 to 1830, 558. 
Marriages, 143; annual average, 141. 
Burials. Males, 162; Females, 159; total, 321. Annual 

average, 364. 

Places having not less than 1,000 inhabitants. 

Houses. Inbab. Houses. lobab. 

The Oftkhftms 530 3,390 Uppingham 349 1,757 



HISTORY. 

A.D- 

1016. Near Eeaenden, the Danes at first repulsed by the 
inhabitants and the men of Stamford, under the Bwon of 
Essenden ; but the Saxons being disordered in the pur- 
suit, the Danes were finally victorious. 

1381. At Burley-on-the-Hili, the warlike Henry Sponeer, 
Bishc^ of Norwich^ assembled the troops with which be 
defeated the Norfolk insurgents under John litester 
during the time of Wat Tyler's insurrection. 

1470. At Home, April 27, the Lancastrians, prinfi^>al1y 
Lincolnshire men. defeated, and 10,000 slain, by Edward 
IV. As the fugitives cast off their coats, wbidi imipeded 
them in their flight, this engagement has been styled the 
Battle of Lose-coat-field. The Lancastrian commander, 
Sir Thomas Wells, and Sir Thomas de Launde, were 
taken prisoners, and shortly afterwards beheaded* 

1621. James I. visited his favourite George Villiers, Duke 
of Buckingham, at Burley-on-the-HiU, when Bern Jonaon's 
masque of '* The Gypsies'' was first performed, all the 
actors being noblemen. 

1626. Charles I. visited Burley-on-the-Hili, when Jeffrey 
Hudson, the dwarf of Oakham, was served up to table in 
a cold pie. 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

Barker, Samuel, scholar (died 1760). 

ThomoR, son of above, philosophical and theological 

writer, Lyndon, 1722 (died 1809, having subsisted from 

infancy to the a^ of 88 on a ve^table diet). 
Bajly, Thomas, Bishop of Killaloe in 1664, editor of Theo- 

phylact, bom about 1615. 
Browne, \Villiam, benefaetMr to Stamford, Tolthorpe (flou- 
rished in the 15th century;. 
Clerke, Gilbert, learned mathematician, good grecian, and 

great scripturist, 1626 (died 1697). 
Digby, Sir Everard, conspirator in the gunpowder plot, 

Drjstoke, 1581 (executed 160&). 
Harrington, John, first Baron of Exton, benefactor, Exton 

(died 1613). 
Hudson, Jeffrey, dwarf to Queen Henrietta Maria, Oakham, 

1619 (died 1682) 
Ruflsel, Richard, Roman Catholic Bishop of Portalegro 

(died about 1695). 
Tioba, St. patroness of falconers, Ryall (flourished 690). 
Wing, Vincent, mathematician, author of almanack called 

by his name, Luffenbam, 1619 (died 1668). 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

Rutland is the smallest county in Engfland. Drayton, in 
his Polyolbion, thus sings its excellencies: 

Love not thyself the less, although the least thou art ; 
What thou in greatness wants, wise Natore doth impart 
In goodness of thy soil ; and more delicious mould, 
Surveying aU this isle, the sun did ne'er behold. 
Bring forth that British vale, and be it ne*er so rare. 
But Catmose with that yale for richness shall compare : 
What forest nymph is found, how brave soe*er she be, 
But Lyfield shows herself as braye a nymph as she ? 
What river ever rose from bank or swelling hill 
Than Rutland's wandering Wash, a delicater rill ? 
Small shire that can'st produce to thy proportion good. 
One Vale of special name, one Forest, and one Flood. 
BuRLBT-ON-THE-HiLL Park contains 1085 acres. The 
terrace is 300 yards long and 12 broad. The front of the 
house, exclusive of the colonnade connecting it with the 
offices is 196 feet long. The painted saloon which extends 
the whole breadth of the house, is 66 feet long, 36 wide, and 
55 high. The house contains many valuable portraits and 
other, paintings. 

Empinohah was the Rectory of Edmund Law, Bishop 
of Carlisle, who died in 17S7, aged 85. 

In ExTON Church are many very sumptuous monuments, 
of which the most remarkable are those of Robert Keylway, 
lawyer, 1 580; Sir James Harrington, progenitor of very 
many noble families, 1591 ; Anne Lady Bruce (in a shroud 
and coffin), 1627 ; Baptist Noel, Viscount Campden (by 
Grinling Gibbons, cost £1,000), 1683; Lieutenant-general 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 9 

Noel, 1766, by NoUekens; and Baptist Noel, fourth Earl 
of Gainsborough, and his lady, 1771, by Nollekens. — A 
great part of Exton Hall, which contained a fine collection 
of paintings, was burnt down May 24, 1810. The deer 
park contains 1510 acres. 

At Ketton is a monument to Francis Wotton, esq. who 
died August 11, 1735, " in hopes of a glorious immortality 
through the merits of God, and the merits of Jesus Christ."' 

At Lyndon was buried William Whiston, divine and ma- 
thematician, 1752. At the Hall is his portrait. 

North Luffenham was the Rectory, residence, and 
burial-place of Robert Johnson, Archdeacon of Leicester* 
the founder of Oakham and Uppingham free schools and 
hospitals. He died in 1616. 

The first time a peer of the realm comes within the pre- 
cinct of the Manor of Oakham, he forfeits a shoe from his 
horse, to be nailed on the Castle gate ; and should he refuse 
it, or a compensation in money, the bailiff is empowered to 
take it by force. This custom originated at the first erection 
of the Castle in the reign of Henry II. as a token of the ter- 
ritorial power of the lord, Walcheline de Ferrers, whose an- 
cestor, who came with the Norman William, bore. Argent, 
six horse-shoes pierced Sable ; designative of his office of 
Master of the Horse to the Dukes of Normandy. 

At Rtall was buried St. Tibba, a virgin anchorite at 
Godmanchester, who was the patroness of Falconers; and 
the present hunter's cry of " Tantivy" is probably a corrup- 
tion of an old ejaculation for the assistance of ** Sancta 
'nbha.*" — Ryall was the residence of Waltheof, the powerful 
Earl of Northumberland and Huntingdon, the first person 
recorded as suffering decapitation in this kingdom, being 
beheaded at Winchester in 1075. 

TiCKBNCOTB Church, being in a state of complete decay, 
was. rebuilt in 1792, by Mrs. Eliza Wingfield, but many in- 
teresting remains of antiquity were scrupulously preserved. 



10 COUNTT IIItTOftr**R0TLAirt». 

and the BM>deni erection is a complete repretentatioii of the 
antient building. This benevolent lady was buried in it m 
1794. 

Uppingham was the Reetory of the excellent Jeremj 
Taylor, afterwards Bishop of Downe and Connor. He was 
married here to Mrs. Phcsbe Landisdale* May V, 1639. 



List offFarks ammited. 

1. Wiight*8 hUtory mid aotiqaitiet of Rutland. —&itio. 

S. Th« hiftory utd witiquitiM of (be Gouty of &atl*nd. By Tho. 

mu Blora. — ^fblio. 
3. BtButiat ofEogland and Walei» vol. xii. p. 1-156.-— 8ve. 



Tk^ ritfunv sAott' th^ Jistance fivm Muiru:k 




WABWICKSHIBE. 



London Fathglied 1^3^,WJ Nichol? &: Son. 25 Pafliajneut Strt 



WARWICKSHIRE. 



MTUATION AND EXTENT. 

Boundaries, North, Derbyshire, Lciceetershire, and Staf- 
fordshire: East, Oxfordshire and NortdiamptoariBre : 
South, (jflouoeatershire and Oxfordshire : West, Woroes- 
tershire. 



fer- 



Chreaiest len,gH^ 50: gretUe^ bremltA, 3$: eireumfei 
enet, 150: square 897 miles ; statute acresy 574^080. 

Province, Canterbury. i>toce«e«, Lichfield and Coventry ; 
Worcester j and Lancoln. Lichfield has an Arehdeaconry 
of Coventry, <with the Deaneries. of Arden, Coventry, 
Marlon, and Stoneley. Worcester has the tiro Deaneries 
of Kineton and Warwick. The Chapelries of Wlbtoft 
and Hyde are in Lincoln diocese. 

Circuity Midland. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

Antediiuvian Remains discovered, at Church Lawford, 
bones of the hysena, rhinoceros, and elephant ; Newn- 
ham Regis, two magnificent heads and other bones of the 
Siberian rhinoceros, tusks and teeth of elephants, &c. in 
1815. 



2 COUNTY HISTORY— WARWICK8HIRB. 

British InhMtantSf Coroavii and Wigantes. 

Roman Province, Britannia Secunda. Stations, Alauna, 
Alceslcr; Bennones, High Cross; Mediolanum, Ches- 
terton, supposed ; Manduessedum, Manceter ; Prosidi- 
um, Warwick, but doubtful). Encampments, Brink- 
low; Chesterton, a very extensive square; Edge Hill, 
Ratley, called Nadbury camp, triangular ; Oldbury, two, 
one supposed to have formed the summer camp to the 
station Manduessedum, and a smaller one thought to have 
been constructed for a guard agsunst any attempt at sur- 
prise. Earthworks, Brinklow and Church Over, tumuli. 
Roads, The Fosse, crosses the Watling Street at High 
Cross, passes near to Monks Kirby, Stretton, Chesterton, 
&c. and goes to Gloucestershire at Stretton-on-Foss ; 
Ridgeway ; Ickneld Street, passes through Alcester and 
Birmingham ; Watling Street, divides the county on the 
north-east from Leicestershire. Remains discovered, 
Alcester, urns, coins, and bricks ; Birmingham, coins ; 
Coventry, pavement, coins; Coleshill, coins; Hamp- 
ton-in*Arden, urn of coins ; Ratley, brass sword and a 
battle-axe; Sawbridge, several urns in 1689; Warwick, 
coins ; Wibtoft, coins and bricks ; Wormleighton, cof- 
fin hewn out of the trunk of a tree and containing bones 
and coins. 

Saxon Octarchy, Mercia. Earthworks and Encampments, 
Seckington, circular, 300 feet inner diameter, and on the 
north side a mound 42 feet high ; Welcombe Hills, ex- 
tensive. Remains discovered, Walton, two jewels set in 
gold, 1774 

Danish Earthwork, King's-standing, in Sutton Coldfield, 
thrown up about 900, at the battles of Tettenhall and 
Wednesfield, Staffordshire. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. O 

Cathedral Coventry, established by Robert de Limesy, 
Bishop of Chester, 1095, destroyed by Henry VIIL 

Abbeys. Combe, founded by Richard de Camvill, about 
1150, the cloisters of Norman work remain; Coventry, 
by Leofric 5th Earl of Mercia, and his Countess Godiva, 
about 1043; Merevale, by Robert Earl Ferrers, about 
1148, some interesting fragments; Stoneleigh, removed 
from Radmore in Staffordshire in 1154, the gate-house 
remains ; and Warwick, destroyed by the Danes in 1016. 

Priories, Alcester, founded as an abbey by Ralph Boteler, 
about 1140, became cell to Evesham about 1467 ; Avecote 
or Aucot, by William Burdet, 1159, cell to Great Malvern 
in Worcestershire ; Birmingham, about 13th century ; 
the Carthusians juxta Coventry, by William Lord Zouch, 
1381 ; Erdburie, temp. Henry II. by Ralph de Sudley ; 
Hallywell, cell to Roucester in Staffordshire ; Horewell, 
cell to Stoneleigh j Kenilworth, by Geoffrey de Clinton, 
a Norman. Chamberlain to Henry I., in 1122; Max- 
stoke, by William de Clinton, Earl of Huntingdon, in 
1336, the gateway and parts of the tower remain ; Monks 
Kirby, about the time of William I., cell to St. Nicholas 
at Angiers ; Studley, by Peter Corbezon, temp. Stephen ; 
Warmington, by Henry de Newburgh, Earl of Warwick, 
cell to Preaux in Normandy; Warwick, by Henry de 
Newburgh, Earl of Warwick, temp. Henry I. ; Wolston, 
about temp. William I. or II. cell to St. Peter's in France ; 
Wootton Wawen, by the De Stafford family in the time 
of the Normans, cell to the abbey of Conches in Nor- 
mandy, some remains. 

JVunneries. Bretford, temp. Henry II. existed only for a 
short period ; Coventry, founded long before the abbey, 
first noticed by Rous, destroyed by the Danes in 1016; 



4 COUNTT HISTORY — ^^rARWICKSHIRB. 

Henw^ood, temp. Henry II. by Ketelbern de Lan^on ; 
Nuneaton, temp. Stephen or Henry IL by Robert Bossu, 
Earl of Leicester, remains of arches supporting central 
tower ; Oldbury, cell to Polesworth ; Pinley, by R. dc 
Pilardinton, temp Henry I.; Polesworth, by either King 
fif bert, or his son Ethelwolf, in 9th cent, for St Mod- 
weua, a holy woman newly come ont of Ireland, the nuns 
turned out by William I. but soon restored, two ricb soni- 
circular arches remain ; Warwick, destroyed by the Danes 
1016; Wroxall, by Hugh de Hatton, t Stephen, many 
remains. 

Friaries. Atherstone, Austin, in 49 Edward III. by Ralph 
Lord Basset of Drayton, some remains in the free gram- 
mar school. Coventry, Grey, ante 1234 ; White, by Sir 
John Poalteney, Lord Mayor of Loudon, 1342, many 
remains in the house of industry ; Minors. Thelesford, in 
1204, by Sir William Lucy of Charlecote, kt Warwick, 
Black, temp. Henry III. ; White built by John Peyto, 
junr. about 18 Edward III. 

Preceptory. Balsall, founded temp. Stephen, by Roger de 
Mowbray, the buildings are extensive. 

Commanderjf. Warwick, by Earl Roger, temp. Henry I. 

Colleges. Astley, 17 Edward III. by Sir Thomas de Astley, 
the antient choir is now the body of the parish church ; 
I'oventry, Bablake, dedicated 1350 ; Guy's Cliff, by Ri- 
chard Earl of Warwick, temp. Henry VI.; Knoll, by 
Walter Cook, canon of Lincoln, and Lady Elizabeth 
Clinton, 4 Henry V.; Miton, temp. Henry I.: Strat- 
ford, by John de Stratford, 5 Edward III. ; Warwick, 
three, one to St. James, temp. Richard II., another to St. 
Mary, by Earl Roger in 1123, and one to All Saints, 



ANTIBNT STATE AKD RBMAINS* » 

ffospkals. Astley, by Thomas Marquis of Dowet, by wfll, 
22 Henry VTII. Birmingham, ante 13 Ed\rard I. Co- 
ventry, Bablake, by Thomas Bond, Mayor, 1506; St. John, 
temp. Henry II. by Edmund Archdeacon of Coventry, 
some remains in the free school ; Spon, temp. Henry II. 
by Hugh Kevelioke, Earl of Chester, parts of the chajpcl 
and gateway remain in some houses. Warwick, St. John, 
by Earl William, temp. Henry II. ; St. Michael, by Earl 
Roger, temp. Henry I. ; St. Thomas, by Earl William, 
temp. Henry II. 

Churches. Ansley, some Norman remains; Astley, the 
spire of which was termed the lanthom of Arden, and the 
choir belonged to the College ; Birmingham, St. Mar- 
tin's, erected 13th cent, but much altered by repairs; 
BalsalljbytheKnightsTemplars, but little altered; Beau- 
desert, remains of Saxon or early Norman architecture ; 
Bidford, Norman ; Bishop's Tachbroke ; Coleshill, ^e 
specimen of decorated gothic ; Coventry, St. John's, 
St. Michael's, the largest parochially-built church in ^ 
kingdom, the spire, 303 feet high, the admiration of ages, 
was designed and partly raised temp. Edward III., ai|(| 
Trinity; Dunchurch ; Grendon ; Kenilworth, beaut^^f^l 
Norman doorway; Kineton, temp. Edward II. ; M?m^ 
ceter; Newnham Regis, in ruins; Nuneaton, hu\\if, 
about 500 years ; Polesworth; Shustoke, temp. Edwar^ 
II., handsome ; Stoneleigh, many Norman portions ; 
Stratford ; Warwick had five churches not now existing, 
and those to St. Mary, rebuilt 14th century, through the 
muniiicence of the Beauchamps Earls of Warwick, and St. 
Peter, on the east gate of tlie town, erected temp. Henry 
VI. ; and Wolston, built at various periods. 

Chapels, Atherstone, belonged to the Friary ; Baddesley 
Ensor; Barston; Bearley; Caludon; Church LaW- 



6 COUNTY HISTORY — ^WARWICKSHIRB. 

ford; Clifton; Fletchamstead ; Guy*8 Cliff, founded 
by Richard Beauchamp ; Henley-in-Arden, erected temp. 
Edward III. ; Knowle, erected by Walter Cooke, in the 
time of Richard II. ; Stratford, belonging to the Gild of 
the Holy Cross ; Ullenhale ; Warwick, St. James, over 
the west gate of the prindpal street, plain but impressive. 

FanU. Coleshill, curious; Foleshill; Stoneleigh, very 
curious, from Maxstoke* 

Cos ties. AUesley, a well faced with stone is the only re- 
main ; Astley, surrounded by a moat, some remains ; 
Baginton ; Beaudesert, erected by Thurstane de Mont- 
fort shortly after the arrival of the Normans, totally down, 
but its site worthy of examination ; Birmingham, in 
1154, by Peter de Birmingham, stood near the church ; 
Brandon, ante Henry I., some remains; Brinklow, for- 
merly possessed by the Mowbrays and De Stutevilles: 
Coleshill ; Coventry or Cheylesmore, a residence of Earl 
Leofric, rebuilt 1 2th century, by Hugh son of Ranulph 
Earl of Chester ; Fulbrook, built by John Duke of Bed- 
ford, 10 Hen. VL; Hartshill ; Kenilworth, founded by 
Geoffrey de Clinton in 1120, magnificent ruins; Kihtf- 
ton, where, according to tradition, King John held his 
^onrt; Maxstoke, erected by William de Clinton, temp . 
Edward IIL, a fine and lofty machicolated gateway, &c. 
Rugby, temp. Stephen ; Stu Jley ; and Warwick, the first 
foitilrcation here built by Ethelfieda, daughter of King 
Alfred, in 915, but the castle in the time of Edward the 
Confessor, very extensive, grand, and picturesque remains. 

Mansions, Arbury Hall, by the Newdigates; Aston Hall, 
extensive edifice of the time of James I. built by Sir Tho- 
mas Holt ; Baddesly Clinton, curious, embattled, and 
moated ; Bilton House, of the time of James I. ; Charle- 



ANTIENT STATiB AND REMAINS. 7 

cote, built by Sir Thomas Lucy, " Justice Shallow/' temp. 
Elizabeth ; Clopton House ; Gompton Wynyate House, 
erected in the reign of Henry VIH. by Sir William Comp- 
ton ; Knowle Hall, now a farm-house ; Offchurch Bury, 
part of considerable antiquity; Pooley Hall, temp. Henry 
VIIL by Sir Thomas Cokain. 

Crosses, Fillongley, shaft and basement; Henley-in- 
Arden, of great antiquity, an interesting specimen; Me- 
riden. 

Cave, Guy's Cliff, '* hewed with his own hands'' by the ce- 
lebrated Guy, who here lired ''like a palmer poore." 



Pii£S£NT STATE AND APPfiARANCE. 

Rivtrs, Alne; Anker; Arrow; Avon, enters from 
Northamptonshire at Bensford Bridge, is joined at 
Brownsover bj the Swift, passes Warwick Castle, Ful- 
brooke, Charlecote, and Stratford, scenes familiar to 
Shakspeare, and quits the county to go to Gloucestershire ; 
Blythe ; Cole; Leam, rises on the eastern borders, and 
after a winding course falls into the Avon near Warwick ; 
Rea ; Sherburn, Sowc, and Swift, all tributary to the 
Avon ; Stour ; Tame, from Worcestershire, near Bir- 
mingham, and goes into StaAirdShire. 

Inland Navigation, Ashbj-de-la-Zouch Canal. The Avon, 
made navigable for vessels of 40 tons, from Stratford to 
the Severn at Tewkesbury in Gloucestershire, in 1637- 
Bilston Canal. Birmingham Old Canal, from Stafford- 
shire to the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal near Bir- 
mingham. Birmingham and Fazeley Canal, joins the Co- 
ventry Canal, which is of great importance, at Whitting- 
ton Brook. Coventry Canal. Oxford Canal. Stratford 
Canal, commences in that of the Worcester and Birming- 
ham at King*s Norton, not yet completed. Warwick and 
Birmingham Canal, to Digbeth, where it joins a cut of 
the Birmingham and Fazeley CanaL Warwick and Nap- 
ton Canal. Worcester and Birmingham Canal, from the 
Birmingham and Fazeley Canal at Farmer's Bridge to the 
Severn at Diglis near Worcester, cut in 1792. 

Eminences and Views. Alveston, called by the late Dr. 
Perry the Montpelier of England; Barford, prospects 
eminently rich and various; Brailes, elevations com- 
manding fine diversified prospects; Qorley, from the 
churchyard, a most extensive view ; Edgehill, a natural 



PEBSENT 6TATB AND AFPEARANCB. 9 

terrace nearly five miles in length, beautiful views ; 
Guy's Cliff, very romantic, and, according to Leland, '* a 
place meet for the Muses;'' Honington Hills ; Milver* 
ton, vieir remarkably fine ; Offchurch churchyard, parti- 
cularly pleasing view ; Shuckborough Hills, Farnborough ; 
Packington prospects beautiful and extensive ; Warwick 
Castle, every window commanding picturesque and diver- 
sified views ; Welcombe Hills. 

JVo^Mra/ Curiosities, Birmingham, chalybeate and other 
springs; Ilmington, chalybeate spring; Leamington, 
medicinal springs, six of them saline, noticed as early as 
1586, but first recommended in 1784 by Dr, Kerr ; Newn- 
ham Regis, chalybeate spring, discovered in 1579. Off- 
church Bury, chesnut-tree. Southam, medicinal waters. 
Stoneldgh, the Gospel oak ; Stratford-on-Avon, mineral 
water ; Wedgnock Park, the Bull oak, of great antiquity, 
and so named from a male calf having been calved within 
its hollow trunk. 

Public Edifices, Alcester, bridge over the Alne and Arrow : 
free school, founded temp. Elizabeth pursuant to the will 
of Walter Newport, gent.: market hall. Athersf one, free 
grammar school, founded in 1573 by Sir William Deve- 
reux, &c. Birmingham, barracks, erected in 1793: blue- 
coat school, extensive buildings : bridge at Deritend over 
the Rea, rebuilt 1823: deaf and dumb institution, founded 
in 1813: dispensary, handsome, erected 1808: fever hos** 
pital, established 1828 : free grammar school, founded by 
£dward VI. in 1552, rebuilding on a very handsome scale : 
general hospital, commenced in 1766, finished 1779, en- 
larged 1791 : market hall, very large, erected 1833, ar- 
chitect Edge: navigation office: philosophical society: 
prison, built in 1806: public library, commenced in 
1792: public ofl^ce, erected 1806; t^Q spcietif^s of ^rts, 



10 COUNTY HI8T01IT — ^\rA1IWICK8HIRB. 

With handsome buildings : statue to Lord Nelson by West- 
macott, erected in 1809 : theatre, erected 1821 : town- 
hall, of granite, or Anglesea marble» built 1834, resem-^ 
bling a prostyle temple of the Corinthian order raised on an 
arcade, architect Harris, builders Hansom and Welsh : and 
workhouse. Coleshill, stone bridge. Coventry, Bablake 
hospital, founded in 1506, by Thomas Bond, Mayor of the 
city: cavalry barracks, erected 1793: county hall, erected 
1785: drapers' hall, rebuilt 1832: free school founded t. 
Hen. VIII. by Mr. John Hales : gaol, erected 1830 : grey 
friars' hospital, founded in 1529, by Mr. William Ford: 
a perfect specimen of the domestic architecture of the time 
St. Mary's hall, a noble structure of great antiquity : 
mayor's parlour. Dunchurch, free grammar school, in 
1708, by Francis Boughton, esq. Leamington Priors, 
two assembly rooms, the upper, architect C. S. Smith, cost 
£10,000, and the royal, architect Beasley, cost £25,000: 
pump room and baths, architect C. S. Smith, cost £25,000: 
town hall, erected 1831: Waneford hospital, erected in 
1832. Nuneaton, free school, founded 6 Edw. VI. Poles- 
worth, free school founded by Sir Francis Nethersole, kt. 
Rugby, free grammar school, founded in 1567, by Law- 
rence Sheriff, grocer, of London, one of the first classical 
seminaries in the kingdom, new school, erected 1809, 
Hakewill ffrchitect : free school, founded in 1707, by Ri- 
chard Elborow, gent. Southam, infirmary for diseases of 
the eye and ear, established 1818. Stratford, guildhall, 
erected at the close of the 13th century, and in it is kept 
the free school, founded in the time of Henry VI. by 
Mr. Jolepe: market house, erected in 1821: town hall, 
erected in 1768. Sutton Coldfield, free school, founded 
by Bp Harman, temp. Hen. VIII. the school-house rebuilt 
1728: town-hall. Warwick, county bridewell : bridge over 
the Avon, of one arch of stone, erected 1789 by the E<arl 
of Warwick : county gaol, extensive : county hall, built 
1776, spacious and magnificent: court house, or town 



SEATS. 11 

hall, erected 1730 : gateways, at the east and west ends of 
the principal street, very antient, over the west gate is a 
chapel belonging to Lord Leicester's hospital, and over the 
east gate a charity school : grammar school, founded by 
Henry VIII.: Leicester's hospital, foundejd by Robert 
Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 28 Elizabeth, with a present 
revenue of £2,000 per annum : market house, substantial 
stone building. 

Seats. Warwick Castle, Earl of Brooke and Warwick, 

Lord Lieutenant of the County, 
Allesley Park, James Beck, esq. 
Alscot, J. R. West, esq. 
Alveston House,. J. Townsend, esq. 
Ammgton Hall, C. E. Repington, esq. 
Ansley Hall, J. Chetwode, et»a. 
Ansty Hall, Henry Cadwallador Adams, esq. 
Arbury Hall, the late F. P. Newdigate, esq. 
Astley Castle, Viscount Lifford. 
Aston Hall, James Watt, esq. 
Avon Bank, Stratford, Miss Byerleys, 
Baddesley Clinton Hall, Edward Ferrers, esq. 
Baginton Hall, Rev. Davenport Bromley. 
Barford, Mrs. Charles Mills. 
Barrells House, Henley-in-Arden, R. Knight, esq. 
Bazterley, John Boultbee, esq. 

Berkswell Hall, Sir John Eardley Eardley Wilnj9t, BtM.P. 
Bilton Hall, J. B. Simpson, esq. 

House, Edward Vernon, esq. 

Lodffe, 

Bingley Hall, James Lloyd, esq. 
Birdingbury Hall, Sir Theophilus Biddulph, Bart. 
Blyth Hall, William Stratford Dugdale, esq. M.P. 
Bonehill House, Edmund Peel, esq. 
Bourton Hall, John Shuckburgh, esq. 
Brandon House, William Asheton, esq. 
Brownsover House, J. W. Boughton Leigh, esq. 
Caldecote Hall, Dempster Hemming, esq. 
Castle Bromwich Hall, Earl of Bradford. 



Charlecote, George Lucy, esq. 
Charter House, Coventry, John Inge, 



esq. 



12 COUNTY HISTORY — ^WARWICKSHIRE. 

Clopton House, 

Combe Abbey, Earl of Craven. 

Compton Verney, Lord Willoughby de Broke. 

~ Winyate, li^arquis of Northampton. 

Coton Honse» Henry Grimes, esq. 

Coughton Court, Sir Charles Throckmorton, Bart. 

Eathorpe, Mrs. Vyner. 

Edgbaston Hall, Dr. Johnstone. 

— Priory, Geom Attwood, esq. 

Edstone, John Phillips, esa. 

Elmdon Hall, the late W.Lillinestone, esq. 

Farnborough Hall, William Holbech, esa. 

Four Oaks Hall, Sir Edmund Cradock Hartopp, Bart. 

Foxcote, 

Goldicote House, G. Smith, esq. 

Grendon Hall, Sir George Chetwynd, Bart. 

Grove Park, Lord Dormer. 

Guy's Cliff, Warwick, the Hon. C. Bertie Percy. 

Hams Hall, Charles Bowyer Adderley, esq. 

Hawkesbury, Coventry, Francis Parrott, esq. 

Hewell Hall, Earl of Plymouth. 

Holbrook Grange, John Caldecott, esq. 

Honington Hall, Rev. H. Gore Townsend. 

Hounds Hill, W. Thomhill, esq. 

Idlicote, Colonel Peach. 

Ladbrook, William Palmer Morewood, esq. 

Leamineton Hastang, Sir Charles Wheler, Bart. 

Priors, Matthew Wise, esq. 

Longbridge House, near Warwick, William Staunton, esq. 
Lower Eatington Park, Evelyn John Shirley, esq. 
Malveme HaU, E. Greswold, esq. 
Maxstoke Castle, William Dilke, esq. 
Merevale Hall, Du^dale Stratford Dugdale, esq. 
Meriden Hall, Richard Gresley, esq. 
Middleton Hall, Sir Francis Lawley, Bart 
Moxhull Hall, Hon. Berkeley Noel. 
Newbold Pacey, John Little, esq. 

Comyn, Miss Walker. 

Revel Hall, Sir Gray Skipwith, Bart. 

New Hall, Hugo Mavesvn Chadwick, esq* 
Newnham Paddox, Earl of Denbigh. 
Offchurch Bury, Miss Knightley. 
Oldbury, H. F. Okeover, esq. 
Over Whitacre, Rev. Robert Sadler. 



SEATS. 13 

PackiDgfton Hall, Earl of Aylesford. 
Packwood House, J. Featherstone, esq. 
Pipe Hall, Rev. Egerioii Ardea Basfot. 

Pooley Hall, 

Radway, Frands Miller, esq. 
Ragley Park, Marquis of Hertford. 
Rugby, Thomas Caldecott, esq. 
. Shuckburgh Park, Sir Francis Shuckburgh, Bart. 
Shustoke, Edward Croxall, esq. 
Springfield, Joseph Boultbee, esq. 
Stivichall Hall, Arthur Francis Gregory, esq. 
Stoaeleiffh Abbey, Chandos Leigh, esq. 

Stoney Thorpe, Chamberlain, esq. 

Summerfield House, James W^oolley, esq. 
Sutton Coldfield, S. F. S. Perkins, esq. 
Umberslade Hall, Edward Bolton King, esq. M.P. 

Upton House, 

Walton Hall, Sir John Mordaunt, Bart. M P. 
Warwick Priory, Samuel Ryland, esq. 
Weddington Hall, Lionel Place, esq. 
Weloombe Lodge, John Lloyd, esq. 
Wellesboume House, C. Granville, esq. 
Weston House, Sir George Philips, Bart. 
Whitley Abbey, Viscount Hood. 
Witton Hall, Isaac Spooner, esq. 
Woodcote House, H. C. Wise, esq. 

Woolston House, 

Wooton Hall, Sir Edward Smythe, Bart. 
Wroxall Abbey, Mrs. Wren. 

Peerage. Arden, barony (1802) to Perceval ; Birming- 
ham, barony (1644) to Ward ViscounrDudley and Ward ; 
Coleshill, viscounty, 1790, to Earl Digby; Compton, / / 
harony, 1572, to Marquis SBBMB; Coventry, earl- i/^ t'^ f^-^^ 
dom, 1697, to Coventry ; Maxstoke, Clinton of, barony, \ 

1794, to St. John Tre^sis; Middleton, barony, 1711, to 
Willoughby ; Newnham Paddox, Fielding of, viscounty 
and barony, 1622, to Earl of Denbigh ; Warwick, earl- 
dom, 1759, and Brooke of Beauchamp Court, barony, 
1620, to Greville; Whitley, Hood of, viscounty, 1796, to 
Hood. 



14 COUNTT HISTORY — ^WARWICKSHIRE 

Baronetage. Berksirell Hall, Eaidley*Wilmot, 1821 ; 
Braincote, Burdett, 1619; Coughton, Throckmorton, 
1642; Grendon, Clictwynd, 1795; Harburn, Parker, 
1797 ; Hill Morton, Astlej, 1660 ; Lawford, Boughton, 
1641 ; Leamington Hastang, Wheler, 1660 ; Oaks Hall, 
Cradock-Hartopp, 1796; Salford, Clarke, 1617 ; Shuck-^ 
burgh, Shuckburgh, 1660 ; Weston, Philips, 1828. Stud-' 
ley, Goodricke, 1835. 

Representatives returned to Parliament, For the Northern 
Division of the County, 2 : Southern Division, 2: Bir- 
mingham, 2: Coventry, 2: Warwick, 2: total, 10.— The 
Reform Act added two to the County, and enfranchised 
Birmingham. 

Produce, Freestone ; limestone ; quartz, at Hartshill ; marl ; 
ironstone, on the Staffordshire border ; blue clay ; soapy- 
clay, near Warwick; manganese, very superior; blue 
flagstone, near Bidford and Wilnecote; coal, in great 
abundance. Oak, barley, oats, peas, beans, flax, and tur- 
nips. Cattle and sheep, very superior, the cows are the 
long homed, and the sheep are large and fine, and have 
abundant fleeces. 

Manufactures. Astley, ribbons. Alcester, needles. Ather- 
stone, hats, very extensive, soldiers' caps, and ribbons. 
Birmingham, articles in silver, brass, iron, and all other 
metals; toys, so numerous as to obtain for this most 
important town the appellation of **the toy-shop of £a- 
I'ope;*' glass; guns; and japanned ware. Coventry, rib- 
bons, employing about 14,000 hands ; and watches, verj- 
extensive, for exportation. Foleshill, ribbons. Kenilworth, 
horn combs, ivory, sal ammoniac, Prussian blue, and 
Glauber's salts. Nuneaton, ribbons. Warwick, worsted 
and cotton. 



15 



POPULATION IN laSl. 

* Hundreds, 4; Ct<^, Coventry ; Liberties, 3; Boroughs, 

3; Market Towns, 14; Parishes, 201; Parts of 

Parishes, 7* 
Houses. Inhabited, 68,253 ; Uninhabited, 3,882 ; Building, 

782. 
Inhabitants, Males, 165,576; Females, 171,034; total, 

336,610. 
Families, Employed in Agriculture, 15,880; in Trade 

43,291 ; in neither, 13,186; total, 72,357. 
Baptisms in 1830. Males, 5,123; Females, 4,769 ; total, 

9,892. Annual average of 1821 to 1830, 9,151. 
Marriages, 2,915. Annual Average, 2,749. 
Burials, Males, 2,922: Females, 2,823 : total, 5,745. 

Annual Average, 5,430. 



Places having 

Houses. 
Blrmins^hain S9,656 
Coventry City 5,444 

, County of 2,285 

Warwick 1,715 

Nuneaton 1,735 

Leamington Priors 1 003 
Bedworth 868 

Atherstone 801 

Sutton Coldfieia 736 
Stratford upon Avon673 
Keailworth 651 

Rugby 496 

Chiivers Coton 523 



not less than 1,000 Inhabitants. 




iDhab. 




Houses. 


iDhab. 


146,986 


Alcester 


491 


2,405 


27,070 


Studlev 


343 


1,903 


10,760 


Coleshiil 


380 


1,858 


9,109 


Tanworth 


386 


1,823 


7,799 


Bul.kington 


382 


1,792 


6,209 


Old Stratford 


323 


1,556 


3,980 


Stone leigh 


258 


1,298 


3,870 


Bidford 


267 


1,268 


3,684 


Southain 


280 


1,256 


3,448 


Henley in Arden 


261 


1,214 


3,097 


Dunchurch 


206 


1,029 


2,501 


Tysoe with West- 






2,494 


cote 


218 


1,007 



Annual Value of Real Property, as assessed in April, 
1815, £1,236,726. 



16 



HISTORY- 

A. D. 

50. Ostorius first visited the Arden of this county. He 
led his troops from the banks of the southern Ouse, taking 
in his progress the course of the Watling -street ; and con- 
structed forts and entrenched camps along the banks of 
the Avon and Severn. 

757. A sanguinary battle was fought at Seckington, be- 
tween Cuthred King of Wessex aud Ethelbald King of 
Mercia; in which the latter was treacherously slain by onr 
of his own officers named Beornred. 
851. Bertulph had a great council of his prelates and nuliles 
at Kingsbury. 
915. Ethelfleda, the celebrated daughter of King Alfred, 

* erected a donjon at Warwick. 

926. The celebrated Guy Earl of Warwick, according to 
tradition, after slaying the gigantic Dane Colebrand, re- 
tired to a place since called Guy's Cliff, where he died. 

1016. When Canute and Edric invaded Mercia, Eklric de* 
stroyed many towns, and the nunnery at Coventry. 

1147. The Earl of Chester took an active part on the side of 
the Empress Maud. Being repulsed at Lincoln, he has- 
tened towards his castle at Coventry, but Stephen was in 
possession. The Earl besieged the hostile occupiers of his 
castle, but after an obstinate conflict, in which Stephen 
himself was hurt, the Earl, desperately wounded, was com- 
pelled to retreat. 

1153. Upon the arrival of Henry Duke of Normandy, Gun- 
dred Countess of Warwick turned out of Warwick Castle 
the soldiers belonging to Stephen, and gave up the place 
to the Duke who was shortly after King Henry II. 



HISTORY. 17 

A.D. 

1172. Upon tlie rebellion of Prince Henry (whom his father 
had caused to be crovrned), Wanv^ick Castie was garrisoned 
for Henry II. 

1222. On St. Andrew's day, many churches, chapels, and 
houses were overthrown by a violent tempest; and but 
few people escaped free from harm. At Pillerton, a 
knight, his wife, and eight men, by the fall of his house, 
were killed. 

1263. William Mauduit, Earl of Warwick, and his Coun* 
tess, were surprised in Warwick Castle by a party of the 
rebels from Kenilworth Castle. The walls were thrown 
down lest the royalists should again use them ; and the 
Earl and Countess were carried prisoners to Kenilworth 
Castle. 

1266. When Henry III. had prepared for the siege of Kenil- 
worth Castle, he made the general rendezvous for his 
whole army at Warwick. He went against Simon de 
Montfort in much military pomp, at the head of an army, 
of which the posse comitatus of Warwickshire formed a 
part. Simon de Montfort, alarmed at the numbers, with^ 
drew secretly to France, leaving Henry de Hastings as 
Governor of the Castle. The King, after a severe siege of 
six months, took possession of the Castle. 

1278. A tournament held at Kenilworth. The knights were 
100 in number, many of them foreigners of distinction, 
who entered England for the purpose of displaying their 
chivalry on this occasion. The Earl of March was the 
promoter of the festival, and was the principal challenger 
of the tilt-yard. The ladies were equally numerous, and, 
as marking the splendour of their attire, it is recorded that 
they wore ** silken mantles,'* &c. 

1311. Piers Gaveston, the assuming favourite of Edward II. 
being seized at Deddington, in Oxfordshire, by Guy Beau- 
champ, Earl of Warwick, whom he had branded with the 



18 COUNTY HISTORY — ^\YARWICK8HIRB. 

A, D. 

epithet of *'the Black Hound of Arden/' was hurried to 
Blackloir Hill, where he was beheaded. 

1397. When the trial of arms was to ha?e taken place be- 
tween the Dukes of Hereford and Norfolk at Coventry, 
the former nobleman lodged at Baginton Castle, and issued 
thence on the morning of the projected contest, armed at 
all points, and mounted upon a white courser, " barded 
with blue and green velvet, gorgeously embroidered with 
swans and antelopes of goldsmith's work.'* The latter 
lodged at Caludon Castle, and proceeded to the place of 
trial ^'on a horse barded with crimson velvet, embroidered 
with lions of silver and mulberry-trees,'' which latter was 
a rebus in allusion to his name of Mowbray. The com- 
bat was prevented by the interference of the Kiug, who 
was attended by all his peers, and an army of 10,000 men. 
Norfolk was banished from the kingdom for life, and Here- 
ford for ten years, shortened by favour to four. Before the 
expiration of two years, the Duke of Hereford was on the 
throne, and the weak Richard dethroned and imprisoned. 

1404. Henry IV. held a Parliament at the Priory at Coven- 
try, which was called *' Parliamentum Indoctorum,'' and 
from sitting in which all lawyers were prohibited. 

1411. Prince Henry, afterwards Henry V. arrested at Co- 
ventry Priory, by John Horneby, Mayor of the city. 

1436. Henry VI. visited Coventry, and kept his Christmas 
at Kenilworth. 

1450. Henry VI. was at Coventry, when he made their first 
sheriifs. 

1456. Henry VI. and his Queen visited Coventry Priory. 

1458. A Parliament held at Coventry, called " Parliamen- 
tum Diabolicum.'' It passed attainders against Richard 
Duke of York, the Earls of March (afterwards £dward 
IV.), Salisbury, and Warwick. 

1460. The Lancastrians were quartered at Coventry, but 
quitted it on the approach of a strong power from Lon- 



HISTORY. 19 

A D. 

doD, under the Earls of Warwick and March. The battle 
of Northampton ensued. 

1465. Edward IV. with his Queen kept the Christmas at 
Coventry. 

1468. Edward IV. marching towards Warwick, was met by 
an embassy from the Earl of Warwick to treat for peace ; 
which the King too credulously listening to rested in his 
camp at Wolvey ; but the Earl surprised him by nijgfht in 
his bed, and took him prisoner to his castle at Warwick. 

1470. The Earl of Warwick, then a partisan of the Lancas- 
trians, possessed himself of Coventry against Edward IV. 
who came to Gosford Green, but was repulsed by the citi- 
zens. For this act tlie King subsequently deprived the 
city of their privileges, and the corporation were put to 
the expense of 500 marks to get the sword again. — At 
Warwick the King met with a friendly reception. — On 
Gosford Green, the Earl of Rivers and his son John were 
beheaded by order of Sir John Conyers, a commander of 
the northern insurgents, who had obtained some success in 
Oxford. 

1474. Edward IV. kept the feast of St. George at Coventry, 
aud his ill- fated son Prince Edward was godfather to a 
child of the Mayor. 

1485. Richard III., upon his march to Nottingham, came 
from Kenilworth to Maxstoke Castle, and commanded 
part of the inner buildings to be taken down and carried 
to Kenilworth Castle with all speed. — ^The troops of the 
Earl of Richmond (afterwards Henry VII.) entered Ather- 
stone on the 20th of August. He halted there for the 
night, and a meeting took place between him and the two 
Stanleys, in which such measures of co-operation were 
concerted, as occasioned the overthrow of Richard at Bos- 
worth on the 22d. Immediately subsequent to that deci- 
sive battle, Henry VII. repaired to Coventry, and lodged 

P 



20 COUNTY HI8T0RT<— WARWICKSHIRB. 

A. D. 

in the house of the Major, on whom he conferred knight- 
hood. The inhabitants presented him £100 and a oup. 

1490. Coventry contributed the sum of £1100 toirards the 
tax levied for the King's going into France. 

1492. Henry VII. visited Coventry, to see the plays acted 
by the Grey Friars. 

1499. Henry VII. and his Queen visited Coventry, and were 
made a brother and sister of Trinity Guild. 

1510. Henry VIII. and Queen Kathertne visited Coventry, 
when there irere three pageants set forth ; one at Jordan 
WeU, with the nine orders of angels ; one at Broadgate, 
with divers beautiful damsels ; and one at Cross Cheaping ; 
and so they passed on to the Priory. 

1525. Princess Mary visited Coventry, on which occasion the 
Merchants^ pageant, superbly habited, was placed in Cross 
Cheaping to grace her arrival. 

1565. Queen Elizabeth visited Coventry, and was received 
with a variety of splendid shews and pageants. She also 
visited Kenilworth. 

1569. Mary Queen of Scots was confined a prisoner in the 
Bull Inn at Coventry, on the site of which the barracks 
now stand. 

1572. Elizabeth entertained at Warwick. She was also at 
Kenilworth and Compton. 

1575. Elizabeth most magnificently entertained for seventeen 
days at Kenilworth by the Earl of Leicester, the particu- 
lars of which are minutely described by Laneham, an at- 
tendant on the Court, iu a tract entitled "The Princely 
Pleasures of Kenilworth." On her way thither she was 
entertained by the same nobleman under a splendid tent 
at Long Itchington, July 9. 

1617* James I. visited Coventry, at which time an oration 
was delivered by Dr. Philemon Holland, the well-known 
translator, on presenting him with a cup, out of which 
the King said he would always drink.— The King enter- 



HISTORY* 21 

A. D. 

taioedat Leicester's Hospital, WaTWick,hj SirFulke Ore- 
ville, September 4 

1641. Whea Charles I. repaired to Leicester, after raising his 
standard at Nottingham^ he demanded the attendance of 
the Mayor and Sheriffs of Coventry, but the popular party 
prevented their acceding to his desire. The EatI of North- 
ampton, Recorder of the city, could only collect 400 per- 
sons friendly to the royal cause, upon which he made a 
precipitate retreat. The ammunition in the town was 
seized, and removed by Lord Brooke to Warwick Castle. 
In consequence of this treatment, the King's party planted 
cannon on Stivichall Hill, but effected nothing. 

1642. June 14, Colonel Purefoy's soldiers destroyed the 
market cross at Warwick, and defaced the monuments in 
the beautiful chapel of the Beauchamps. — In June and July, 
Lord Brooke arrayed the militia of the county by order 
of Parliament. — August 7i Warwick Castle, which had 
been garrisoned for the Parliament by Lord Brooke, was 
besieged ; but the assailants were discomfited on the 23d. 
On the 28th, Caldecote Hall was attacked by Prince Ru- 
pert and Prince Maurice, at the head of eighteen troops 
of horse. Mr. Abbott, who had marrried a daughter 
of Colonel Purefoy, with his mother and her maids, 
and only eight men, successfully defended the building, 
without any loss to themselves<-^ In October, Charles I. 
was entertained at Aston Hall for two nights, shortly pre- 
vious to the battle of Edge HiU, by Sir Thomas Holt, 
Bart. On the 23d, the decisive battle of Edge Hill was 
fought The first hostile movement was made by the 
Royalists. Prince Rupert put the left wing of the Parlia- 
mentarians to flight. Their other wing was likewise 
routed and pursued ; but their corps of reserve turned on 
the King^s infantry and committed great slaughter. Lord 
Brooke's own regiment entirely broke the left of the King's 
army. 5,000 men are supposed to have fallen on this day. 



22 COUNTY HISTOfllT— irARWICK8HIR8« 

A. D. 

^When Charles left Birmingham the inhabitants seized 
the carriages containing the royal plate, and conveyed 
them to Wanrick Castle.— The Earl of Essex marched to 
Coventry, then garrisoned for the Parliament Many of 
the women of the city **went by companies into the great 

• park to fill up the quarries, that they might not at a future 
period harbour the enemy. Thej were collected together 
by sound of a drum, and marched in military order, with 
mattocks and spades, under the command of an amazon 
named Adderiey, vith an herculean club upon her shoul- 
der ; and wore conducted from work by one Mary Her- 
bert, who carried a pistol in her hand, which she dis- 
charged as a signal of dismissal.'* — Prince Rupert with a 

' detachment of 2,000 men, was desirous of opening a com- 
munication between Oxford and York. At Birmingham, 
a single company of foot, aided by a troop of horse from 
Lichfield, denied him entrance, and it was a considerable 
time before he took possession of the town. 

•1642-3. A party, of Royalists stationed at Stratford were 
driven out of the town by the force under Lord Brooke. 

1643. June 22, Queen Henrietta Maria, at the head of 3,000 
foot, and 1,500 horse, besides waggons and artillery, 
marched to Stratford, where she was met by Prince Ru- 

. pert. After sojourning at New Place, the former abode 
of Shakspeare, and at that time the residence of his grand- 
daughter, she went, July 13, to Kineton, to meet the 
King,* and from thence to Oxford. — Warwick Castle, 

* On this occasion a silver medal was stmck, of which the only 
known specimen is in the cabinet of William Staunton, esq. of 
Longbridge House, near Warwick. It has been several times en- 
graved, but its most correct representation is given in the title- 
page of " Thoo Copies qf Veneg^* written on the same Royal 
meeting, which were printed for private distribution, from the 
original MSS. found amongst Sir William Dugdale's papers, by 



HISTORY. ^ 

A.D. 

under the Governor, Colonel Bridges, held out against the 
Royalists. 

1646. Compton Wynyate House garrisoned by the Parlia- 
ment, and the neighbouring Church destroyed; but on 
the restoration was rebuilt. 

1659. The citizens of Coventry rose up s^ainst the soldiers, 
and disarmed them. 

1662. July 22, the Earl of Northampton, accompanied by 
many neighbouring gentry, and attended by the County 
troops, made the first breach in the walls of Coventry by 
order of Charles II. The work of demolition employed 
nearly 500 men for three weeks and three days. 

1687. James IL was at Coventry. 

1688. Edgbaston Hall, which had formerly been garrisoned 
for the Parliament, burnt down by the populace, in the 
days immediately preceding the revolution, lest it should 
be used as a place of refuge for papists. 

1694. Warwick nearly destroyed by fire : damage estimated 
at £96,000. 

1690. King William passed through Coventry. 

1695. William III. visited Warwick. 

1791. In July, a riot occurred at Birmingham, in which the 
meeting-house belonging to the celebrated Dr. Priestley 
was burnt, together with his house, valuable MSS. and 
philosophical apparatus. Mr. Hutton, the historian and 
philosopher, loat many thousand pounds' worth of pro- 
perty, particularly his library. The whole damage mode- 
rately estimated at £120,000. Several geutlemen's seats 
were burnt. 

the late learned antiquary William Hamper, esq. to whom the 
author is indebted for the communication of many interesting 
acts. 



M 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

Ainge, Francis, baptised at Stratford in 1629 and died in 
1/67, aged 137 jears and about fifteen days. 

Annesiey, Samuel, nonconformist, Hareley, 1620. 

Arden, Edward, catholic, executed for a plot against Eliza- 
beth in 1583, P&rkhall, 1532. 

Bird, John, Bishop of Bangor and Chester^ Coventry (died 

10«X)}a 

Bishop, William, first Romish prelate after the Reformation, 
1553. 

Boulton, Matthew, engineer, improver of 6team*engines, &g. 
Birmingham, 1728 (died 1S09). 

Brent, Sir Nathaniel, learned lawyer, Little Woolford, 1573. 

Byfield, Nicholas, puritanical writer on divinity (died 162E2). 

Carte, Samuel, divine and antiquary, Coventry, 1652 or 1653 
(died 1740). 

Thomas, son of Samuel, divine, the eminent historian, 

Clifton or Dunsmore, 1686. 

Cave, Edward, printer, projector of the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, Newton, 1691 (died 1754). 

Chetwynd, Walter, antiquary, &c. 

Claridge, Richard, writer among the society of friends, Fam- 
borough, 1649. 

Clarke, Samuel, industrious writer and ingenious compiler, 
one of the 2,000 ejected ministers, Woolston, 1599 (died 
1682). 

Gopton, Sir Hugh, Lord Mayor of London in 1491, Strat- 
ford. 

Cockaine, Sir William, Lord Mayor of London in 1619, 
Baddesley. 

Compton, Henry, Bishop of London, friend of Protestant- 
ism, suspended by James II. Compton Wynyate, 1632 
(died 1713). 

Coppe, Abiezer, successively presbyterian, anabaptist, and 
most wild enthusiast, Warwick, 1619. 

Coventry, Vincent de, learned Franciscan and author, Co- 
ventry (flourished 1250). 



BMINENT NATIVJ58. 25 

Coventry Walter de, benedictine, historian, Warwick (flou- 
rished 1217). 

WiUiam de, carmelite, author, Coventry (flor. 1360). 

Crawford, James, eminent divine, Coventry (died 1657). 
Croft, William, eminent musician. Nether Eatington, 1657 

(died 1727). 
Davenport, Christopher, popish chaplain to Queen Henrietta 

Maria, Coventry, 1598. 
-^ John, brother to preceding, nonconformist divine, 

Coventry, 1597- 
Diffby, John, first Earl of Bristol, distinguished ambassador 

and poet, Coleshill, 1580 (died 1653). 
Drax, Thomas, pious and excellent preacher, Stoneleigfa 

(died about 1616). 
Drayton, Michael, poet, author of the ** Polyolbion,'* a 

poetical description of the several counties of England, 

HartehiU, 1563 (died 1631). 
DuGDALE, Sir William, herald, historian, and antiquary, 

Shustoke, 1605 ^died 1686). 
Green, Thomas, actor, who introduced Shakspeare to the 

London stage in 1586, Stratford. 
Valentine, mezzotinto engraver, topographer, and an- 
tiquary, 1739 (died 1813). ^ . ^ 
Oreville, Fulke, Lord Brooke, courtier, poet, and patron of 

learning, Beaiwhamp Court, 1554 (died 1628). 
Grew, Obadiah, presbyterian, opposed the deatii of (..harles L 

Coventry, IW (died 1689). . .. . 
Neheroiah, son of preceding, vegetable anatomist and 

physiologist, and physician, Atherstone, 1628 (died 1711). 
Hannan, ». Vesey. , , ^ , *,. ,,. ^ 

Harrington, John Lord, pious scholar, Combe Abbey (died 

1614). . „ . 

Hill, WiUiAm^annotator on Dio^y8lfl8 Periegetes, Cudworth, 

1691. . . ^ 

Hinckley, John, at first a pantan, but anerwards became 

less strict, C^ton, 1617. 
Holy4>ake, Frauds, divine, lexicographer and loyalist, Nether 

Whitacre, 1567 (died 1653). ^ 
Dr. Thomas, son of precedinff, divme, loyalist, author 

of a latin dictionarv, Southam, 1616 (died 1675). 
jairo, Richard, amiable divine and pleasing poet, vicar of 

Snitterfield, Beaudesert, 1715 (died 1781). 



26 COUNTY HISTORY — WARWICK8H1RB. 

Jolepe, Mr. benefactor to his native town, Stratford (temp ' • 

Henry VI.) 
Johnson, Samuel, very learned but eccentric, proud, violent, 

and troublesome divine, and most furious enemy to the 

catholics ; a man of undaunted couraee, ?reat obstinacy, 

and unwearied industij, but ill-used, 1649. 
Killinfifworth, John de, father of the astronomers of his age, 

KilUnirworth (flourished 1360). 
Lench, William, benefactor to his native town of Birming^- 

ham, temp. Henry VIII. 
Maklesfield, William, general of the order of dominicans, 

Coventry (flourished in the be^nning of the 14th century). 
Oken, Thomas, benefactor to his native town, &c. Warwick 

(died 1572). 
Olney, Sir John, Lord Mayor of London in 1446, Coventry. 
Overbury, Sir Thomas, courtier, scholar, and miscellaneous 

writer, Compton Scorfen,* 1581 (poisoned by his wife to 

become Cou ntess of Somerset, 1613). 
Palmer, Julius, burnt at Newbury, Coventry. 
Perkins, William, whose writing-s in favour of Calvinism led 

to the assembling' of the Synod of Dordt, Marston, 155B 

(died 1602). 
Plantagenet, Edward, the last heir male of his royal race, 

Warwick Castle (beheaded 1499). 
Rogers, Daniel, diplomatist, statesman, and poet, Aston, 

1540 (died 1590). 

Thomas, divine and author, Bishop's Hampton, 1660. 

Rouse, John, the Warwickshire antiquary, Warwick (died 

1491). 
Shakspbarb, William, founder of the English drama, 

and the most exalted name in its history, Stratford, 1564 

(died 1616). 
Sheriff, Laurence, founder of Rugby free grammar school, 

Brownsover. 
Shotteswell, John, Prior of Coventry from 1453 to 1460» 

Shotswell. 
Smallbroke, Richard, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry^ 

learned and zealous, Birmingham, 1672 (died 1749). 

* Anthony Wood and others. Bigland claims him for Bonr- 
ton-on-the-Hill, co. Gloucester. He was educated in the neigh^ 
bourhood of Compton. 



EMINENT NATIVES. 27 

Smart, Peter, divine, conspicuous opposer of Church cere- 
monies (died 1642). 

Smith, John, divine, 1563. 

Somervile, William, author of "The Chace,*' a poem, Ed- 
ston, 1692 (died 1742). 

Southern, Thomas, very pleasing dramatic writer, Stratford- 
upon-Avon*, about 1660 (died 1746). 

Stratford, John de. Archbishop of Canterbury, Stratford 
(died 1348). 

Robert de. Bishop of Chichester, brother of the pre- 
ceding, Stratford (died 1362). 

Ralph, Bishop of London, nephew of the preceding, 

Stratford (died 1354). 

Tipper, John, author of the ** Lady's Diary," an almanac, 
Coventry (died 1713). 

Vesey, or Harman, John Bishop of Exeter, Sutton Coldfield 
(died 1555, aged 103). 

Wagstaffe, Thomas, bishop among the nonjurors, author of 
" Vindication of Charles T. and his right to the *£ikon 
Basilike'," 1645 (died 1712). 

Wanlev, Humphrey, antiquary, Coventry, 1671-2 (died 

Whalley, Peter, divine, critic, and historian of Northamp- 
tonshire, Rugby, 1722 (died 1791). 

Willughbey, Francis, naturalist and intimate friend of Ray, 
1635 (died 1672).t 

Wolstan, Saint, Bishop of Worcester, Itchington (ob. 1095). 

* Anthony Wood. Gibber, in the Lives of the Poets assigns 
liim to Ireland. 
f By some authors placed under Lincolnshire. 



28 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

At Arburt Hall, in the dining^-room, is the top of a sar- 
cophagus, brought from Rome bj Sir Roger Newdlgate, on 
which 16 sculptured the marriage of Baochufi and Ariadne. 
The cieling of the saloon is worked in imitation of that of 
Henry VIIth*B chapel at Westminster. In a room adjoining 
the saloon is the well-known picture, engraved in Dugdale, 
commemorating the achievements of Sir John Astley, who 
lived in the 15th oentury^r—Here died, in 1806, aged 86, Sir 
Roger Newdigate, the founder of the Newdigate prize poem 
at Oxford. 

At AsTLBT Castle resided the turbulent and factious 
Henry Duke of Suffolk, father of Lady Jane Grey, who is 
said by Dugdale to have been betrayed from his hiding- 
place here in a large hollow tree by his park-keeper. la 
the hall are shewn a heavy inlaid table, and a rude and cum- 
brous chair, as having belonged to the Duke. 

At Babton-on-the-Hbath resided Robert Dover, an 
attorney, who was remarkable for having tried only two 
causes in the course of his life, and who instituted the Cots- 
wold Games in 1600. — Near this place is a atone called 
<^ The Fourshire Stone," diriding the counties of Glouces- 
ter, Worcester, Warwick, and Oxford. 

BiDFORD afforded a frequent convivial retreat to the poet 
Shakspeare. 

At BiLTON Hall resided the poet Addison, who purchased 
it as a lure to the Countess of Warwick, to whom he was 
then paying his court. The furniture used by Addison re- 
mained till about 12 years since, when it was sold by auction ; 
but the pictures, in a great measure selected by his judgment, 
or procured as a tribute to his feelings, yet ornament the 



HI8CBLLANE0US OBSERVATIONS. 29 

vralls, and occupy precisely the same stations as when he was 
wont to pause and admire them. Seldom has the residence 
of a poet had the fortune to be so preserved for the gratifi- 
cation of posterity. There are several &mily portraits. 

At Birmingham resided the celebrated Dr. Priestley, 
whose house, &c. was destroyed in 1791, and Dr. Ash, the 
eminent physician, whose house was afterwards converted 
into a chapel. — ^Here Baskerville, originally a stone-cutter, 
in 17d6 had a printing office, and contributed much to 
elegance in the art. His first attempt was a 4to edition of 
Virgil. — ^In St Paul's Chapel is a beautiful painted window 
by Francis £ginton, of the Conversion of St. Paul. It cost 
four hundred guineas. — In the Workhouse died in 1831, 
aged 87, Richard Steynor, son of Robert Steynor, esq. who 
was nephew and heir of Sir Richard Steynor, distinguished 
for his defeat of the Spanish Hate Fleet off Cadiz, and for 
leading the van of the fleet under Admiral Blake when the 
Spanish galleons were destroyed in the harbour of Santa 
Cru£. A law-suit with the Droitwich Salt Company about 
the right of sinking for a salt spring on his own freehold 
estate mined tiie said Steynor. — In the Dudley Street alms- 
houses died in 1829, Hannah Harrison, aged 102. 

Blacklow Hill is rend^ed memorable by the summary 
execution of Piers Gaveston, which is recorded by aa antient 
inscription on a part of the rodty Mil, and a stone cross 
erected on the spot a few years since by the late Mr. Great- 
heed. 

At Brinklow the fiimily of Rouse the antiquary long 
resided. 

In Caldecotb Church is the monument of Mr. Abbott, 
who defended Caldecote Hall in 16^, and died in 1648. 

Cavb^a Inn, on the Watling Street, otherwise Caves-in- 
the-Hole, so termed from its low situation, was kept by the 
family of Cave for several generations. Its site was for- 
Dierly ocoupitd by Hidlywell Priory. 



90 COUNTT HI8T0ET— WARWICK8H1EB. 

Charlbcote will be viewed with considerable interest as 
the residence of Sir Thomas Lucy, the presumed prototype 
of Shakspeare's '< Justice Shallow/*— In the Church, among 
others of the family, are interred the immortalized Sir Tho- 
mas and his lady, who died, the former in 1600, and the 
latter in 1595. 

At Chbstbrton is a large stone windmill, with a leaden 
revolving dome, erected in 1632 by Sir Edward Peyto, from 
a design by Inigo Jones. It is a novel piece of machinery. 

At Clopton House is a bed said to have been given to 
Sir H. Clopton by Henry VII. 

At CoLBSHiLL was bom John Digby, the first Earl of 
Bristol ; and here occasionally resided . George the second 
Earl, of eccentric character, but distinguished as a soldier, 
an orator, and a writer, who died in 1676. 

CoMBB Abbey is particularly rich in portraits of the 
Stuart family ; among which, in the great gallery, is one of 
Charles II. at the age of fourteen, in armour richly studded 
with gold. The breakfast-room was fitted up for the recep- 
tion of Princess Elizabeth, afterwards Queen of Bohemia, 
who bequeathed to the Earl of Craven her pictures, forming 
a large portion of the fine collection now at this bouse. 
In the north parlour are the . portraits of Frederick V. of 
Bohemia; his Queen Elizabeth, by Honthorst; and the he- 
roic James Duke of Richmond, by Vandyck, several .of 
whose pieces are in the Vandyck room. In the yellow 
drawing room is a portrait of the celebrated Duchess of 
Cleveland, by Lely ; and a representation of Christ and St, 
John, in a landscape, by Rubens. In the Beauty parlour 
are twenty-two portraits of ladies of the time of Charles II. 

Coventry was frequently visited by the plague in the 

16th and 17th centuries.— July 22, 1750, "was seen in the 

ir, moving fi-om the west to east, a body of fire about 20 

inches round, and in its motion had a luminous tail about 

two yards long.'' — ^This city is sud to have been made toll- 



MI6CBLLAKEOU8 OBBERYATIONS. 31 

free by Leofric, founder of the abbey, upon the riding of hia 
Countess Godiva, in a state of nudity, on horseback through 
the public streets. This transaction, to perpetuate the re- 
membrance of which an offensive procession is still annually 
made, has been proved by Dr. Pegge to be an idle tradition . 
At the window of one of the houses is a statue of Peeping 
Tom, a conspicuous character in this gross legendary his- 
tory. — In Trinity Church is an interesting monument to Phi- 
lemon Holland, the translator, who prided himself on writing 
a folio volume with one pen, and died in 1636. Of this pa- 
rish was Vicar, Nathaniel Wanley, the lather of the anti- 
quary.— Of St. MichaeFs was Vicar, Dr. Grew, father of the 
philosopher.— At the Free School was educated Sir William 
Dugdale, the historian and antiquary. The present school- 
room is part of the chapel of St. John's hospital, and the 
school forms are the original seats from the choir of the 
White Friars' church. 

Of ExHALL Dr. Thomas, the continuator of Dugdale's 
"Antiquities," was Vicar for several years. The Doctor 
resided at Atherstone-upon-Stour. 

FuLBROKE Park is said to have been the scene of that me- 
morable deer-stealing indiscretion which caused '' The Bard 
of Avon" to fly his native county. 

At Grendon Hall the elegant seat of Sir George Chet- 
wynd, Bart., is an extensive collection of paintings, coins, 
and medals. A catalogue of the provincial copper coins, 
tokens, tickets, and medalets, issued in Great Britain, Ire- 
land, and the Colonies, during the 18th and 19th centuries, 
of which specimens are in Sir George's collection, has been 
made by Mr. Thomas Sharp, author of a *' Dissertation on 
the Coventry Mysteries," and privately printed as a hand- 
some quarto volume in 1834. To the good taste and libe- 
rality of this munificent and exemplary Baronet the church 
is indebted for its restoration. 

Of Guy's Cliff's chantry, Rous the antiquary was 



32 COUNTY HISTOEY^VARWICKSHIRE. 

priest. Here was interred Guy Earl of Warwick. Henry 
V. visited it ; and Shakspeare is supposed to have made it » 
favourite retirement. Here is an antient statue of Guy. 

Hatton Parsona^e*hou8e acquires considerable interest 
from having been the residence of Dr. Samubl Paur, poli- 
tician and dassic, who much beautified the Church, and died 
here in 1825, aged 79, after serving its cure for a period of 
forty years* 

At Kniohtlow Cross, in the hollow of a stone (the place 
wherdn the shaft was fixed) certain payments from thirty- 
five various places in the hundred of Knightlow to the lord 
of the manor, called "wrath money,'' are obliged to be made 
before sunrise on Martinmas day, or a forfeiture of thirty 
shillings and a white bull is incurred. 

At Maxstokb Castle are some gates, in excellent oondi* 
tion, put up by Humphrey Duke of Buckingham in the 
time of Henry VI. 

At Nb WNH AM Paddox, the seat of the Fieldings Earls 
of Denbigh, is preserved the dagger with which VilUers 
Duke of Buckingham was assassinated. It was brought 
from Southwick near Portsmouth in 1628, by Firebrace, the 
Duke's valet, to Lady Susannah, the Duke*s sister, who mar- 
ried the first Earl of Denbigh. The inner sides of the bladeb 
and handle are flat, and move on two small pivots, which 
give firmness to the gripe when opened. 

The furniture of Newnham Rbois Church was remark- 
ably handsome ; and on the walls were punted, in fresco, 
the offerings of the wise men ; the taking of the Saviour 
from the Cross ; and full proportions of the four Evange- 
lists. 

At Radway is cut on the side of a hill the figure of a 
horse, called from the tint of the soil, the Red Horse. It is 
rudely designed, and is trivial when compared to the White 
Horse of Berkshire. It was cut in commemoration of the 



mSCBLLANEOUS OMBRYATIONS. 3S 

gallant oonduet of Richard Nevile, Earl of Warwick, at the 
battle of Towton. 

In RuoBY Church-yard are buried several of the family 
of Gave, among whom is Joseph, the father of Edward, the 
projector of the Gentleman's Magazine, a periodical which, 
having materially contributed to the advancement of literary 
and scientific pursuits, and especially to those important 
branches, History, general and local, and Biography, for the 
unequalled duration of a century, continues still to instruct, 
amuse, and direct one of the most numerous, respectable, 
and useful sections of the reading public. Over the remains 
of the parent is an inscription, by Dr. Hawkesworth, to him 
and to his Son. — Among a host of worthies in every depart- 
ment of literature and science, who have been educated at 
the Free Grammar School appear the names of Edward 
Cave; William Bray, historian of Surrey, who for some pe- 
riod before his death in 1832, at the age of 96, was the oldest 
living Rugbeian; Sir Ralph Abercromby, the hero of 
Egypt; Sir Henry Halford," physician; Dr. Butler, the 
learned editor of ^chylus ; the schoolmasters Drs. William 
and John Sleath ; and Parkhurst the lexicographer. 

At Shottert a cottage is yet shown as the identical 
tenement in which Anne Hathaway resided when Shakspeare 
*' won her to his love." It contained several articles said to 
have belonged to tbe poet, but none remain. 

In Shustoke Church lie the remains of Sir William 
Dugdale, the antiquary, and his lady; and their son Sir 
John. Sir William resided at Blythe Hall, and died thete in 
1685. 

In Stoneleioh Church are several monuments to the 
Leigh family, among which is one to Alice Duchess Dudley 
and her daughter. 

At Stratpord-on-Ayon the Bishops of Worcester had 
a park. — In the 36th and 37th years of Queen Elizabeth 
this town experienced two dreadful fires ; and a third on 



34 COUNTT HI8T0ET — WARWICKSHIRE. 

the 9th of July, in the year 1614. — ^This place has witnessed 
throngs of visitors anxious to tread the ground which Shak- 
speare's feet had pressed in boyhood and in retirement, and 
to contemplate the spot hallowed by his ashes. A festival in 
honour of the bard was instituted by Mr. Garrick in 1769, 
and termed the jubilee. The house of his birth is situate in 
Henley-street ; and his eariy education was probably received 
in the Grammar School. I^ew Place was his after residence, 
where the "Tempest" and "Twelfth-Night" are supposed to 
have been written, and where he died April 23, 1616, on his 
52d birth-day. l^he Mulberry-tree planted by him was cut 
down and used as firewood in 1756 by the Rev. F. Gastrell, 
the then owner of the spot. In front of the Town-ball is a 
bust of this great limner of the human mind, and within a 
portrait given by Garrick. The bust in the Church, fa- 
miliar to all from repeated engravings, is the best accredited 
likeness. Besides the monument of Shakspeare, the Church 
abounds with fine monuments. 

Of Sutton Coldfield Free School, Laurence Noel, 
whom Camden celebrates for his learning, was the first Mas- 
ter, but through persecution held it only a year. 

In Warwick Castle, in the cedar drawing-room, is a half- 
length of Charles I. and several other portraits, by Vandyck ; 
and Ignatius Loyola, by Rubens. The state bed-chamber is 
hung with curious tapestry made at Brussels in 1604; the 
costly bed furniture belonged to Queen Anne. In a gallery 
leading to the chapel is a large picture of Charles I. on 
horseback, attended by his helmet bearer. In a green-house 
is a very large alabaster antique bacchanalian vase, presented 
to the Earl of Warwick by Sir William Hamilton; a 
bronze copy of which, the size of the original, was cle- 
verly executed by Mr. Thomason of Birmingham. In the 
porter's lodge at the entrance to the castle are a sword, shield, 
helmet, attributed to the Champion Guy. — In St. Mary's 
Church are many beautiful monuments. In the Beauchamp 



' MI8CBLLANE0UA OBSBRVATIONS. 35 

Chapel was buried Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Eliza- 
beth's unpriDcipled and ambitious favourite, 1588; and in 
the Chapter House, Fulke Lord Brooke, the friend of Sir 
Philip Sydney, who repaired the Castle, resided there, and 
was assassinated in 1628. In the chapel of Our Lady, the 
altar screen of which is enriched with a basso-relievo of 
the Annunciation of the Virgin, is the monument of the 
founder, who died in 1439, inferior only to that of Henry 
VII. in his chapel at Westminster. Behind the altar is a 
liarrow apartment, called the library of Rous the antiquary. 
In the Church ^ere also buried John Rous, the antiquary ; 
and Thomas Cartwrig-ht, whom Camden calls " inter Puri- 
tanos antesignanus,'' and whom the then Earl of Leicester 
thought it good policy to court. 

The founder of Weston House was William Sheldon, 
the encourager of tapestry weaving when first introduced 
into England. Under his direction were woven a curious 
series of maps, consisting of three large pieces, nearly SO feet 
square, whkh were purchased in 1781 by Horace Walpole, 
and are now, by the will of the celebrated antiquary Richard 
Gough, in the Bodleian Library. 



36 



List of H^orki consulted. 

\ . The antiquities of Warwicksliire. By William Dugdale.-^foIicTt 
1656\ Second Edition* by Rer. William Thomaa. — S vols, folio, 
1780. 

9. Beaaties of England and Wales : Warwickihire.— 8vo. 

8. A new and compendious History of the Goonty of Warwick. By 
William Smith, F.R.S.A.--4to, 1830, 

4. An historical and descriptive account of the Town and Castle of 
Warwick.— 8 vo, 1815. 

5. An epitome of the County of Warwick, containing a brief histo- 
rical and descriptive account of the towns» villages, and parishes. 
By Thomas Sharp.— 8vo, 1835. 

e. The history and antiquities of the^ City of Coventry. — 18mO| 
1810. 

7. An history of Birmingham. By W. Hutton, F.A.S.S.--4th 
edit. 8vo, 1809. 

8. History and antiquities of Stratford-upon-Avon. By R. B. 
Wheler.— 8vo, 1806. 

9. Manduessedum Romanonim ; being the history and antiquities 
of the parish of Manceter. By the late Benjamin Bartlett, esq. 
F.A.S.— 4to, 1791. 

10. A concise history and description of Kenilworth Castle. — limo. 



CHESTER CIRCUIT. 



[The Counties comprised in this Circuit are, CHESHIRE, 
FLINTSHIRE, MONTGOMERYSHIRE, and DEN- 
BIGHSHIRE; but the three latter Counties being all 
within the Principality of WALES, the County of Chester 
alone comes within the present arrangement.] 



**5 



*i'v-r » 






n 




'1 .i-ii/^^rksi If 




CHESHIRE. 



SITUATION AND laTKKT, 

, Boundaries. North, the rivera M<{r^y and Tame, divid- 
ing it from Lancashire) and* York^ire ; £g8t, Derbyshire 
and Stafibrdshire; South» Shropshire and Flintshire; 
West, DenUgh^hire^ FHntshir^, and the Irish Sea^ 

Greatest length, 58; breudtk, 30; cifffiiimftrenee, 200; 
square t 1052 miles ; statute acres,, 673*280^ 

Province, York, to which it; was transferred from Canter- 
bury in th« 33d of Henry VIH, Dioeese, Chester. 
There is an Archdeaconry of Chester with Deaneries of 
Chester, Frodsham, Macclesfield, Malpas, Middlewich, 
. Nantwich, and Wirral, 

Circuity Chester. 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 

British Inhabitants i Comavii or Carnalni, whose chief city 
was Condate. Cities or Towns^ Kinderton; Tunsted 
Hill. Encampments^ Bucton Castle, on the edge of 
Yorkshire ; Kellsborrow» near Kelsal, in Delamere, 300 
yards in diameter; Maiden Castle, near Barnhill. 
Earthworks^ Dunham Massey, barrow ; Twemlow, five 
tumuli. Remains discovered^ Kellsborrow, celt of brass 
in 1810. 

Roman Province, Britannia Superior* afterwards Flavia 
Cffisariensis. Stations, Condate, Kinderton ; Deva, Ches- 
ter, the head quarters of the 20th legion styled " Valens 
Victrix;'* Salinis, Nantwich. EncampmentSy EccleBton 
Hill; Shocklach. Earthworks, Tarporley, tumulus; 
Tiverton, tumulus. Remains discovered, Bickerton, coins ; 
Bickley, a decree of the Emperor Trajan, on two tablets 
of copper, in 1812 ; Birtles, urn ; Bradwall, near Kin- 
derton, on the line of the supposed Roman road from Kin- 
derton to Chesterton, 500 brass denarii, ranging from 
Claudius IL to Diocletian, in 1820 ; Burton Hill, coins ; 
Butley, urns ; Chester, in a cave on the west side of the 
bridge a statue of Pallas in her warlike dress ; many in- 
scribed altars, baths, hypocausts, pavements, &c. ; Rainow, 
urns ; Stretton, coins. Roads, from Buxton to Stock- 
port; from Chesterton to Warrington; Via Devana, 
from Colchester to Chester, passing through Bunbury 
and under the rock of Beeston ; from Kinderton to 



AJVTIENT 8TATB AND RBMAINfi. 3 

WroxetdT, to Rainow, and to Stockport ; High, Pepper, 
and Staley Streets, all meeting at Macclesfield ; Northern 
Watling Street, or Via Ouethelinga, from Stretford by 
Northwich to Chester, and communicating with the South- 
em Watling Street by the road from Wroxeter to Chester, 
whose entire line in this county is eontained within the 
hundred of Broxton ; and one supposed from Kinderton 
to Chesterton. 

Saxon Octarchy^ Merda. Encampments, fidisbury, formed 
by Ethelfieda in 915, 250 yards in breadth, 400 in length, 
and contains eleven acres ; Runcorn, traces of Ethelfleda's 
works near the Castle Rock. 

Abb^M. Chester, founded in the time of Athelstan, re- 
founded by Hugh Lupus, second £arl of Chester, in 1093, 
afterwards converted into a cathedral ; Combermere, ante 
1 1 30, by Hugh de Maubanc, lord of Nantwich ; Dernhal], 
in 1273, by Edward son of Henry III. removed to Vale 
Royal in 12S1 ; Pulton, in 1153 or 1158, by Robert 
Pincema, butler to the Earl of Chester, removed to Dieu- 
lacres in Staffordshire, in 1220; Stanlaw, in 1178, by 
John 6th baron of Halton^ and Constable of Chester, 
removed to Whalley ; Vale Royal, removed hither from 
Demhallin 128K 

Cathedral, Chester, so constituted by Henry VIII. on the 
dissolution of the abbey. St. John's Church in Chester 
was the cathedral of the diocese of Lichfield for some years 
after 1075, and all the Bishops of Lichfield until the sepa- 
ration of the diocese, occasionally used the style of Epis- 
copus Cestrensis.'' 

Priories* Birkenhead, founded by Hamon de Masci, about 
1150, interesting remains in the refectory, dormitory, &c. 



4 COUNTY HISTOBT^CHSSHIRB. 

Bromborougfh» by Elfleda about 902; Chester, St. Miobaei, 
burnt in 1118; Mobberley, about 1206, by Patrick 
de Mobberley ; Norton, removed from Runcorn by Wil- 
liam third Baron of Halton, Constable of Cheshire, in the 
reign of Stephen ; Nantwich, cell to Combermere ; Run- 
corn, by William Fitz Nigel, in 1133; Warburton, ante 
Henry II. became merged in Coekersand in Lancashire. 

Gunneries. Chester, St. Werburgh, founded by Wulpherus 
King of Mercia, in 660 or 675, afterwards an abbey, and 
now a cathedral ; another dedicated to St. Mary, before 
the Domesday survey. 

Friaries. Chester, Orey, settled here as early as the time of 
. Henry III. ; Black, ante temp. Edward i. ; White, esta- 
blished in 1279> by Thomas Stadham. 

Preeepiory, Barrow. 

Colleges. Bunbifry, erected by Sir Hughde Calvely in 
1386. Chester, St. John Baptist, by King Ethelred in 
G89, on being exhorted by a vision to build it on the spot 
where he should find a wlute hind. (See CaiAedralJ 

Hospitals. Bebbington. Boughton, as early as temp. £2d> 
ward II. Chester, St. Giles, by Handle Blundeville, Earl 
of Chester, destroyed in the siege 1645; St. John, ante 15 
Edward III., by Randle Duke of Brittany. Denwall. 
Nantwich, St. Lawrence, for lepers. Tarvin. Wybim- 
bury. 

Churches, Acton ; Alderley, pointed arches from octangu- 
lar pillars; Astbury, fine specimen of the 14th century, 
handsome spire; Audlem; Bachford; Bebbington,. 
curious for the union of styles, part of the nave Nonnan ; 



ANTIBNT 8TATB AND REMAIira. 

Birkenhead ; Bowden ; Bromborough, Norman remains ; 
Bruera, or Church-en-Heath ; Budworth ; Bunbury, 
built by Sir Hugh Cakeley, 1386, the chancel the only 
part remaining of the original church ; Chester » St. John 
Baptist, specimen of Norman architecture, and the cylin- 
drical pillars are five feet six inches in diameter ; Cod- 
dington, with pointed arches and cylindrical columns; 
Pavenham» fine spire ; Frodsham, Norman ; Ince, Nor* 
man remains; Lawton, Norman remains ; Macclesfield, 
handsome tower with a figure of Edward I. by whom the 
church was founded in 1278 ; Malpas ; Marton ; Mid- 
dlewicb, with pillars octagonal and cylindrical with orna- 
mented capitals and lancet arches; Mottram, erected 
about 1487; Nantwich, fine specimen of the 14th cent.; 
Nether Bebington, a range of massive semicircular arches 
dividing the nave from the south aisle ; Northenden ; 
Prestbury, a small Norman church on the south side of 
the parish church, the most curious architectural specimen 
in the county, now used as a school ; Rostherne ; Run- 
corn, some curious early pointed specimens ; Sandbacb ; 
Shocklach, enriched semicircular doorway on south side ; 
Stoke, Norman remains; Tarvin, enriched poitited; 
Tarporley; Thurstaston; Wallasey; Wilmslow. 

Ckapeh. Chester, St Mary, erected 12th century ; Mar- 
ton : Siddington : Wervin, now used as a cattle-shed. 

Stwie Pulpit. Nantwich, of the l4th century. 

Fonts. Alderley, of stone, in the church-yard, dug up a few 
years ago; Sandbacb; Shocklach; Stoke, Saxon; 
Tilston; and Wybunbury. 

Casties. Aldford, probably erected temp. Henry II. by Ro- 
bert de Aldford ; Beeston, by Randle BlundevUle^ £axl 



6 COUNTY HIStOET^HBSHIRB. 

of Chester in 1220, proverbial for its great strength, some 
towers and walls remain ; Castle Northwich, destroyed 
temp. Richard I. ; Chester, by Hugh Lupus, Earl of 
Chester, nephew of William I. ; Dodleston, belonged to 
the Boydells; Dunham Massey ; Frodsham; Halton, 
bj Nig^el first Baron of Halton, Constable of Chester, 
some slight remains on the side of the hill nearest the 
Mersey; Hawarden; Holt; Kinderton; Macclesfield; 
Malpas, by Hugh Lupus, first Earl of Chester ; Mold; 
Newhall, by one of the Barons of Kinderton ; Nant- 
wich, by William Maldebeng, its Norman Baron, before 
1093; Oldcastle; Poulton-Lancelyn ; Pulford, before 
the time of Henry III. ; Runcorn, by " that magnani- 
mous virago" Ethelfleda in 916; Shipbrook; Shock- 
lach ; Shotwick ; Ullersford, 

Alansions. This county presents a goodly number of spe- 
cimens of domestic architecture. Some few of the old halls 
and mansions are nearly perfect, and many exhibit very 
striking examples of the peculiarities of their respective 
periods. The most curious are, — Arley, of wood and 
plaister, since cased with stone ; Baggilegh, a fine speci- 
men of a great hall ; Bramhall, an unrivalled specimen 
of timber building in the 16th century ; Brereton, built 
in 1586 by the Breretons ; Broxton Lower Hall ; Car- 
den Hall, a very perfect specimen of the timber buildings 
of this county ; Chorley Hall, one part a specimen of the 
wood and plaister style, the other of stone with pointed 
arch doorways ; Cotton Abbot's Hall, used as a farm- 
house ; Crewe Hall, by Sir Randle Crewe in the 17th 
century, an interesting specimen of the style prevalent at 
the revival of classic architecture in England ; Dodding- 
ton, a fortified mansion built by Sir John Delves in 1364, 
fiome remains ; Dutton Hall, built by Sir Peyrs Dutton 
and his wife Dame Julian, 1513; Grafton Hall, by Sir 



ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. 7 

Peter Warburton, temp. James I. ; Hapsford Hall, pictu* 
resque old timber house ; Handley, occupied aJB a farm* 
house; Harden Hall, built in 1558; Little Moreton, 
16th century, only exceeded by Bramhall ; Lymme Hall, 
partially moated ; Marple Hall ; Merton Grange, 17th 
century, of wood and plaister, moated; Poole Hall, vene- 
rable specimen of domestic architecture ; Saighton Grang^e, 
built 1489 by Abbot Ripley, the great entrance nearly 
perfect ; Sutton Hall, used as a farm-house, curious hall ; 
Toft Hall; Vale Royal, built by the Holcrofts, temp. 
Elizabeth, raised on the ruins of the abbey.* 

Crosses. Churton ; Lyme Park, a rude double cross called 
the Bowstone ; ,Mottram ; Sandbach, two, Saxon, in 
the market-place, restored by Dr. Ormerod ; Whaley. 

* It may be interesting here to notice that the halls of Mere, 
Cranage, and Eaton near Congleton, have been rebuilt in the style 
of Crewe Hall ; and Eaton Hall and Cholmondeley Castle, in the 
gothic style. Doddington, Hooton, Oulton, Lyme, Tablcy, and 
Tatton, are noble and spacious mansions of Grecian architecture* 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 

Rivers, All the waters of this county are conveyed to the 
Irish Sea by the Dee or the Mersey. Ashbrook ; Betley, 
tributary toUie Weever; Biddle; Bh*kin ; Bollin, rises 
near the Dane, joins the Mersey at Rixton, a course of 
twenty miles ; Combrus, from Combermere to the Weever ; 
Croco ; Dane, rises in Macclesfield Forest, Mh into the 
Weever at Northwicb, a course of 22 miles ; Dee, bound- 
ary on the west, enters from Shropshire and goes to Ches- 
ter ; Etherow ; Flookersbrook, rising close to Chester • 
Goit, rises in Macclesfield Forest, joins the Mersey near 
Goithall, a course of nine miles ; Gowy, rises near Bun- 
bury ; Grimsditch ; Mar ; Mersey, rises at Woodhead, 
where Yorkshire, Cheshire, and Derbyshire join, receives 
the Bollin, Gles, Goit, Gowy, Grimsditch, Irwell, Tame, 
and Weever, and goes with a course of about 70 miles to 
the Irish Sea ; Peover, has two sources at Macclesfield 
and Gawsworth, falls into the Weever at Northwich ; 
Tame, boundary from Lancashire, from Micklehurst to 
Stayly Hall, its whole course ten miles ; Walwarn ; Wee- 
ver, from Shropshire, crosses the middle of the county, 
receives eight streams, and joins the Mersey at Weston 
Point nearFrodsham, narrow, deep, and slow; and Whee- 
lock, rises from three small rivers near Mowcop Hills, falls 
into the Dane at Croxton. 

Inland JVavigation. Ash ton Canal to Peak Forest junction, 
rises 163ft. Gin. Ash ton and Peak Forest junction, above 
the sea 320ft. 7in. Bridgewater Canal, formed in 1761 to 



FRfiSENT 8TATB AND APPEARANCE. V 

. 1776, enters near Asfaton-on-the-Mersey, gpoes to Run- 
corn, where it joins the Mersey, falls 93ft. 4iD. €ana^ 
from the Weir at Frodsfaam to Weston Point ; Chester 
and Nantwicb Canal, completed in 1778, from the Dee 
to Nantwicb. Dee River, from Chester to the Sea. Ellles- 
mere Canal, from Whitchurch in Shropshire to the last 
mentioned canal at Harleston. Bllesmere and Chester 
Canal, nine miles, from Pulford to the Merse j, cut by Mr. 
Telford in 1806. Macclesfield Canal, near 30 miles in 
length, highest summit level 534ffc» 4in. falls at locks 113ft. 
9in. lowest level above tiie sea 420ft. 7in. at junction with 
Trent and Mersey falls 6in. opened for trade Nov. 9, 
1831, and connects the Peak Forest fttid Trent and Mersey 
Canals, joining the former near Marple and the latter 
near Church Lawton. Mersey River, from Liverpool to 
the mouth of the IrwelU Peak Forest Canal, began in 
1794, enters at Dockenfield, and leaves at Whaley Bridge, 
at the Marple junction rises 211ft. and above the sea 531ft. 
7in. Trent and M^sey or Grand Trunk Canal, from 
Preston Brook to Church Lawton, where it leaves the 
county, formed 1766, and has a fall of 326ft. 2in. and an 
ahitude above the sea of 93ft. 1 lin. Weever River, for 
20 miles, on which is more traffic than on any river of 
the size in England, the tolls on which are paid to County 
Commissioners, and applied to )*eduction of County Rates. 

LcUces, All Cheshire lakes are called Meres : the following 
are the most remarkable, — ^Arley ; Alderley or Radnor ; 
Bagmere; Bosley reservoir ; Budworth; Comberbach ; 
Combermere, a noble piece of winding water, nearly a 
mile in length ; Crewe Hail ; Delamere ; Doddington ; 
DarnalPool; Henbury; Oakhanger; Pickmere; Petty 
Pool; Rosthorne; Ridley Pool; Rode; Reeds; 
Poynton ; Tabley ; and Tatton. 



10 COUNTT HI8T0R7— €HE8HI]tS« 

Eminences and Ftews, Alderlej Edge, a singularly iiisa* 
lated hill similar to Beeston Rock ; a narrow defile leading 
by Alvanley to Frodsham presents a picture rarely sur** 
passed; Barnhill; Beeston Rocks, whence the Vale 
Royal is seen in all its far-&med beauty ; Bickerton Hill ; 
Bowden, from the church tower the views are extensive 
and beautifully picturesque ; Broxton, from the Higher 
Hall on the hill are extensive prospects, and the Lower 
Hall is most romantic ; Bucklow Hill ; Bucton Castle, 
magnificent prospects over Cheshire to the south-west and 
the Yorkshire Hills to the north-east ; Carden Hall com- 
mands the splendid scenery of Wales, &c. ; Cat Torr, a 
singular precipice ; at Chester, from the churchyard of 
St. John Baptist are extensive views, from the Bridge 
Gate is a fine one of the Dee, and from the top of the 
Wishing Steps at the tower the forest may be seen; 
the Cloud, a remarkable hill with a singularly bold ter- 
mination ; Duckinfield Lodge ; Dungeons, a romantic 
dingle; Dunham Massey, picturesque and grand; the 
grounds of Eaton Hall present many delightful and varied 
scenes ; Eccleston Hill, beautiful prospects into Shrop- 
shire and the vast environs of Wales and Cheshire ; Frod- 
sham Beacon Hill; Halton Castle, views particularly in- 
teresting, as are those from the rocks, enriched by the 
windings of the Mersey ; Harthill, eminently picturesque 
and beautiful ; Hellesby Torr ; Hooton, most delight- 
fully situated, and commanding a peculiarly beautiful view 
of the Forest Hills, the bend of the Mersey, &c. ; Kelsal 
Hill, in Delamere Forest; at Lymme is a vale of most 
exquisite beauty, the sides of which consist of rocks hung 
with oaks, and overhanging a succession of waterfalls; 
Mottram, scenery very grand ; Mowcop, extensive views 
from its majestic summit ; Oughtrington Hall ; Over- 
ton Scar ; Peckforton Hill ; Poynton, delightful pros- 
pects and rich scenery ; from Parkgate the view of the 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. II 

Welsh coast is very pleasing ; Prestbury, from the bank 
of the Bollin, which descends down a rich and beautiful 
valley from Macclesfield to Prestbury ; Rawhead ; Run- 
corn Beetle ; Rosthorne Mere, the banks command fine 
views of Alderley Edge and the Macclesfield Hills, but the 
general effect of the lake is gloomy ; Stayley Hall ; 
Shutingslow Hill ; Toft Hall, rich and extensive pros- 
pect over the Vale of Chester ; Utkinton House, delight- 
ful prospect of the Vale of Chester and the Welsh Hills ; 
Wirral affords many delightful marine views. 

JVaturai Curiosities. Audlem^ pn the Moss Hall estate^ a 
spring of water possessing medical properties similar to 
those at Harrogate ; Beeston Spa, similar to Tunbridge, 
but stronger ; Bostock Green, aged oak, marking the cen- 
tre of the county ; Bug Lawton, sulphur & saline springs ; 
Delamere, cathartic spring, to which at one time 2000 
people daily resorted ; Goosetree chapel-yard, yew-tree 
supposed to be one thousand years old, now gradually 
upon the decay, but measuring twelve yards in circum- 
ference ; Horseley, spring nearly equal to distilled water ; 
in Lyme Park is a herd of wild cattle, white with red 
ears, of the same breed as those in the Earl of Tanker^ 
ville's park at Chillingham in Northumberland ; Shaw's 
Heath, near Stockport, chalybeate spring; Spurstow, 
white water, discovered 1816. 

PubHc Edifices. Aldford, grammar school, erected by Earl 
Grosvenor. Bidston, light-house, erected 1762. Bowdon, 
grammar school. Chester, bridge over the Dee, of one 
arch of 230 feet span, being the largest stone arch ever 
built, and one of the last designs of Harrison, opened 1S32: 
old bridge, of 7 arches, one of the most antient and in- 
convenient in the kingdom : bridge gate, begun 1782: 
blue coat hospital, founded about 1700, at the suggestion 



12 COUNTY HI8TORT— CHBBHIRB. 

of Bishop Stratford, a handsome building of brick : blue 

gfirls* school, erected 1810 : castle, including a barracks, 

armoury for 35,000 stand, court of quarter sessions, a 

magnificent county hall, &c. a series of excellent buildings 

erected between 1788 and 1807 from designs by Harrison : 

city gaol and house of correction, built 1808*9, architect 

' Harrison: commercial hall, opened July 1815: county 

gaol : custom house : diocesan school, originated in Janu* 

ary 1812, under the patronage of Bishop Law : east gate, 

erected by Richard Lord Grosvenor in 1769: exchange, 

begun 1695, a handsome pile 126 feet long : free grammar 

school, founded by Henry VOL in the 36th year of 

his reign: free school, erected by Earl Grosvenor, now 

Marquis of Westminster, at an expense of £3,000: 

engine house, erected in 1680, by the Duke of Ormond, 

when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland : grand stand on the 

race course, erected by subscription in 1817 : hospital of 

St. Ursula, founded in 1532 by Sir Thomas Smith: house 

of industry, built by the corporation in 1757 : infirmary, 

erected in 1761 : Irish linen hall, built 1778, by the Irish 

merchants, and containing above 100 shops: Manchester 

hall: north gate, built 1810: theatre, built 1772-3: union 

hall for merchants, built 1809: the walls nearly two miles 

round, and broad enough at the top to admit of several 

persons walking abreast, of the towers the phcenix tower 

and water tower only remain : water gate, erected 1778. 

Congleton, guildhall, erected 1805 : house of industry. 

Dutton, viaduct of the Birmingham and Liverpool rail* 

way, consisting of numerous arches, a stupendous work 

estimated at £50,000, now erecting. Farndon, bridge of 

eight arches. Frodsham , bridge over the Weever, of stone : 

free school, about 1660. Knutsford, gaol, 1820. Lach- 

ford, bridge. Macclesfield, court-house : grammar school, 

founded by Sir John Percival, lord mayor of London, by 

will dated 1502. Malpas, grammar school, erected towards 



PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. 13 

the latter end of the 17th century hy subscription : hos- 
pital, founded by Sir Randle Brereton, of Shocklach, 
temp. Henry VIII. Marple, Peak Forest Canal aqueduct, 
over the river Goit, 100 feet high, built on three arches 
60 feet in span and 78 feet high. Nantwich, bridge over 
the Weever, built 1803: grammar school, founded in the 
time of Elizabeth, by John and Thomas Thrush; house 
of industry, built in 1780: market-house. Stockport, 
bridge over the Mersey, erected 1745, of one arch : dis- 
pensary, established in 1792: free school, founded by Sir 
Edmund Shaa or Shaw, alderman of London, in 1487: 
flunday schools, instituted in 1784: methodists' school, 
nobly supported. Wilmslow, house of industry, built 
about 1780. ^ ^ 

Caves. Overton Scar, long celebrated as the haunt of 
gypsies : Wallasey, called « the red noses." 

Seats, Dunham Massey, Eari of Stamford and Warrinff- 

ton, Lord Lieutenant of the Counfy, 
Abbeyfield, Colonel Ford. 
Adlinffton Hall, J. Cross Legh, esq. 
AWerley Hall, Sir J. T. Stanley, Bart. 
Aldersey Hall, Samuel Aldersey, esq. 
Arley Hall, R. E. E. Warburton, esq. 
Ashfield, Joseph Hayes L\on, esq. 
Ashley Hall, John Hill, esq. 
Ashton Heyes, Booth Grey, esq. 
Astle Hall, Henry Dixon, esq. 
Aston Hall, A. W.Aston, esq. 

Audlem Hall, Davies, esq. 

Bache Hall, H. R. Hughes, esq. 
Backford Hall, General Glegg, 
Backwood Lodge, Edward Bennett, esq. 
Bank Hall. Francis Phillips, esq. 
Belmont, Joseph Leigh, esq. 
Birtles Hall, Thomas Hibbert, esq. 
Bolesworth Castle, G. Walmesley, esq. 



14 COUNTY HISTORY — GHB8HIRB. 

Booth's Hall, Peter Leigh, esq. 

Bostock Hall, James F. France, esq. 

Boughton Hall, Dr. Currie. 

Bradwall Hall, Dr. Jiatham. 

Bramhall Hall, Dear Cheadle, Sir Salusbury P. Humphreys. 

Brereton Hall, Aaron Howard, esq. 

Bromborough Hall, Rev. James Miunwaring. 

Bug Lawton Hall, Samuel Pearson, esq. 

Burton Hall, Richard Congreve, esq. 

Butley Hall, late Rev. John Rowlls Browne. 

CalTeley Hall, £. D. Davenport, esq. 

Capenhurst Hall, Mrs. Richardson. 

Capesthome, Davies Davenport, esq 

Garden Hall, J. H. Leche, esq* 

Cheadle Heath, Mrs. James Newton. 

— — Bank, Henry Harrison, esq. 

Wood, Robert Harrison, esq. 

Cholmondeley Castle, Marquis of Cholmondeley* 
CJhorlton Hall, T. C. Clutton, esq. 

House, James Wickstead Swan, esq. 

Chrisleton, T. Tidawell, esq. 
Cleongar Hall, J. Aspinall, esq. 
Combermere Abbey, Viscount Combermere. 
Crewe Hall, Hon. Hungerford Crewe. 
Cranage Hall, Lawrence Armistead, esq. 
Dane Bank, Congleton, William Malbon, esq. 

■ , Lymrae, James Wilde, esq. 

Daresbury, Mr, Chadwick. 

Darnhall Hall, William Corbet, esq. 

Davenham Lodge, J. H« Harper, esq. 

Davenport Hall, Thomas Tipping, esq. 

Delamere Lodge, 6. Wilbraham, esq. 

Doddington Hall, Sir J. D. Broughton, Bart. 

Dorfold Hall, James Tomkinson, esq. 

Eaton Hall, Marquis of Westminster. 

Eaton Hall, G. C. Antrobus, esq. 

Edge Hall, Miss Dod. 

Fence, near Macclesfield, late Edward Smyth, esq. 

Foden Bank, near Macclesfield, T. Brocklehurst, esq. 

Fulshaw Hall, late P. D. Finney, esq. 

Gayton Hall, William Gleffg, esq. 

Hankelow Hall, Thomas Cowper, esq. 

Hartford Beach, late T. Marshall, esq. 



SEATS. 15 ' 

Hassall Hall, 

Hatherton Lodge, John Twemlow, esq» 

Henbury Hall, John Ryle, esq. M.P. 

Hermitae^e, Rev. John Armitstead. 

Highfield House, Henry Barlow, esq. 

Higher Beach Hall, near Macclesfield, Sir Edwajd J. H. 

Stracey, Bart. 
High Legh, (East Hall) O. Cornwall Legh, esq. 
— — (West Hall) Egerton Leigh, esq, 
fioole Bank, R. Brittain, esq. 

Hall, Lady Broughton. 

Hooton Hall, Sir T. S. M. Stanley, Bart 

Hough House, Robert Hill, esq. 

Houghton Hall, Rev. W. Gamett. 

Hulme Wallfield, Lady Warburton. 

Hyde Hall, Captain John Hyde Clarke. 

Ince HaJl, Townsend Ince, esq. 

Jodrell Hall, in Twemlow, Egerton Leigh, esq. 

Kermincham Hall, Mrs. Parker. 

Lodge, Rev. T. Hodges. 

Langley Hall, 

Lawton Hall, C. B. Lawton, esq. 

Leasowe Castle, Sir Edward Cust. 

Lee Hall, Mrs. Mather. 

Littleton Hill, T. Dixon, esq. 

Lower Beach Hall, near Macclesfield, Richard Wood, esq. 

Lyme Park, Thomas Legh, esq. 

Lymm Hall, Rev. Mascie D. Taylor. 

Manley House, Thomas Lowten, esq. 

Marbury Hall, J. S. Barry, esq. 

■ Domville Poole, esq. 

Marple Hall, J. [sherwood, esq. 
Mere Hall, Peter L. Brooke^ esq. 
Mollington Hall, John Fielden, esq. 
Moreton Hall, Rev. W. Moreton. 

— Georg^e Ackers, esq. 

Moore Hall, General Heron. 
Moston Hall, Richard Massey, esq. 
Mottram Hall, H. D. Wright, esq. 

(St. Andrew's) Hall, Lawrence Wright> esq. 

Nantwich Rookery, W. Cooke, esq. 

Nurley Bank, Rev. Rowland Egerton Warburton, 

Hall, late George Whitley, esq. 



16 COUKTT HI8TOftT--€HK8HIEB. 

Northrode, John Daintry, esq. 
Norton Priory, Sir R. Brool^, Bart 
Oakhanger Hall, Whittington Landon D.D. 
Oldfield Hall, £. J. Lloyd, esq. 
Oughtrington Hall, Trafford Trafford, esq. 
Oulton Hall, Sir P. de M. G. Egerton, Bart 
Over Peorer Hall, Sir H. M. M ainwaring, Bart 
Park House, Macclesfield, John Ryle, esq. M.P. 
Pole (The), George Eaton, esq. 
Poole Hall, William Massey, esq. 
Portal Lodge, £. Jones, esq. 
Poulton HiUl, late Joseph Green, esq. 

Pownal Hall, Wilnislow, 

Poynton Hall, Lord Vernon. 

Puddinfftun Hall, Sir T. S. M. Stanley, Bart 

Rode Hall, Randle Wilbraham, esq. 

Rowton Hall, William Hignett esq. 

Royals (The), Ne^ Hall Green, Rev. William Cotton. 

Ruloe, John Smith Barry, esq. 

Sale Hall, late John White, esq. 

Salterswell House, J. Done, esq. 

Shaw Farm, Utkinton, R. Arden, esq. 

Shrigley Hall, William Turner, L-sq. 

Somerford Booths, Clement Swettenham, esq. 

Hall, C. W. J. Shakerley, esq. 

Stapeley House, W. Harwood Folliott, esq. 
Statham Lodge, Rev. William Fox. 
Styperson Park, Richard Leigh, esq. 
Sutton Hall, Joseph White, esq. 
Swettenham Hall, T. £. Swettenham, esq. 
Tabley Hall, Lord de Tabley. 
Tarporley Bank, Colonel Egerton. 
Tatton Park, Wilbraham Egerton, esq. 
Thelwall Hall, R. A. Pickering, esq. 
Thornton Hall, Sir W. H. Clerke, Bart. 

Lodge, William Cockerill, esq. 

Thornycroft Hall, Rev. C. Thornycroft 
Tilston Lodge, J. Jervis ToUemache, esq. 
Titherinffton House, William Brocklehurst, esq. 
Toft Hall, late Ralph Leycester, esq. 
Tushingham Hall, Daniel Vawdrey, esq. 
Twemlow Hall, W. C. Booth, esq. 
Vale Royal Abbey, Lord Delamere. 



PRE8BNT 8TATB. 17 

Upton Hall, W. Webster, esq. 
Westbrook House, Charles Wood, esq. 
Whatcroft Hall. G. J. Shakerley, esq. 

White Hall, Sandbach, 

Wickstead Hall, late Rev. C. W. Ethelstone. 
Willaston House, James Bayley, esq. 
Willington, Major TomkiDSon. 
Wincham Hall, £. V. Townsend, esq. 
Winnington Hall, Sir J.T. Stanley, Bart. 
Wistaston Hall, J. W. Hammond, esq. 
Withcnshaw Hall, T. W. Tatton, esq. 
Witliin^on Hall, J. B. Glegg, esq. 
Wood Bank, near Stockport, Peter Marsland, esq. 
— — Hall, Samuel Jowett, esq. 
Woodheys, Richard Poole, esq. 
Woodlands, James Royds, esq. 
Wrenbury Hall, J. C. Starkey, esq, 

Peerage, Alvanley, barony (1801) to Arden ; Belgrave, 
viscounty (1784) to Grosvenor, Marquis of Westminster ; 
Combermere, viscounty (1826) and barony (1814) to 
Cotton; Crewe, barony (1806) to Crewe; Dunham 
Massey, Delamere of, barony (1796) to Grey Earl of Stam- 
ford; Dutton, barony (1711) to Hamilton, Duke of 
Brandon ; Eaton, Grosvenor of, barony (1761) to Gros- 
venor, Marquis of Westminster ; Kinderton, Vernon of, 
barony (1762) to Vernon; Macclesfield, earldom and 
barony (1721) to Parker; Nantwich, Cholmondeley of, 
barony ( 1 689) to Marquis of Cholmondeley ; Saltersford, 
barony (1796) to Stopford ; Tabley House, DeTabley of, 
barony (1826) to Leycester; Vale Royal, Delamere of, 
barony (1821) to Cholmondeley. 

Baronetage. Alderley Park, Stanley, 1660; Antrobus, 
AntrobuB, 1815; Dukinfield Hall, Dukinfield, 1665; 
Egerton and Oulton Park, Egerton, 1617; Hooton, 
Stanley, 1661; Norton Priory, Brooke, 1662; Over 
Peover, Mainwaring, 1804. 



18 COUNTT HI8TOST— -OBSBHIRS. 

Representatives returned to Pariiamenty for the Nortiiem 
DiviBion, 2; Southern IKriti on, 2 ; Chester, 2; Mac- 
clesfield, 2; Stockport, 2 ;--total 10. The Reform Act, 
by adding two to the County, and enfranchising the towns 
of Macclesfield and Stockport, increased the number ef 
Representatives by six. 

Produce. Copper ; lead ; cobalt, at Alderley Edge. Coal, 
passes from Lancashire, thnM]g;h Cheshire, into Stafford- 
shire, nearly in the direction •f tbe Macclesfield Canal, 
particularly at Dennahnear Park Oate, and also stretching^ 
under the river Dee near Great Neston. Sand-stone, at 
Alderley Edge, in various parts on the west side of Dela- 
mere Forest, Runcorn, and Manley, all belonging to the 
new red sand-stone formation, and near Macclesfield and 
Congleton, following the range of hill dividing the county 
from Cheshire, -at Mow Cop, millstone grit, Congleton 
Edge, good for building; atRainer, Cloud End, Hollins" 
lane, a dark seam of greywacke, excellent for roads ; at 
Kerridge, excellent stone slate and slabs for tombstones. 
Limestone, at Newbold Astbury ; marl ; massive quartz, 
at Mble-cop. Iron, at Dukinfield. At Hatherton is 
a very fluent salt spring, which runs down a trough and 
empties itself with a fall of at least two yards into the river 
Weever, and the farmers use it to steep their seed-wheat 
with previous to its being sown ; at Nantwich is a shaft 
ten yards in depth, called immemorially the Old Biott; at 
Winsford, thirteen miles below Nantwich, the brine springs 
are from forty to forty-five yards deep ; and at North- 
wich and Anderton, still lower down upon the Weever, 
they are from fifty-five to sixty yards below the surface of 
the earth : in Northwich there is more salt made than at 
all the salt works of the county put together ; besides 
which, there is from the adjoining township of Witton 
from between 150 to 200 thousand tons of rock salt shipped 



Pil£8BNT STATJB. 19 

annually to different parts of the worW. Cows, of which 
ahove 100,000 are kept. Salmon. Oak; potatoes, in 
great quantities. 

Jdanufactures. Cheese, of which at a moderate computa- 
tion 15,000 tons are annually made. Aldford, lead. 
Altrincham, thread, woollen yarn, bobbin, cotton, &c. 
Chester, cotton, tobacco, snuff, patent shot, white lead, 
iron, tobacco pipes, and leather. Congleton, leather, si)k 
ribbons, and cotton. Knutsford, shag velvet, cotton, and 
sewing thread. Macclesfield, cotton goods, buttons, silk 
twist, and hats. Nantwich, salt, shoes, cheese, and cotton. 
Northwich, salt, cotton. Stockport, cotton, very extensive ; 
hats, and calico printing. Thelwall, gunpowder. 



POPULATION IN 1831. 

Hundreds, 7; City, Chester; Boroughs, 2; Market 

Toums,l2; Parishes, SQ, 
Houses, Inhabited, 60,748; Building, 406; Uninhabited, 

2,818. 
Inhabitants. Males, 164,133; Females, 170,258; total, 

334,391. 
Families^ Employed in agriculture, 16,397 ; in trade, 

34,997; in neither, 13,561 ; total, 64,955. 
Baptisms in l^3ld. Males, 4,375; Females, 4,407; total, 

8,782. Annual average o/1821 to 1830, 8,409. 
Marriages, 2,473 ; annual average, 2,443. ' 
Burials, Males, 3,286; Females, 3,162; total, 6,448. 

Annual average, 6,058. 
Annual Value of Real Property, as assessed in April, 

1815, £1,083,083. 



20 COUNTT HI8T0BT — CtfBBHIRB. 

Places haying not less than 1,000 Inhabitants. 



Homes. 


Inhab. 


Houses. 


Inhalr 


Mteeleifield 


4548 


93,199 


TintwisUo 


990 


]»89a 


Stockport 


4973 


95,469 


RaiDow 


893 


1,807 


Cheitar 


4096 SI, 844 


Lefiwich 


894 


l,7»9 


Dakinfield 


9465 


14,681 


Bolien Fee 


839 


1,784 


CongletoD 


1719 


9,859 


Hoilingworth 


808 


1,760 


Hyde 


111» 


7,144 


Frodibam 


887 


1,746 


Newtoa 


991 


5,997 


Pownal Fee 


969 


1,747 


Satton 


1111 


5,856 


Hull and Appleton 


894 


1,699 


Rancorn 


9S8 


6.085 


Newton 


886 


1,649 


Nantwioh 


1097 


4,886 


Great Neiton 


343 


1,638 


Cheadla Bulkeley 


798 


4,998 


Audleoi 


996 


1,558 


BriDnington 
Sandbach 


791 


8,987 


Northwich 


986 


1,481 


718 


8,710 


Bramhall 


981 


1,401 


Waroith 


679 


8,469 


Bosden 


957 


1,389 


Hardsfield 


589 


8,088 


Middlewich 


490 


1,395 


WItton with Twam. 




Haiton 


981 


1,899 


brook 


566 


9,919 


Odd Rode 


945 


1,300 


Nether Knutsford 


584 


9,898 


Romily 


989 


1,990 


Altrinohaoi 


587 


9,708 


Mobberley 


945 


1,971 


BoIUngtoB 


496 


9,685 


Pouhon with Sea- 






Marple 


498 


9,687 


comb 


166 


1,919 


Over 


458 


9,601 


Tranmore 


913 


1,168 


Birkenhead 


896 


9,569 


Dunham M aasey 


199 


1,105 


Stayley 


410 


9,440 


Sale 


196 


1,104 


Bredbury 


879 


9,374 


Adlington 


197 


1,066 


Lyrom 


449 


9,805 


Wharton 


909 


1,060 


Latchfbrd 


499 


9,166 


Haslington 


187 


1,098 


Mottram in Long- 






Frodsham Lordship 


189 


1,094 


den Dale 


SSB 


9,144 


Tarvin 


913 


1,090 


Boglawton 


831 


9,087 


Newhall 


183 


1,011 


Distley 

CbeadlflMotelej 


873 


9,087 


Malpaa 


918 


i>004 


364 


1,946 









21 



HISTORY. 

A. r« 

73. The walls of the city of Chester were first built by Ma- 
rius King of the British, who after reigning 53 years Was 
buried at Chester. 

G03 or 613. The Britons at Chester elected Cadwan, who 
was then ruler of North Wales, to be their king. 

607*. l/nder the walls of Chester, the Britons under 
Brochmael Yscithroc, King of Powys, defeated, and 120D 
monks of Bangor Iscoed slain, byEthelfrid, King of North- 
umbria, who came to avenge the quarrel of Augustin, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, to whose metropolitan juris- 
diction the British bishops and monks refused to subnut.^ 

689. Ivor and Henyr, sons of the daughter of Cadwallader, 
are said to have landed from Ireland, and with the assist- 
ance of two Kings of Wales, to have wasted the province 
of Chester. 

828. Chester taken by Egbert, and the county, which till 
this time had retained its British independence, was an- 
nexed to the Saxon kingdom of Mercia, then tributary to 
Wessex. 

837. King Athelwolf crowned at Chester. 

894. Chester taken by Harold, King of the Danes, and 
Mancolin, King of the Scots, who were soon besieged 

* Variously fixed between 60S and 61 S; commemorated by 
the Celtic bard Taliessin, patronised by Brochmael, who describes 
himself an eye-witness. 



22 COUNTY HI8T0BT — CHESHIRE. 

A. D. 

therein by Alfred, during which they were compelled to 
feed on horse-flesh. They evacuated it in 895. 

908. Ethelfleda repaired Chester, fortified it with walls and 
turrets, so that the Castle, which stood without the walls, 
was now brought within the compass of the new wall 
924. The Welsh, who had rebelled and taken possession 
of Chester, were expelled by King Edward on the eve of 
his decease. 

942. Chester effectually secured against the Danish inva- 
ders by the victories of Edmund. 

^3. King Edgar, with his army and the whole of his 
naval forces, came to Chester, when he was rowed from his 
palace to the monastery of St. John by eight petty sove- 
reigns of Wales. 
981. Cheshire was l{ud waste by pirates. 

1000. Leofric created Earl of Chester by Canute, built the 
Churolies of St. John and St. Werburgh in Chester. 

1066. Hardd is siiid to have escaped ^om the battie of Has- 
tings to Chester, where he lived many years as an an- 
chorite near St. John's Church. 

1069. In consequence of the Conqueror's grant to his ne- 
phew Hugh de Auranehes, commonly called Hugh Lupus, 
" to hold this county as freely by the 8wor4> as he himself 
held the kingdom of England by the crown/' Lupus, 
and the succeeding earls, had their court of common law, 
in which, as by the law of England the indictments ran 
*^ contra coronam et dignitatem,'' so in their court it was 
*' contra dignitatem gladii Cestriae." They had also their 
courts of chancery, exchequer, and common pleas. The 
sword of dignity is preserved in the British Museum. 

1121. The Welshmen made an incursion, and burnt Shock- 
lach Castle and Old Castle in Malpas. 

1150. The Welsh laid waste the county, but were cutoff 
on their return at Nantwich. 
156. Henry II. visited Chester on his way to WalBs, en- 



BISTORT. 23 

A. D. 

camping his army on Saltney Marsh, and in the following 

year received there the homage of Malsolm, King of Scots. 
1159. At Chester, Malcolm IV. ceded the counties of Nor- 

thumherland, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, to Henry. 
1 164. Henry came by sea to (Chester, witii a large army for 

invading North Wales, but disbanded his army after 

making some stay. 
1173. Hamon Massy held the castle of Dunham Massy 

against Henry II. Stockport was hdd by Geoffrey de 

Costentin. 
12F2. John spent several di^s at Chester, and received the 

ittt^lligenoe of the disaffection of his subjects, which de- 
terred him from his Welsh expedition. 
1245. Henry III. returning from Wales, caused all the 
%rine pits on the borders to be destroyed, that the Welsh 

might not procure provisions. 

1256. Prince Edward being (heated £arl of Chester, went 
to that city, and received the homage of the nobles of the 
county and of Wales, and proceeded to DarnhalL-^The 
Welsh ravaged the county to the city gates. 

1257. The insurrection of the Welsh renewed. They com- 
pelled the Earl of Chester to retire before them. The 
King marched against them, but was obliged to retire for 
want of provisions, &c. 

11260. -Henry at Chester. Prince Edward summoned' the 
barons and knights of Cheshire to a meeting at Sbotwick 
Castle, and on September 8, the forces of Lord Henry 
Percy, the gallant Hotspur, were stationed at Chester. 

x264. Chester city and castle taken by the forces of the 
-fiarons under the Earl of Derby. — ^The partisans of Simon 
de Montfort possessed themselves of Beeston Castle; but 
the following year it was retaken by James de Audley for 
Prince Edward. 

J1265. The earldom of Chester annexed to the crown by 



26 COCNTT HIBTOKT-H3HB8HIRB. 

A.D. 

being estimated at £90,000, a general collection was made 
throughout the kingdom, Elizabeth contributing £2,000, 
and the use of timber, to a large amount, from the forest 
of Delamere. A house near to the Market Hall, erected 
hj Thomas Clease, 1584, has a poetical inscription record- 
ing the event. 

1586. Salisbury, who was one of the con^irators with Ba- 
bington, in the plotted destruction of Elizabeth, was 
apprehended at Frodsham. 

1617> King James magnificently entertdned at Chester, 
and on Angust 25, visited Nantwich. He hunted in De- 
lamere Forest with Sir John Done, hereditary Forester. 

1642. On Monday August 8, the first symptom of civil 
disturbance broke out in Chester. By the direction of 
Sir William Brereton a drum was beat publicly in the 
streets for the Parliament, and on the interposition ofiht 
constables a tumult ensued, which was quelled by the inter- 
ference of the mayor. Sir William was taken to the pen- 
tice, but afterwards discharged, being saved with great 
difficulty from tiie populace. — September 23, Charles en- 
tered Chester, which he fortified, and proceeded to Wrex- 
ham on the 28th. — S^tember 21, Nantwich taken from 
the Parliament by Lord Grandison, but afterwards occu- 
pied by Sir W. Brereton for the Parliament. 

1642-3. February 21, Beeston Castle seized by the Parlia- 
mentarians. — IVIarch 10, Sir William Brereton ineffectually 
attacked at Northwich by a party of dragoons, but was 
defeeited there in the December following. — Norton Hall 
besieged by the Royalists without effect. — In January, 
near Nantwich, Sir Thomas Aston and Sir Vincent 
Corbet defeated by Sir William Brereton. — ^February 21, 
a skirmish on Tiverton town field. — ^March 13, a sharp 
contest at Middkwich, between the Royalists under Sir 
Thomas Aston, and a division of the Parliamentarians 
under Sir William Brereton, in which the former was com- 



HI8T0BT. 27 

AD. 

pelled to surrender with the loss of Sir Edward Moseley 
and 500 other prisoners. 

1643. The garrison of Cholmondeley Hall had an action 
with the Parliamentarians from Nantwich, and sorely 
discomfited them. The Parliament obtained possession of 
the Hall before November. — Bunbury Church fired by a 
party Irom Cholmondeley Hall, then garrisoned for the 
King. — ^July 18, Sir William Brereton violently assaulted 
Chester, but was obliged to retire with great loss. — Sep- 
tember 23, Charles received in form at Chester. — Novem- 
ber 12, an engagement at Stanford Bridge, in which the 
Parliamentarians were successful. On the same day there 
was a skirmish between the garrison at Tarvin, and the 
Chester forces. — On the 14th, Sir William Brereton took 
possession of Hawarden Castle, but capitulated after a 
.smart attack on Dec. 4. — December 12, Beeston Castle 
gallantly taken by Captain Sandford for the King. — At 
Booth's Lane near Middlewich, December 26, Brereton 
defeated by Lord Byron, who cut off 200 of his men. — 
December 28, Crewe Hall taken from the Parliament 
by Lord Byron, after a very stout resistance. It was 
again besieged February 4, and obliged to surrender. 

1643-4 Doddington Castle, January 4, surrendered to 
Lord Byron, but was again possessed by the Parliament 
in February. — January 18, Lord Byron repulsed in an 
attempt to storm Nantwich, and three days afterwards, 
defeated with great loss by Fairfax, to whom, on the 25th, 
a detachment of 1500 surrendered. Among the prisoners 
was Monk, the restorer of royalty, who was then a colonel 
in the King^s army. — Jan. 30, the Earl of Denbigh be- 
sieged Cholmondeley Hall, and forced it to surrender.— 
February 13, after a bloody engagement, the Parliament- 
arians were defeated at Great Boughton, which was 
destroyed. On the 25th, Withenshaw Hall captured by 
the Parliamentarians after a long siege. 



28 COUNTT H18T0RT— CHE8HIRB. 

A.D. 

1644* May 25, Prince Rupert arrived at Stockport, whence 
his opponents fled to Lancashire. — ^Taryiu attacked bj 
the Parliamentarians in August, and surrendered after a 
gallant resistance in the following month. — At Oldcastle 
Heath, near Malpas, August 25, the Royalist cavalry de- 
feated, and Colonels Vane and Conyers slain by a party 
from Nantwich. — October 20, Beeston Castle closely be- 
sieged, but on March 17, 1644-5, relieved by Prinoer 
Rupert and Maurice. — Halton Castle possessed by the Par- 
liament. — Utkinton Hall attacked and plundered by the 
Royalists under Colonels Werdeu and Marrow. — On Old- 
castle Heath, the royalists, 2500 in number, driven out of 
Lancashire, were attacked by 900 of the Parliamentariana 
firom Nantwich, and compelled to retreat with the loss by 
death of Colonels Vane and Conyers. 

1644-5. February 14, Adlington House having been be- 
sieged for a fortnight surrendered to the Parliament. — 
Prince Maurice made several unsuccessful attempts to 
relieve Chester. — Chrisleton Manor-house, which had been 
the head-quarters of Brereton, attacked by the citizens of 
Chester after the siege of their town had been raised. — 
March 17t Beeston Castle relieved by Princes Rupert and 
Maurice, whose soldiers on the 19th burnt Beeston Ball. 

1645. In April, Beeston Castle was again besieged, but the 
King approaching from Shropshire, the Parliamentarians 

. abandoned their works, and marched to Nantwich. — ^May 
10, Fairfax's regiment, under Lieutenant- colonel Spencer, 
settled near Stockport for a week. — June 4, the garrison 
at Beeston sallied out, and assaulting Ridley Hall were 
driven back with loss. — August 17f Lieutenant-general 
Lesley, with 6000 horse and 1000 dragoons fixed their 
head-quarters at Stockport. They were followed on the 
25th by Major Jackson, with eight troops of Lancashire 
horse. — September 19, Chester attacked by Colonel Jones 
for the Parliament. It held out till the February follow- 



HISTORT. 29 

A.D. 

ing, when it was obliged to surrender.— September 27, the 
faUd battle of Rowton Heath, two miles from Chester, 
took place, in which Charles's forces, commanded l^ Sir 
Marmaduke Langdale, were defeated by Poyntz. The 
-unhappy Charles beheld this defeat from the leads ^of the 
Phcenix tower. After the battle the Parliamentarians laid 
-sieg^e to Beeston Castle, which on November 16 surren*- 
dered to Sir William Brereton, having bravely resisted 
for eighteen weeks. It was then dismantled. Beeston 
had on a previous occasion repulsed the Parliamentarians 
in a dege of seventeen weeks. 

1646. February 3, after a noble defence of twenty weeks, 
LfOrd Byron compelled by famine to surrender Chester to 
his great opponent Sir William Brereton. 

M»48. The troops of Duke Hamilton and Langdale pursued 
across Cheshire, after the defeat by CromweM at Preston. 
— September 5, the royalists marched out «f Chester, 
and fortified Tarvin. — A fruitless attempt in August to 
take Cheifter for the King^ 

1651. The Royal army marched through Cheshire towards 
the fatal field of Worcester, — A skirmish at Sandbach be- 
tween the townsmen and Lesley's horse escaping from the 
defeat at Worcester, in which the latter were sadly treated. 

1652. In June, eleven persons struck dead by lightning at 
Lawton. 

1659. August 11, Sir George Booth, in arms to restore 
Charles II., fixed his head-quarters at Nantwich for one 
night, and the following evening the same place accommo- 
dated his pursuers. On the 19th, at Winnington Bridge, 
3000 Royalists defeated, and their commander Sir George 
Booth taken prisoner by General Lambert. 

1683. The Duke of Monmouth passed through the county-, 

'1687. Chester visited by James IL 

J689. In June, Williamlll. slept at Gayton Hall in Wirrd, 



30 COUNTY HI8T0ET — CHESHIRE. 

A. D. 

previously to embarking for Ireland, and conferred the 
honour of knighthood on his host WiUiam Glegg, esq. 

1690. At Hyle Lake, the forces under the Duke of Schom- 
berg embarked to reduce Ireland. 

1745. In consequence of the approach of the Scotch rebels, 
Lachford Bridge was destroy^l on June 24 by the Liver- 
pool Blues commanded by Colonel Graham. — ^The Pre- 
tender marched into Macclesfield on Sunday December 1, 
and quitted it December 3, having behaved in a very mild 
manner. 

1772. November 5, SOOlbs. weight of gunpowder exploded 
in a room under where a puppet show was exhibiting, 
when 23 persons were killed, and S3 others much burnt 
and bruised. 

1812. Riots of the " Luddites'' in Cheshire and Lancashire. 
Sixteen capitally convicted at Cheater, but only one exe- 
cuted. 

1830. Act passed for « more effectual administration of jus- 
tice in England and Wales,'' terminating the separate 
jurisdiction of the Cheshire Palatinate, 11 Geo. IV. and 1 
Will. IV. cap. 70. 



31 



EMINENT NATIVES. 

Aston, Sir Thomas, loyalist, Aston, 1610. 
Beetton, Sir George, adminil at defeat of the Armada, Bees- 
ton, 1499. 
Birkinhead, Sir John, M.P. loyal poet, Rudheath, North- 

wich, or Nantwich, 1615 (died 1679). 
Booth, George, translator of Diodorus Siculus, Over. 

Sir Geore'e, Lord Delamere, royalist (died 1684). 

Henry, Earl of Warrington, statesman, 1651 (died 

1694). 

John, Bishop of Exeter (died 1478). 

Lawrence, Archbishop of York, Lord High Chancellor 

(died 1480). 

William, Archbishop of York (died 1464). 

Bradshaw, Henry, poet, Chester, 14th century. 

Sir Henry, Lord Chief Baron (flourished in the time 

of Edward VI.) 
John, president of the regicides, Wybersley Hall, 1602 

(died 1659). 
Bradwardine, Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, mathe- 
matician, and author of " De causa Dei,*' Hortneld (died 

1349). 
Brereton, Thomas, dramatic writer (died about 1721). 

Sir William, parliamentarian general, Honford Hall. 

Brerewood, Edward, mathematician, first Gresham professor 

of astronomy, Chester, 1565 (died 1613). 
Broadhurst, Margaret, lived to the a^e of 140, and had a 

daughter born to her when she was eighty years old. Over 

or Hainow (died 1650). 
Broome, William, poet, translator of Homer, associate of 

Pope (died 1745). 
Brownswerd, John, schoolmaster, Macclesfield (died 1589). 
Burgaynle, William, author, Pulford, 1620 (died 1689). 
Calveley, Sir Hugh, warrior, Calveley (flourished in the time 

of Edward III.) 



32 COUNTY H18T0BY— CHBSHIRB* 

Catherike, John, Bishop of Exeter (died I4I9). 
Chester, Roger of, historian, Chester (died 1339). ^ 

Cholmondeley, or Cholmley, Sir Roger, Lord Chief Justice, 

Chorley. 
. Hugh, Dean of Chester, Vale Royal, 1772, antiquary 

and genealogist (died 1615). 
Cowper, William, physician and antiquary, Chester (died 

1767). 
Crew, Sir Randal, Lord Chief Justice (died 1643). 
Davenport, Sir Humphrey, Lord Chief Baron, Bramhall, 

(died about 1643). 
Davis, Mary, homed woman. Great Salghall, 1598* 
Dod, John, divine, 'Hhe decalogist,'' Shocklach, 1559. 
Downham, George, Bishop of Derry, logician, Chester, about 

1560. 
. John, author of *« Christian Warfare/' Chester (died 

1644). 
Dukenfield, Robert, parliamentarian officer, Dukenfield, 

1619 (died about 1663). 
Earnshaw, Lawrence, mechanic, and musician, Mottram 

(died 1674). 
Eaton, Samuel, nonconformist divine and author. Great 

Budworth, 1596. , . ^ 

Eoclestone, Thomas, franciscan, historian of Ms order, Ec» 

clestoneVdied 1340). 
Egerton, Thomas, Lord Chancellor Ellesmere and Viscount 

Brackley, Ridley, 1540 (died 1617). ^. ^ _^^ 

Falconer, Thomas, aiinotator on Strabo, Chester (died 1792). 
Fraunwys, Henry, reviver of the Chester mysteries by license 

ofClement VI. 1342-1352. 
Gerarde, John, surgeon, herbalist, Nantwich, 1545. 
Harrison, Thomas, major-general, regicide, Nantwich 

(hanged 1660). 
Higden, Ranulph, author of « Polychronicon,'' Chester 

(flourished 1357). 
Holinshed, Ralph, chronicler, Cophurst, about 1510. 
Holmes, Randle, four antiquaries and collectors of the same 

name, father, son, grandson, and ffreat grandson, Chester 

(the eldest died 1655; his son 1659; grandson 1699 ; and 

great grandson 1 707). __ 

Hough,. Thomas, buried at Frodsham March 13, 1592, aged 

141. 
James, William, Bishop of Durham (died 1617)* 



BMINBNT NATIVES, 33 

Johnson, Samuel, dancing master, dramatist, and author of 
" Hurlothrumho" (died about 1773). 

Kinff, Daniel, author of " Vale Royal," 17th century. 

Knolles, Sir Robert, warrior (flourished in the time of Ed- 
ward III.) 

Kynaston, John, divine, Chester, 1728. 

Lancaster, Nathaniel, divine, author of an •♦Essay on Deli- 
cacy," 1700. 

Leycester* Sir Pteter, antiquarv* Tabley, 1613. 

liindsey, Theophilus» unitarian divine, Middlewich, 1723 
(died 1803). 

Lowndes, Thomas, bookseller, the •' Briggs" of Miss Burw 
ney's "Cecilia," 1719. 

Markham, Robert, divine, 1727. 

ISassie, Edward, parliamentarian general, Codding;ton (died 

Middleton, David, establisher of the English trade at Ban- 
tam, Chester (died 1610). 

— — Sir Henry, discoverer of Middleton Straits in the Red 
Sea, Chester (died 1613). 

Holrneux, Samuel, astronomer, Chester, 1689. 

Neild, James, visitor of prisons, Knutsford, 1744, 

Newton, Thomas, historian of the Saracens, and latin poet, 
Butley (died 1607). 

^ixon, William or Robert, author of prophecies. Over, in 
the time of Edward I. (See p. 44.) 

Palin, Georg^, benefactor, Wrenbury (died about 1603). 

Percivale, Sir John, Lord Mayor of London, founder of the 
free grammar school at Macclesfield, near which town he 
was bom. 

Radcliffe, Ralph, schoolmaster (flourished 1552). 

Randle, monk of Chester Abbey (frequently confounded with 
Randal Hignet or Higden) author of the " Chester Mys- 
teries" 1268-1273. 

Richardson, John, Bishop of Ardagh, annotator on Eiekiel 
(died 1658). 

Rider, John, Bishop of Killaloe, lexicographer, Carrington 
(died 1632). 

Savage, Thomas, Archbishop of York, Macclesfield (died 

Sherlock, Richard, divine, author of << Practical ChristiaD," 
Oxton, 1613. 



34 COUNTT HISTORY— CHBSHIRB. 

Shippen, William, "honest Shippen/Meader of the Tories, 

' StockDort (died 1741). 

Smith, William, industrious antiquary and topog^rapher, 

historian of this county, Oldhaugh (died 1616). 
Speed, John, an industrious elucidator of the eeography and 

history of Great Britain, Farndon, 1552 (died 1629). 
Starkey, Sir Humphrey, Lord Chief Baron to Henry VH. 
Sutton, Sir Richard, one of the two founders of Brazennose 

College, Ozon, Preshury (died about 1530). 
Sainton, John, learned antiquary, Bexton, 1703 (died 1774). 
Thomasen, John, penman, Tanrin, 1686. 
Upton, James, divine and critic, 1670. 
Vanbvroh, Sir John, architect and dramatist, Chester, 

1672 (died 1726). 
Watson, John, historian of Hali&z in Yorkshire, Lyn;e- 

cum-Hanley, 1724. 
Webb, William, author of ''Description of Cheshire*' (living 

in the time of James I.) 
Williamson, Dr. author of ** Villare Cestriensc," Clutton. 
Wright, Edward, author of travels, StrettonHall (died 1750). 
Whitehurst, John, watchmaker, engineer, and philosopher, 

Congleton, 1713 (died 1788). 
Whitney, Geoffrey, poet in the reign of Elizabeth, Nant- 

wich. 
Whittingham, William, Dean of Durham, translator of the 

Geneva bible, zealous protestant, Chester, (died 1549). 
"^^Ison, Thomas, learned and pious Bishop of Sodor and 

Man, Burton-in-Wirral, 1663 (died 1755). 



35^ 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

Of Adlinoton was Sir Urian Legh, the hero of that 
beautiful old ballad, printed in Percy*8 Reliques, beginDiDg 
'* Will you hear a Spanish lady/' &c< A portrait of him 
% at Poynton in this neighbourhood. 

Alderlbt Hall was burnt down in 1779, and has since 
been rebuilt in the southern extremity of the park, which is 
remarkable for its beech trees, planted by the first Baronet, 
in 1640. 

In AsTfiURY Churchyard is a curious monument under a. 
canopy. 

In Bagmerb Pool, previous to the death of an heir of 
the BreretODS, trunks of trees are said to have been seen to. 
rise and float for several days ! 

At BiCKLBY a very curious phenomenon occurred July 8, 
1657. About an acre of ground, with a noise like thunder, 
sunk into a water, to such a depth that not even the tops of 
the trees could be seen. It is now perfectly dry, and co- 
vered with bush-wood. 

In BowDEN Church was buried George Booth, first Lord 
Delamere, distinguished for his premature attempt to restore 
royalty in 1659. He died in 1684. 

Robert Pasfield, a servant of Mr. Bruen of Bruen Sta- 
PLBFURD, in the 16th century, invented a girdle of leather 
to remember the sermons which he heard. He divided it into 
as many parts as there were books in the bible, separated 
into chapters by leather thongs, and again into verses. His 
master, one of the most pious, benevolent, and virtuous n^e» 



36 COUNTT HISTOAT — C»B6HIJM. 

in the domestic annals of the county, called it '' a |;irdfe «f 
yeritj/* and after Pasfield's death hung it up in his study. 

BuNBURT has long been celebrated for its wake. The 
rhymes so often heard in the nursery, of *' Ride acock-horse,. 
&c." may perhaps originally bare had some allusion to the 
exhibitions attendant on it — In the Church are the monu- 
ments of Sir Hugh de Calveley, *'the Arthur of Cheshire, 
the glory of the county ;''* and Sir George fieeston, admiral 
at the destruction of the Spanish Armada in IDSS^when he 
wae nearly 89 years old. He died in 1601, aged 102. 

Cbbstsb, according to Sir T. Etiot, was built by a great 
grandson of Noah ^— In 1540, all the taiwrns and ale-houses 
being kept by *' yanng women,*' an order was issued, prohi- 
biting any woman between tiie ages of 14 and 40, froa» 
keqiing any such. Another singular stretch of authority 
about this time was the prohibiting of any person, or except 
a ftw privileged, from going ** into the house of a woman 
that is churched,*' on pain of 6s. Sd. for the owner of the 
house, and 3«. 4d. for the persons so offending, toties quoties* 
This was issued in consequence of the expense attending ^kt 
return of presents of costly meals and drinks made to females 
so situated. It was also ordered that no unmarried woman 
do wear a hat, except she is sick or travelling, on pain of 
3». 4d^ — ^In 1679, the linendrapers and bricklayers ordered 
te be separate companies ; the latter being troublesome and 
unserviceable to the former. — The Mayor had the power of 
respiting executions without previous application to the 
crown. — Randle Earl of Chester, being besieged in the castle 
of Rhuddland by the Welsh, was relieved by an army of 

* His oountryman and companion in amiB, Sir Robert i^olki, 
was 80 famous for the destruction of buildings during his cam-' 
poigns in France, that the sharp points or gable ends of over- 
thrown houses in that kingdom were joonlarly called ** KnoUa^ 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 37 

minBtrelfl, and other vs^frants, brought from Chester fair bf 
Roger de Lacy, Constable of Chester, for which service 
Handle conferred upon him^ and he upon Hugh de Dutton 
and his descendants, the jurisdiction of all minstrels and 
vagrants in this county, a privilege since recognized by IHur- 
liament, a clause '* saving the rights of tiie Duttons" being 
inserted in many of the Vagrant Acts The last court for 
licensing minstrels was held in 1756.— Of Chester the amiable 
Beilby Porteus was Bidiop, and the walk from the Bridge 
Gate to the Wishing Steps was his &vourite promenaxle.-*— 
In the Cathedral were interred, several of its Bishops ; its 
Dean li^lliam Smithy translator of Xenophon, Thucydides^ 
and Longinns, 1787 ; its Archdeacon, George Travis, anta- 
gonist of Poraon, 1797 ; and Lord Chancdlor Gerarde. In 
the beautiful Chapter House lie the remains of Hugh Lupus, 
and five other Norman Earls, besides some of the Abbots. 
It was built in 1128 by Randk Earl of Chester.— In St. 
John's Church was buried Thomas Falconer, annotator on 
Strabo, 1792, and here also, according to very many antient 
traditions (supported by Harl. MSS. 3776) King Harold sur- 
viving and living as a hermit after the defeat at Hastings ; 
and in Trinity Church, Matthew Henry, dissenter, author of 
** Exposition of the Bible,*' who died at Nantwich 1714, 
and Thomas Pamell, poet, author of '*The Hermit," 1717. 
— In St. Mary's Chapel tower James II. received mass during 
his stay in Chester. — Nun's Hall was the property and resi- 
dence of the Handle Holmes, the Cheshire antiquaries, who 
were buried in the Qiurch of St. Mary-on-the-Hill. — ^The 
places called ''rows" Pennant considers to have descended 
from the Roman vestibula, and the shops beneath, the cryptss 
and apothecse. — ^A piece of land below the walls of Chester 
is called the Rood Edge, from a rood or cross that stood 
thereon. It was formerly overflowed with water in high 
tides, so that the cross seemed to stand in the water. There 
is a very curious legend about the origin of this cross, taken 



38 COUNTY HISTORY — CHESHIRE. 

from an old Saxon MS. In the year 946 ih^re was a ^re^t 
drought in the parish of Harden in Flintshire, upon which 
all the inhabitants went to pray to an image of the Vii^n 
Mary which was placed on a roodloft in the church ; and 
amongst the number the Ladie Trawst» whose husband was 
the nobleman and governor of Harden Castle, while she was 
praying the image fell down and killed her, which raised a 
great uproar in the place, and it was resolved to try the 
image for murder : which was done, and being found guilty 
this said image was ordered to be hung, but this was op- 
posed by one of the jury, who said they had no right to kill 
l^er, but advised to lay her on the sands of the river below 
Harden, from whence they might see what became of her. 
This was accordingly done, and the tide came aud carried 
her up to Chester, where she was found drowned and dead,, 
upon which the inhabitants buried her there, and erected a 
cross over the place, with this inscription: 
The Jews their God did crucify, 

The Hardeners theirs did drown, 
Cause with their want she'd not comply ; 
And lies under this cold stone. 

Of Clutton was Dr. £dward Williamson, one of the 
most laborious, and most intelligent of the Cheshire collec- 
tors. 

CoNGLBTON was for many years the residence of the regi- 
cide President Bradshaw, who practised here as a barrister, 
served the office of Mayor in 1637> and was afterwards High 
Steward of the borough. — The Corporation have preserved 
one of those antient instruments for punishing scolds called 
a "bridle." — So attached were the people to the diver- 
sion of bear-baiting, as^ in 1621, to dispose of their Bible, 
or the money ressrved for the purchase of one, to defray the 
expenses of procuring a new bear. By the Corporation 
books it appears that every kind of sport and amusement 
was frequently patronized, plays, cock-fights, banquets, 
wakes, i&c. 



MI8CBLLANBOU8 OBSBRVATIOKS. 39 

Daybnfort is interesting as having been possessed by a 
family of that name deducing an uninterrupted male line 
from the Conquest to the 17th century, retaining at the 
present day the feudal powers with which the local sovereigns 
of the Palatinate invested them, and preserving in their own 
archives, in a series of original documents, the proofs of 
the antient importance of the place, and the unbroken descent 
of its lords. 

At DiSLBY is a monument to Joseph Watson, who died 
in 1753, aged 104, "having been park keeper at Lyme more 
than sixty-four years/' He is stated to have first perfected 
the art of driving the deer like a herd of ordinary cattle (see 
p. 41). 

DoDLBSTON was the residence of Egerton Viscount 
Brackley, Lord Chancellor, who died in 161 7» and was bu- 
ried in the Church, with this epitaph, 

Ancbora anims fides et apes in Christo — Orimur — 
Morimur — Sequenter qui non praecesserint. 

Of the Dukenfields of Dukenfibld was the celebrated 
Parliamentary commander, Colonel Robert, accused of sup- 
pressing a pardon for the illustrious Earl of Derby. 

At Dunham Masse y is a great collection of portraits by 
Janssen, Vandyck, Lely, Kneller, &c. and the family plate is 
said to be superior in splendour and value to most in the 
kingdom. 

Eaton House is the most magnificent and gorgeous seat 
in the county. It is of the pointed style, though of different 
sras. In the drawing-room is '* Our Saviour on the Mount 
of Olives,'" by Claude Lorraine, the largest painting exe- 
cuted by him. 

EcGLBSTON Church, one of the most splendid of its size 
in the kingdom, was erected in 1808 from designs by Por- 
don. Here is the mausoleum of the Grosvenor family. — 
Among the items in the parish registers occurs, *'1638, for 
ringing the covre-feu, 3t^ 4d. 



40 OOUNTT HI8TOET—- CHBBHIRB. 

At Elworth resided the Rer. John Hulse, irho insti- 
tuted the office of Christian Advocate in tiie University of 
Cambridge, and died in 1790. 

In Farndon Church is a painted window, contidninf 
portraits of Cheshire jfrentlemen who attended Charles I. at 
the sieg^ of Chester, snd armorial ensigfns, instruments. Sec 

At Frodsham was buried March 13, 1592, Thomas 
Hough, aged 141 ; and, on the foUowing day. Handle Wall, 
aged 103. 

In the grounds of the Old Hall at Oawsworth was in- 
terred in 177% aged 82, the eccentric Mr. Samuel Johnson^ 
alias Lord Flame, the author of the play of "Hurlothrumbo,'* 
performed at the Haymarket in 1722. It was about this 
estate that the famous dael wU fought between the Duke of 
Hamilton and Lord Mohun, 1713, in which both were slain. 
— There are some beautiful specimens of the old black and 
white timber houses in the village. 

In Great Budworth Church was buried Sir Peter 
Leycester, historian of the hundred of Bucklow, 1742. 

At Great Salghall resided Mrs. Mary Davies, " the 
strange and wonderful old woman that had a pur of horns 
growing upon her head.'' One of the horns is preserved at 
the British Museum, London, and the other at the Ashmo- 
lean Museum, Oxford. 

Halton Castle was a favourite hunting-seat of die great 
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. 

Near the Church of Ince is the site of the Manor House 
of the Abbots of St. Werburgh. 

On the celebration of a marriage at Knutspord, the 
friends of the happy pur strew their doorways with brown 
sand, on which they figure escallops and emblematical 
devices in white sand: over the whole the flowers of the 
season are occasionally strewed. 

Of the Calveleys of Lea was Sir Hugh (mentioned befoi«) 
one of the most distinguished warriors of the 14th century. 



MtBCBLLAKBOUS OBSBRYATIOKS. 41 

*^At Lea Hall, at one time resided John Fothergill, the po* 
pular physician, who died in 1780. 

At Lymb Park was obserred the custom about Midsum* 
mer, or rather earlier, of driving the deer round the park, 
and collecting them in a body before the house, and then 
swimming them through a pool of water, with which the 
exhibition terminated. Here is a herd of twenty wild cattle, 
chiefly white with red ears. They have been from time im- 
memorial, and tradition says they are indigenous. 

Macclbbfiblp was the residence of Henry Stafford Duke 
of Buckingham, the instrument and victim of Richard the 
Third. — Of this place was Rector J» Watson, author of the 
"History of Halifax,** and the " House of Warren."— In 
St. Michael's Church is this epitaph on the monument of its 
native John Brownswerd^ 

Alpha poetarum, Corjpheus grammatioonun, 

Flos peedagogttn, hac sepelitur humo. 

Obut 15 Ap. 1589. 

Adjoining to the Church, on the south side, is a chapel be- 
longing to the Rocksavage family, now the property of the 
Marquis of Cholmondeley. There are several good and old 
monuments in it, and on the wall is a brass plate represent- 
ing a pardon being granted to a woman and her seven chil» 
dnen, with the following curious inscription: '*The pardon 
for saying v paternosters and v aves and a crede is xxvi 
thousand years and xxvi days of pardon.'* There is also a 
small side chapel belonging to the family of the Leghs of 
liyme, in which is a brass plate with an inscription to the 
memory of Perkin a Legh, who served Edward III. and the 
Black Prince in all their W^ars in France, and was at the 
battle of Cressy, for which services Lyme was given to him, 
and has continued in the family ever since ; and also to the 
memory of Sir Peers, his son, who served Henry V. and was 
killed at Agincourt. — While at this town the celebrated 



42 COUNTT H18T0RT^CHB6H1RB. 

Bradshaw wrote on a stone in the Churchyard these pro 
phetic lines : 

My brother Henry most heir the land ; 
My brother Frank must be at his command ; 
Whilst I, poor Jack! will do that 
That all the world shall wonder at. 

At Ma LP AS, one Richard Dawson, dying of the plague in 
1625, caused a grave to be dug, into which he laid himself 
on the straw and died. This he did because he was heavier 
«*than his sayd nefew and another wench were able to bury/* 
— Of this place were Rectors, W^illiam Dudley, afterwards 
Bishop of Durham, and Chancellor of the University of 
Oxford, who died in 1483; Lionel Sbarpe, chaplun to 
Prince Henry, and author, who died in 1630 ; Reginald He- 
ber (father of the Atticus of Dibdin's <* Bibliomania,*' whose 
most astonishing collection of books is in progress of dis- 
persion by the hammer of the auctioneer), and of the late 
I^aented Bishop of Calcutta), who died in 1804; and Tho- 
mas Townson, regius professor of divinity at Oxford in 1783, 
and who died in 1792. 

In the parish registers of Minshull, under the year 1649, 
it is recorded that Thomas Danune, of Leighton, was buried 
at the very great age of 154. 

At Nantwich resided, and died in March 1726, the wi- 
dow of the poet Milton. 

At Nbston is the tomb of John Hancock, a farmer, who 
diedin 1775, aged 112. 

Of the Leycesters of NethbrTablby was Sir Peter, the 
loyalist and antiquary, and the late Lord de Tabley, the dis- 
tinguished patron of British artists. 

The roof of North wicH Church is adorned with nume- 
rous figures of wicker baskets, similar to those used in the 
making of salt. 

At OvBRLEiGH Hall are many valuable portraits of the 
Cromwell family. 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 43 

At Prestbury, near the high road between Macclesfield 
and Stockport, was discovered, in 1808, an assemblage of 
tumuli, lows, barrows, or cairns. The general position of 
the cairns appears to have been nearly circular, and the form 
of each that of an obtuse cone. Around the circumference 
of the area occupied by these tumuli were placed at intervals 
large boundary stones. The most elevated of the cairns was 
about ten paces in diameter, and about four feet from the 
base to the summit. Exactly in the centre was an excava- 
tion filled with stones. The whole of the uppermost stones 
of which this, but no other, tumulus was composed, exhibited 
every mark of having undergone the most intense fire, some 
being shining black, others as if soot^ over. The stones 
underneath were most of them coated with a sort of film or 
pellicle, which resembled by its gloss and substance a thin 
coat of bright iron-coloured paint, approaching to a maho- 
gany colour, and which, from fragments of bones among 
them, appeared to be caused by a plentiful effusion of blood. 
Near the circumference of this tumulus was found, covered 
with a flat stone, and surrounded by three large boulders, 
an urn of ashes, and by its side a collection of human bones. 
The urn, which was broken by the workmen, bore every 
mark of an iron crust, but was found to be made of clay and 
coarse sand, and held about two quarts. The antient British 
and Roman road from Condate to Rainow Low is supposed 
to have passed near the place of this antient cemetery. 

Ridley was the residence of Sir William Stanley, whose 
presence at the Battle of Bosworth so materially assisted 
in placing the crown on the head of Henry VII. He suffered 
for a presumed favouring of the pretensions of Perkin War- 
beck in 1495. 

RuDHBATH, HooLB Hbath, and OvERMARSH, Were 
places of refuge and sanctuary for outlaws, who might re- 
main there in safety for a year and a day, till 1549, when an 



44 COUNTY HIBTOftT— CHB8HIBB. 

act was passed abolishing^ the privilege of sanctuary through- 
out the kiDgdom. 

Of Shotwigk was minister Dr. Samuel Clarke, a learned 
biographer and active puritanical divine, who died in 1682. 

In the parish of SpuRSTOw:»some years since, was a fingei^ 
post, pointing to Spurstow and Bunbury, with these quaint 
inscriptions : On the one^ 

If you are troubled with sera or flaw, 
This ii the way to Spnrstow Spa : 
On the other. 

If all your sores you've left iu the lurch, 
This is the way to Bunbury Church. 

Stockport was the Rectory of John Watson, the hbto- 
rian of Halifax. — Here was christened the Preudent Brad- 
shaw. In the margin of the register against the entry is the 
word <* traitor/' with a line underneath. 

In Tarvin Church is a monument to Mr. John Thoma- 
sen, schoolmaster, particularly distinguished for his exquisite 
skill in penmanship. The '* shield of Achilles'' is among 
the most finished pieces of his celebrated pen. He died in 
1740. 

Of Thornton was Rector in 1553, Bernard Gilpin, the 
Apostle of the North, exemplary divine and early reformer. 

The story of Robert Nixon, " the Cheshire prophet," said 
to be born near Vale Rotal, appears from the researdies 
of Lysons to be wholly legendary. 

At the Grammar School of Witton there is still practised 
a singular custom. The head-boy of the school, upon hear- 
ing of the marriage of any couple, goes up to the altar as 
soon as the ceremony is concluded, and demands from the 
bride her garters. This demand is immediately satisfied by 
the groom, in giving him one half of the value of the mar- 
riage fees, depending in amount on the situation in liie of the 
parties who are married. From parties of rank or wealth 



MISCBLLANEOUB. OBSERVATIONS. 45 

a guinea is the accustomed compromise. This is called '' Gar- 
ter Money." 

Wybunbury Church, which had leaned considerably for 
nearly two centuries, was taken down, and rebuilt in 1834 ; 
when the fine lofty tower, which declined five feet eleven 
inches towards the north-east, was restored to its perpendi- 
cular. 



46 



LUt of IVarkt comuUed. 

t. The history of the County Pdatioe snd City of Chester. By 
George Ormerod, LL.D. F.R.S. F.S.A. &c.— 3 vols, folio, 1819. 
9. Lysont's Magne Britannia, vol. ii. part 2. — 4to. 1810. 

3. The history of the County Palatine of Chester. By J. H. Han- 
shall.— 4to, 1817> Chester. 

4. Beauties of England and Wales : Cheshire, by Britton and Bray 
ley. — 8vo, 18G1. 

6. The Vale Royal of England, or the County Palatine of Chester 
illustrated, &c. &c. By WiUiam Smith and William Webb.— 
folio, 1656. 

6. History of the siege of Chester during the Civil Wars in the time 
ofCharlesl.— 8vo, 1790. 

7. Journey from Chester to London. By Thomas Pennant. — 4to, 
1788. 

B. History of the City of Chester. By J. M. B. Pigot, M.D. illus- 
trated with plates by G. Cuitt. — 8vo, 1815. 

9. An illustration of the architecture of the Cathedral Church of 
Chester^ By Charles Wild.— 4 to, 1813. 

10. Historical account of the town and parish of Nantwich. — 8vo, 
1774. 

11. The antiquities of Lyme, and its vicinity. By Rev. William 
Marriott.— 4to, 1810. 

12. History of Macclesfield. — 8vo, 1817. 

13. History of Nantwich. By J. W. Piatt.— 8 vo, 1818. 

14. History of Congleton. By Samuel Yates. — 1819. 

15. History of Chester. — 4to, 1830. 

16. Description of the country from 30 to 40 miles round Mancbes* 
ter. Arranged by J. Aikin, M.D.— 4to, 1796. 

17. AgriculturalSurvey of Cheshire. By Henry Holland. — 3vo, 1809. 

18. Mize Buuk of the County Palatine of Cheshire. By John Jolley. 
l2mo, 1726. 



PLAN OF THE 
FAMILY TOPOGRAPHER. 



J . Situation and Extent. — Under this head, the boun* 
daries, dimensions, and ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the 
county will be comprised. 

II. Antient State and Remains. — In this division the 
former state of the civil, ecclesiastical, and military rela- 
tions of the county is developed ; and mention is made in 
chronological order of those remains of the Britons, and 
the subsequent possessors of our Isle, which excite the 
wonder and admiration of the traveller, and which have so 
materially assisted to elucidate those early periods of our 
history. They consist principally of Encampments, or 
military fortifications prior to the construction of castles ; 
— Earthworks, comprising barrows, or tumuli raised over 
the dead ; dykes or ditches forming the boundaries of terri- 
tory ; and amphitheatres on sides of hills : — Circles of 
Stones, and other vestigia of tiie peculiar rites of the Druids 
or priests of heathen Britain : — ^with an enumeration of the 
places where the beautiful pavements of our Roman civi- 
lizers have been disclosed, together with coins and other 
remains. 

Next follows an enumeration of all the Monastic Edi- 
fices, with the dates of their foundation, and the names 
of the founders, particularizing whether subservient to some 
Foreign monastery, or to a superior one in England. As 
it was usual to have a Church in every parish, those only 
are mentioned which exhibit specimens of the semicircular 
or early pointed styles of architecture. Of the internal 
furniture of an ecclesiastical edifice, the most curious and 
interesting remains are the Stone Pulpits and Fonts. The 
former are so rarely to be met with, that every one ascer- 
tainable by the editor has been inserted ; while the latter 
are only mentioned when exhibiting evidences of antiquit}% 
or specimens of curious sculpture and rich or singular 
decorations. This division is concluded by alphabetical 



PLAN OP THB WORK. 

lists of the Castles of the Barons, with notices of the 
period of erection, and the state of their remains ; Man- 
sions of an earlier period than the reign of the third 
William ; and the Crosses erected in public situations. 

III. Prbsbnt State and Appkarancb. — Here will be 
found the rise and progress of Rivers ; the courses of canals 
and navigable rivers, forming our inland water communi- 
cations ; and an alphabetical enumeration, accompanied by 
concise remarks and descriptions, of the most remarkable 
eminences, the picturesque scenery, the natural curiosities, 
and the public buildings of the county. 

The list of Seats forms a very considerable portion of this 
division. 

This is succeeded by an account of the Produce and 
Manufactures of the county ; a list of places which give 
titles to Peers, of those whose owners have been created 
Baronets, and of those which have the privilege of return- 
ing Representatives to the Legislature, and also of the bo- 
roughs which enjoyed that honour previous to the passing 
ofthe Reform Bill. 

The Population table is taken from the Census of 1831. 

IV. History, or a chronological table of the most im- 
portant events in the History of England, with a view to its 
localities. 

V. Eminent Natives, — This is an alphabetical list of 
those eminent men, who, having distinguished themselves 
in their several pursuits, have lent a lustre to the county 
of their birth, and have become the pride of their fellow- 
countrymen. The place of birth, and the date, with a slight 
notice, and the period of their decease, are added, 

VI. Miscellaneous Observations. — Here, as the 
heading imports, will be found those particulars and inci- 
dents which could not be introduced under either of the 
previous heads. They are locally and alphabetically ar- 
ranged ; and detail much that is valuable, interesting, and 
amusing. 



CRITICAL OPINIONS. 

Gentleman* s Magazine, Jpril, 1333. 
« As a directory to every thiug that can be seen Id the Counties 
on which it treats, it ought to occupy a corner in the portmanteau 
of every tourist.*' 

Gentleman's Magazine, October, 1 834. 
*< By the perspicuous method of arrangement adopted by the Au- 
thor, the reader is enabled to refer to any particular subject he may 
require, without difficulty, and by this means the work contains an 
immense body of information on the history, topography, and statis- 
tics of England, of which subjects the series may be said to form a 
complete commonplace book." 

CSee also the Nos.Jor December, \S3l,8f March 1 833.) 

Bath and Cheltenham GazetU, July 31, 1832. 
*< This little volume is a very valuable compilation from the results 
of immense labour and research. Here History, Chronology, Sta- 
tistics, Antiquities, Biography, present their several stores in an ad- 
mirable form for speedy reference. £veu the cursory reader may here 
acquire more knowledge of many important and interesting particulars 
relative to the six Western Counties than he might probably meet 
with in turning over the pages of twenty ponderous folios, each of 
twenty times the size and price of this pocket Compendium. A re- 
markably neat and intelligible Map is prefixed to the account of each 
County ; and there are few things, antient or modem, which any one 
can wish to know respecting any portion of this district, but useful 
information respecting them will be found in this vade-mecum, with 
ample references to sources of more particular and enlarged details. 
Every traveller through these Counties should have this interesting 
book at hand ; whether be be a stay-at-home traveller, who vuits the 
West of England sitting by his own fireside, or one who personally 
climbmg the gay hills and gliding through the lovely valleys of the 
West, wishes for information respecting the objects and the interests 
connected with the localities." 

Literary Gazette. 
*<The little volume before us contains Essex, Hertfordshire, Kent, 
Surrey, and Sussex ; and in its general features is executed in the cbu§t 
satis&ctory manner ; a£Fording all the information that could be de- 
sired within so small a compass, and pointing the way to moT& fvbere 
it may be wanted." 

"This volume, the meritorious continuation of a meritorioui de- 
sign, is fiill of useful and interesting matter.*' 

*' A work which every way merits our approbation." 



CRITICAL OPINIONS. 

The Atherumm, December S, 1831. 
** Our autiquaries are becomiug a very sensible and lueful gene- 
ration I they have put aside their old cumbrous quartos^ and left 
off their garrulous goesip — they now cut their coats according to the 
ftfhion, and model themselves upon the Utilitarian system of the 
nineteenth century. Here is a most useful little work that every 
man in the five Counties of Essex, Hertfordshire, Kent, Surrey, and 
Sussex, would desire to have, containing all the veritable history of 
his neighbourhood, and maps of the several Counties, compressed 
into a neat» tasty volume for five shillings.'* 

Kent Herald, January 12, 1883. 

** We have examined one portion of the work more particularly, 
and we are bound to say, that succinct yet full of information, the 
author's account of Kent is all we could wish it. An immense deal 
of labour and care muct have been expended in collecting and arrang- 
ing the materials — Chronology, Statistics, Antiquities, Biography, 
are ail made subservient to the design of fully illustrating the past 
and present state of every County in England. The work is neatly 
printed and embellished with accurate Maps, engraved expressly for 
this publication — to which we cordially wish success." 

Sussex Advertiser, November 21, 1834. 

"For its utility and entertainment it will form a very necessary 
appendage to every family library." 

Brighton Herald, November 26, 1834. 

« This we shall find a most excellent book of rafierence, and we feel 
greatly obliged to the author for favouring the world with so accept- 
able a prooi of assiduous research. The volume contains Maps of 
the dlnerent counties, and is very elegantly got up— its price is five 
shillings, it deserves to be patronised, and we wish it every success. 

Cheltenham Chronicle, August 21, 1834. 
*' It only requires to be generally known to be generally sup. 
ported, and half an hour*s reading will put the purchaser in pos- 
session of all the leading features in tne topography, geography, 
antient and modern state, history, chronology, &c. of each county, 
while the miscellaneous observations are replete with instructive 
a nd entertaining information." 

Felix Farley's Bristol Journal, July 14, 1832. 

** This is a very useful work of its kind, and comprises a great deal 
of topographical matter within little space, and at small expense. 
The volume, embracing the Western Circuit (six extensive Counties), 
contains within 300 pages as much valuable information (all for five 
shillings !) as we ever saw comprised m the same eomjHtos." 



CRITICAL OPINIONS. 

tVoolmerU Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, July SI , 1832. 

'* The Author Hm contrived in this work to act up to the spirit of 
supplying the public with multum in parvo, and that, too, with con- 
siderable judgment ; for in a small space he has furnished a very inte- 
resting account of the antient and present state of the six Western 
Counties. It will be found a very useful and entertaining book of re- 
ference, being embellished with well executed Maps of the respective 
Counties. The work is-, in every respect, executed with much neat- 
ness, and, from the price being only five shillings, well worthy a place 
in the library of every respectable family.*' 

Essex Standard, December Sy 1831. 
" There is scarcely any branch of study more useful than the topo- 
graphical history of a country. When such a wurk is so methodically 
arranged, and its details so lucidly brouj;ht out, as to become at once 
a book of useful reference and arousing anecdote, it becomes invalu- 
able. These qualities 'The Family Topographer' possesses In a 
peculiar degree. In the first volume we have the statistics of Essex, 
&c. — counties in which the most momentous events in the History 
of England have occurred, and in which the most eminent men of any 
age or country flourished. ' The Family Topographer,' besides the 
usual description of their present condition and appearance, affords 
a vast variety of information on the peculiar customs, the legendary 

lore, and antient history of each county We have no hesitation 

in recommending the work to public attention and patronage, as one 
of mucb patient research and accuracy, — fully calculated to convey 
to the general, as well as the curious reader, all that species of 
information which it is the province of such a work to impart; and 
justifying the favourable opinion which we have thus pronounced 
upon it. 

New Monthly Magazine, December, I B31. 

** A work which bids fair to rank as one of the best topographical 
and statistical accounts of the several Counties of England ; while it 
possesses the additional recommendations of a i:i4>i:lr t ate cumpasj and 
a reasonable price." 

" As a work of general reference, which will at ^11 ilmti Le found 
useful, and often entertaining, there seem^ t(} 1^ litih reoaon for 
doubting that this Topographical Summary villi prove highly nccept- 
able to every family to which it may be introduL-ed/" 

BeWs New fVeekly Messenger, July Ih, 1 8 3a. 

**This work is well entitled to the chflrELru?r gi*fiti (a it by this 
author in his title-page, * A compendious Acccjunt of the antient Bu<i 
present state of the Counties of England.' h b oqb whloU erery tra- 
veller, in mind or person, ought to have on bis talile, or in hi^ CfMl* , 
pocket." 



ORDER OF PUBLICATION. 



Vol. I. HOME CIRCUIT.— Essex, Hertfordshire, Kent 
Surrey, and Sussex. 

Vol. II. WESTERN CIRCUIT.— Cornwall, Devon- 
shire, Dorsetshire, Hampshire, Somersetshire, and Wilt- 
shire. 

Vol. III. NORFOLK CIRCUIT.— Bedfordshire, Buck- 
inghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Norfolk, 
and Suffolk. 

Vol. IV. OXFORD CIRCUIT.— Berkshire, Glouccs- 
tershire, Herefordshire, Monmouthshire, Oxfordshire, Staf- 
iordshire, Shropshire, and Worcestershire. 

Vol. V. MIDLAND CIRCUIT.— Derbyshire, Leices- 
tershire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, 
Rutlandshire, and Warwickshire. This volume will also 
contain Cheshire, which is the only English County in the 
CHESTER CIRCUIT. 

*^* The above Volumes, each of which is complete in itself, 
are now published, price .Ss. each. 

roL. VI. NORTHERN CIRCUIT. Cumberland, 
Durham, Lancashire, Northumberland, Westmoreland, and 
the three Ridings of Yorkshire. 

Vol. VII. — ^County of Middlesex, and Cities of London 
and Westminster. 

Communications for the forthcoming volumes, particularly 
of accurate lists of the Seats, and Corrections of inaccu- 
racies in those already published, are respectfully requested 
to be addressed to the Publishers, Messrs. Nichols and Son, 
25, Parliament Street, Westminster. 

A MAP OF EACH COUNTY IS GIVEN. 

PRINTED BY J. B. NICHOLS AND SON, 96, PARLIAMENT STREET. 



^ 



"*" av 183?